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Entered according to Act of tP&»/rS?, tn tfte^ear 19312, by Wxbster and 
SKimrERs, in the Clerk^s Office of the District Court for the Northern 
District of the State of New- York. 



* « ' * J» 



• " • 

A new edition of the following work having been caH- 
ed for, the author has been induced to remodel it, by the 
conviction that ff method of teaching and studying the 
science different from, and superior to, that which had for- 
merly been pursued in this coimtry, ought to be adopted, 
llat method mi well known to have possessed too much 
of a traditionary character, and to have obliged the stu- 
dent to depend more upon the vpst dixit of his instructor 
than his own investigation. In preparing this edition it 
has been the design of the author^ so far as it was in his 
power, to furnish the student with a guide by means of 
which he might be satisfectorily conducted throug|i the 
process of examining minerals, to the attainment of cor- 
rect results. To accomplish this, sufficient information 
is given in the following pages, to enable him rightly to 
employ the characters of mineral substances and to trace 
the relations existing between them. . 

To make this simple, and at the same time scientific, 
the classification of Prof. Mohs has been adopted, with his 
method of treating the principal heads under which a 
Natural-Historical system is to be developed* In treating 
of Crystalography, however, it has been deemed prqper 
Still to follow the system of Brooke, as the abstruse man- 
ner in which Mohs has taught it, (requiring a knowledge 
of the higher mathematics,) would here preclude its gen- 

'rite author considers the classification of Mohs in its 
leading features, as perfect as the present state of the sci- 


ence will admit^ and he entertains no doubt but that the 
student will ultimately adopt tke same opinion. To test 
its advantages, be is advised to exercise himself in carry- 
ing known minerals through the different classes and or- 
'^ ders ; he will thus also acquire a confidence in the prac- 
tical part of the science, and* be fully prepared to enter 
into the investigatiepi of unknown substances. He, how- 
ever, who wishes to dbtain a knowledge of the Mineral 
Kingdom, must make himself familiar with Terminology, 
as it in fact contains the rudiments of the science, and is 
the groundwork of the whole. If he neglects this, he 
may be assured that all his investigations will be uncer- 
tain and unsatisfactory, and lead to no well determined 

To illustrate the crystaline forms, a few figures have 
been intreiduced ; and although a greater number might 
have been employed with advantage, it is hoped that 
they will be suflScient to give the student gdheral and 
correct ideas of the relations existing between the prima^^ 
ry and secondary fi>rms. In the course of the work, it 
will be found that occasionally where the figure is not 
given,, the dimensions of forms are referred to^ The 
mode of expression in these cases is explained by stating 
that crystalographers etnploy certain letters to designate 
the difibrent planes, angles and edges of crystals. Thus 
the letters, P M T, always refer to the primary faces or 
planes of a crystal ; the vowels, A E I 0, are used to 
denote die solid angles ; and the consonants, B C D F 
G H, the prioaary edges. They are arranged in the or- 
dinary mode ot writing-, beginning at the upper part of 
the figure and proceeding from left to right.€# 
planes, Uc. are sunilar, the same letter is made uae of, 


and diey ariB distinguished from each other by adding 
this mark ' or " to the letter employed. For example, 
in figure 10, the letter P stands upon the terminal plane,^ 
and the letter M on the lateral {Aanes ; this- is intended 
to show, that whilst the terminal and lateral planer are- 
dissimilar, the lateral ones are simibr to eaeh others In^ 
figure 11, the letters, P M T, beii^ made use of, shew 
that the planes are dissimilar, whilst A A and £ E, being 
placed upon the solid angles, shew that those designated 
by the same letter are similar, and those by different let- 
ters dissimilar. 

In compiling the description of a species, it is very 
important to express the properties of the collective indi- 
viduals composing it. The description of an individual, 
however accurate and full, would not convey a notion of 
the species, but cmly of a single variety. While, there- 
fore, we abandon the description of each individual va- 
riety, we should at the same time avoid giving it a dis- 
tinct epithet or name. This practice has already retarded- 
the advance of the sciiince) and should be discounten- 

Some errors have unavoidably escaped correction, 
owing as well to the indisposition of the author, as to the 
distance of his residence from the place of publication. 
They are, however,, it is hoped, dll noticed in the errata, 
and are such as may generally be corrected with the pen. 

WUUamstowny August ^ 1832. 








§ 1 The mineral kingdom, .... I 

^ 2 Advantages of a knowledge, of the mineral 

kingdom, ...... 1 

§ 3. Design of mineralogjy • • . • 2 
§ 4. Heads under which a system of mineralogy 

is to be developed, . . • . 2 

§ 5. Terminology, 2 

$ 6. Theory of the system, . . • . 2 
$ 7. Nomenclature, . . •. . . 2 
$ 8. Characteristic, ..... 3 
§ 9. Physiography, ..... 3 
^ 10. Objects which mineralogy considers, • 3 
^ 11. Method of obtaining a knowledge of mine- 
ralogy, 3 

§ 12. Natural-historical properties, • . 4 

§ 13. Division of the natural-historical properties, . 4 

Paet I. Terminology, 

§ 14. Regular forms, . . - . . . 5 

^ 15. Limits of crystals, .... 5 

i 16. Edges, , 6 

^17. Angles, . , 5 

$ 18. Solid angle, 5 

^ 19. Value of angles, . . • , • • 5 

4 20. Similar planes, . . . • * . 6 

^21. Similar edges, • . • • • 6 

$22. Similar angles, 6 

$ 23. Similar solid angles^ • . . .6 

Con$ideraiion8 arising from the different Forms which 
different Minerals assume. 

$ 24. Primary and secondary forms, • . 6 

$2$. Number and kinds 0^ primary forms, • €1 


$26. Cube, . . . . 

^27. Tetrahedron, 

§ 28. iBegular octahedron, 

§ 29. Rhombic dodecahedron, 

§ 30. Octahedron with a square base, 

§ 31. Octahedron with a rectangular base 

§ 32. Octahedron with a rhombic base, 

^ 33. The right square prism, 

$ U. Rectangular prism, 

$35. The right rhombic prism, 

^ 36. The right oblique-angled prism, 

§ 37. The oblique rhombic prism, . 

$38. The doubly oblique prism, 

$ 39. The rhombohedron, or rhomboid, 

$ 40. Thd regular hexagonal prism. 
















Relations subsisting between Primary and Secondary Forms. 

$ 41 • Secondary forms, 13 

$ 42. Transformaticm of prinmiy into secondary 

forms; • . • • . 14 

§ 43. Molecules, .^16 

^44. Kinds of molecules, . . . . 16 

^ 45. Formation of crystals from molecules, . 17 

'§46. Of decrements, 18 

.447. Simple decrement, .... 18 
§ 48. Mixed decrement, ' . • .18 

^49. Intermediary decrements, ... 18 
^ 50. The effect of decrement on edges or angles 

is regulated by symmetrical laws, . 19 

^51.' Imperfections of crystals, • . . 19 

^ S8. Structure and cleavage, ... 20 

^53. Direction of cleavage, . ... 20 

^54. CleaTage of similar planeS) ... 20 

<^55. Nomenclature of cleavage, ... 21 

§56. Croniometer, 21 

\St. Determination of primary formsi • • 21 

$58, Fracture, . . • • , « 23 


Sec. II. The JS'aturdl'IRaierical ProperUu of Om^pound 


$59. Surfkce, . . • • ■ . .22 
^60. Regular composition, . • . . 22 
§61. Irregular composition, . . • . 23 

$ 62. Imitative shapes, 23 

$63. Imitative shapes arising out ofthegeodes of 

crystals, . . : . , . 23 

§ 64. Amorphous compositions, ... 24 
$ 65. Accidental imitatfve shapes, ... 24 
§66. Particles of composition, . . . '24 
§ 6?. Structure of compound minerals, . . 25 

Sjbc lii. Considerations of the Properties which belong both 

to Simple and Compound Bodies, 

§68. Division, 25 

Of the Optical Properties of Minerals. 

% 69. Colour, lustre and transparency, . . 2S 
§70. Colour and streak, . . . .25 

§71. Division of colours, .... 26 

• § 72. Metallic colours, 26 

§ 73. Non-metallic colours, .... 26 

§ 74. Peculiarities in the occurrences of colours, 26 

§75. The streak, 27 

§76. Degrees of transparency, ... 27 

§77. Lustre, ...... 27 

Of the Physical Properties of Minerals, 

§ 78. Explanation, * \ . • ' . 29 

§79. State of aggregation, .' . . *' . 29 

§80. Hardness, 29 

§ 81. Specific gravity, . . » . . < 90 

§ 82. Magnetism, 30 

§83. Electricity, . . . , • • 30 

§84. Taste, . . .^ ... 30 

§ 85. Odor, . . ^ . * . * . .30 

• .§86. Chemical character, .... 31 




JPaet II. Theory of At System. ^ 

§87. Identity, .... f. 31 

^88. Ci^fl&rence^ 31 

$89. 8pecies, -SI 

§90. Genus, . . ^ • , • 32 

§ 9J. Order, . . . • . .32 

§92. Glass, 33 

Part hi. J^TomencJature. 

§ 93. Definition, . ^ 33 

§94. Object of the nanpes, ... . .33 
* §95. Name of the order, . . . .34 
^ 96. Selection and signification of the names of 

the orders, • . • . .34 
§97. Name of the genus, . • . . 34 
§98. Denomination of the species, . . 34 

§ 99. Trivial nomenclature, • . . .34 

Paet IV. Characteristic, 

§ 100. Definition, 34 

§i01. Properties of the characters, . . 35. 

^ 102. Absolute and conditional characteristic * 

marks, 35 

§ 103. Base of a perfect characteristic, . . 35 

4 104. Use of the characteristic, ... 35 

Paet v. Physiography. . 

§ 105. Definition, . . . • .35 

§106. Objects of physiography, , . • 36 
' § 107. General description of the species, . 36 
§ 108. Arrangement of the general descriptions, 36 
§109. The collective descriptions do not depend 

on the systems, .... 36 


. -» J 

§ 1. The Mineral Kingdom. **'* 

The mineral kingdom embraces those natural produc- 
tions which are unorganized* 

Natural productions are obviously dirieJliEleiipiplwo grectt;.. 
classes, organized and unorganized. Tli3^^e3'dhc«(& betwb^ f * 
these are so plain, that a mere glanca'at -them jwdll^be.eufli-, ^ 
cient for our purpose. Organized 1)pdioa;, fi/e^Gonip^iei zojt : :\ 
difi^rent parts and organs, and each organ performs a distinct' ' ' ' 
function. The power which controls the organs is a vital 
powdr, and is commonly termed vital affinity. Organized 
bodies increase in size by the assimilation of matter to the in- 
ternal parts. They cease to grow and naturally or necessa- 
rily die ; and the particles which compose them being no lon- 
ger under the control of vital affinity, are separated and form . 
new combinations, which are not organized. On the other 
band, in unorganized bodies, the particles composing their 
parts are homogeneous ; the power which unites them is 
physical attraction : they increase in size, not by the assimi- 
lation of matter, but by the apposition of similar particles to 
their external surfaces : they do not necessarily cease to 

Organized bodies ihay be distinguished into animals and 
mgetabUs. These are properly denominated the Animal and 
Vegetable Kingdoms. No such distinction can, from the na- 
ture of the bodies composing it, be made in the Mineral King- 
dom. A proposed division, viz. : that of bodies into atmos- 
)ph€rxlia and fossils^ cannot be considered as philosophical, 
since it respects merely the state of bodies as they are gase- 
ous or solid, and hence it has not received the approbation of 
a majority of naturalists. Besides, the term fossil is applied 
to the remains of organized bodies found in the earth. 

§ 2. Advantages of a Knowledge of the Mineral 


Experience has already taught us that a knowledge of the 
mineral bodies is important in the arts ; the more perfect 
our knowledge is, the more extensive will be their application 



to useful purposes. Besides it is rational and wise to study 
the properties of bodies aside from their immediate applica^ 
tion to Uie arts, since they illustrate those interesting laws 
which produce regular forms and structure, and exhibit elec- 
trical, magnetical and optical properties, not only interesting 
in themselves, but which may be useful in explaming other 
phenomena in the great field of nature. 

§ 3. Design of Mineralogy, 

.'-/.jyiineri|ilQgvx>c^i<iers the inorganic productions a^ they 
'liKj" and- riot h6\^ (hey have been formed. 

t t .Tte jn^^il'l h^w' -natural productions have been formed, 
, : ^^oa-iiot* C08& '^Aln \iie province of natural history. The 
restricting of the design of mineralogy to the consideration of 
the natural historical properties, will serve to promote greatly 
the real interests of science, as it will not involve the study of 
principles foreign to this department of knowledge. 

§ 4. If.eads under which a System of Mineralogy is to be 


Natural history in general, and mineralogy in particu- 
lar, is developed under the following heads. 1. Termin- 
ology. 2. Theory of the system. 3. Nomenclature. 
4. Characteristic. 5. Physiography. 

^ 5, Terminology, 

Terminology explains those natural properties which 
are employed in recognizing and describing natural 

§6. Theory of the System, 

Theory of the system fixes the principles of classifica* 
tion. It contains the reasoning or philosophical part of 
the subject. 

§ 7. Nomenclature, 

Nomenclature furnishes the names of natural produc- 
tions, and explains the principles by which those names 
are selected* 


§ 8. Characteristic, 

The characteristic teaches the use of the natural proper- 
ties in i^ch a way that the student may be led to the 
name which finy natural production has received. 

^ 9. Physiography. 

Physiography teaches the arrangement of those marks 
or properties by which natural bodies are distinguished, 
in a way best calculated to impress the mind with an 
image of the object described. 

§ 10. Objects which Mineralogy considers^ 

The objects which mineralogy considers are Individ- 

An individual in the mineral kingdom is a single body. It 
may exist in an isolated state, or in connection with others. 
A crystal of quartz, garnet or diamond is an individual. It is 
common, however, for individuals to be connected together. 
Examples of individuate in this state ar6 furnished in masses of 
granular limestone, granular quartz, &c. the particles of which 
they are composed are individuals. An individual is also a 
simple mineral, but in a sense different from that which is un- 
derstood in chemistry; the term being used to distinguish 
simple from compound minerals ; the latter embracins those 
masses in which we can discover two or more individuals of 
the same kind. The term mixed mineral is used to designate 
compound masses which contain two or more individuals of 
difl&rent kinds, as granite, mica slate, &c. 

^11. Method of obtaining a Knowledge of Mineralogy, 

The student may acquire a knowledge of the mineral king- 
dom by making himself acquainted with the natural proper- 
ties of inorganic bodies, and the terms which are used in de- 
scribing them. He ought to commence at once by collecting 
every thing within his reach, if he has not access to a cabinet, 
and apply to them the characteristic. This process, so far as 
other sciences are concerned, requires some knowledge of 
the elements of geometry. The first object is, to become famil- 
iar with a majority of the species in the natural system, after 
which the more interesting study, the ^affinities of inorganie 
bodies/' may bQ pursued with profit and great satisfactioa. 


, § 12. Natural Historical Properties, 

They are those properties which nature has conferred 
on inorganic bodies, and which are invariable during the 
natural state of the body. 

Those properties which are observed, in consequence of 
some change ^hich has been wrought upon the substance, or 
which it has suffered from exposure to the elements, are unfit 
to be used in the determination of mineral bodies ; they are 
therefore excluded from occupying a place in the characteris- 
tic. Those properties are treated of in other branches of 
science, which, in respect to their principles, differ entirely 
from those of natural history. 

^13. Division of the NaturaUHistorical Properties* 

Tlie natural-historical properties of minerals are con- 
sidered under three heads. 1. Such as relate to simple 
minerals, § 10. 2« Such as relate to compound minerals. 
3. Such as are common to both. 

The natural-historical properties are their colour, lustre,, 
hardness, specific gravity, form, structure, &c. They include 
the greater part of the characters which are called external 
characters. These characters will be considered in the fol- 
lowing order : First, Such as relate to the individual itseWi 
or a fragment of the individual : they are such as relate ta 
space, or the form it has received, the structure, surface, and 
the effect which it produces on light, so far as riegularity of 
form is concerned. Second. Those characters which belong 
to compound minerals, as their composition^ ih^ forms of com- 
pound minerals, and the mode of junction of individuals. 
Third, Those characters will be considered which are com^ 
mon both to simple and compound minerals, as colour, lustre,, < 
transparency, hardness, state of aggregation, &c. 

The principles of Terminology will, therefore, be considered 
in three sections. 





§ 14 Regular Forms, 

In mineralogy a regular form is termed a crystal. It 
consists of continuous and homogeneous matter, and oc- 
eupies a regular space. 

The science which treats of regular forms or crystals is 
termed crystalography / it has for its ohject the determina- 
tion of the form and dimensions of crystaline bodies, with a 
view to discover the differences which exist among them. 

§ 15. Limits of Crystals* 

Crystals are limited by regular surfaces, which are 
termed their planes or faces. 

The planes or faces appear under different shapes and re* 
ceive certain names according to these shapes : thus/ some 
are triangular, others rhombic, &c. and are termed tri' 
angular faces, rhombic faces respectively. Faces may not be 
perfectly plane ^and smooth, yet in crystalography they are 
considered as perfect planes. 

§ 16. Edges. 

The lines which are formed by the meeting of planes 
are termed edges. 

§ 17 Angles. 
The meeting of two»edges forms biplane angle. 

§ 18. Solid Angle. 

A solid angle is formed by the meeting of three or 
more edges or lines. 

§ 19. Value of Angles* 

The value or measure of angles is the number of de« 
grees and minutes of which they consist. 


* > 

t ' ' » 


§ SO* Smil(ir Planes. 

The "planes of crystals are similar when their corres- 
ponding edges are proportional and their corresponding 
angles are equal. 

§ 21. Similar Edges. 

' Edges are similar when they are produced by the meet- 
ing of planes respectively similar, at equal angles. 

§ 22. Similar Angles^ 

Angles are similar when they are equal and contained 
within similar edges, respectively* 

§ 23. Similar Solid Angles. 

Solid angles are similar when they are formed of an 
equal number of plane angles, of which the corresponding 
ones are similar. 

The student should be informed that there are some irregu- 
larities in crystals in the length of their edges and the dimen* 
sions of their faces. Some faces are more extended than oth- 
ers, their similarity is then infered from their situation. Irreg- 
ularities in the length of edges and the extension effaces, are 
not noticed in crystalography as they are accidetital variations. 


§ 24. Primary and Secondary Forms. 

Of the difierent forms which crystaline bodies assume 
or under which they appear, some one is selected as the 
primary form^ the remainder of the forms of the same 
species are called secondary forms. 

The primary form is the parent or original form, from which 
all the secondary forms are supposed to arise, from certain 
symmetrical changes which the primary has undergone, and 
these changes are supposed to take place according to certain 
laws, being based upon the relations which are observed to 
exist among the di^rent forms of the same mineral species. 

^ 25. Number and Kinds of Primary Forms.* 
There are fifteen primary forms. 1. The Ctibe. 2* 

*39t If o(e A« 



The regular Tetrahcidron. 8. The regular Octahedron. 
4. Bhombic Dodecahedron. 5. The Octahedron with a 
square base. 6. Octahedron with a rectangular base. 
7. Octahedron with a rhombic base. 8. The right square 
Prism. 9. The right rectangular Prism. 10. The right 
rhombic Prism. 11. The right oblique angled Prism. 
12. The oblique rhombic Prism. 13. The doubly ob- 
lique Prism. 14. The Rhombohedron or Rhomboid. 15. 
The regular hexahedral Prism. 

The primary form will be observed under clifierent circum- 
stances. Sometimes a mineral appears under the primary 
form without any modification of its edges or angles ;. in other 
instances the primary is entirely concealed under the seconda- 
ry faces of the crystal and must be developed by cleavage, or 
its form infered from the known relations which exist between 
the primary and secondary forms of crystaline bodies. The 
primary is never an imaginary, form. 

§26. Cube. 

The cule (Fig. 1.) is a solid con- 
tained under six square faces. 

The angles of the cube are right an- 
gles. From the perfect symmetry of 
its form the cube has a similar axis* in 
four directions, which pass through the 
centre of each pair of solid angles. 

§ 27. Tetrahedron* 

The regular tetrahedron (Fig. 2.) 
is a solid contained within four equi- 
lateral triangular planes. 

The inclination of its planes as P on 
F 7CP 31' and 43". Its plane angles 
6(P. It possesses a similar axis in 
four directions. 

Fig. 1. 

.'<B^M^^ A 


1 \ 

1 \ 

f \ 
. i -w. 




Fig. 2. 

* An axis of a crystal is an imaginaiy line passing through the solid, and 
through iwo opposite solid angles. See (Fig. 3.) the line a b reprosenu an 



^ 28. Regular Octahedron. 

The regular octahedron (Fig. S.) is a 
solid, bounded by eight equilateral trian- 
gles, or it is formed of two four sided py- 
ramids united base to base, which base is a 

The plane angltes of the regular octahedron 6(P. The in* 
cUnation of their facea as P on F or F^ 109^ 28' 16". 

§ 29.. Bhombic Dodecahedron. 

Fig. 4. 

The rhombic dodecahedron (Fig. 4) is 
contained within twelve equal rhombic 
faces, having six solid angles, consisting 
each of four acute plane angles, the op- 
posite ones as, a b, being sometimes call- 
ed the summits, and eight solid angles, 
consisting each of three obtuse plane angles. 

The mutual inclination of two adjacent faces on each other* 
as P on F^ 120° Its planer angles 109° 2& W and 70o 
31' 43". 

This solid has two dissimilar sets of axis which pass through^ 
its centre. One set passes through the acute solid angles as 
the angles a b, the other as c d pass through the obtuse solid 

§ 30. Octahedron mih a Square Base 

The octahedron with a square base 
(Fig. 6.) is a solid bounded by light 
isosceles triangular planes ; the bases 
of the triangles constitute the edges 
of the base of the octahedron*. 

When the angles at ihe summits as 
a b, measure less than 6(P the octahe- 
dron is called acute. When the same 
angles are greater than &P the octahe- 
dron is obtuse. 

Fig. 6. 




This form may present a great variety of angles, and the in- 
dividuals will differ from each other in the inclination of P on 

The square base distinguishes this solid from the two suc- 
ceeding forms, and the isosceles triangular faces distinguish 
it ftom the regular octahedron. 

§ 31. Octahedron vniih a Rectangular Base^ 

Fig. 6. 

Fig* 6, is an octahedron mth a 
rectangular base. The planes are 
isosceles triangles but unequal. 

In this form the broad planes P F, 
meet at the edge of the base at a more 
obtuse angle than the narrow planes 
M M'. The edge D is therefore the 
obtuse edge, and the meeting of the 
planes M M' the acute edge of the 
base. The individuals belonging to this class of forms will 
differ from each other in the inclination of P on P' or of M oh 

§ 32. Octahedron with a Rhombic Rase, 

Fig. 7. 

The octahedron with a rhombic base 
(Fig. 7.) is contained within eight 
equal scalene triangular.plapes. 

This form is in position when the great- 
er diagonal of the base is horizontal, hence 
the planes which meet in the edge B form 
a more acute angle than those which 
meet in C, the former is therefore denomi- 
nated the acute and the latter the obtuse 
edge of the pyramid, The solid angle at 
E is the acute lateral solid angle, and that 
at I the obtuse lateral solid angle. The individuali of thia 
class will differ from each other in the inclination of P on F 
and on P", 




§ 33. The Right Square Prism. 

Fig. 8, 

The right square prism (Fig. 8.) is 
a quadrilateral solid whose edges B 
and G are unequal. 

The bases of this class of forms are 
square and the lateral faces equal rectan- 
gles. The form would be a cube if the 
edges B and G were equal. The indir 
viduals will differ from each other in the comparative' length of 
the edges B and G. 

§ 34. Rectangular Prism 


- if ^ 








The right rectangular prism 
(Fig, 9.) is a quadrilateral solid, 
whose bases are equal rectangles, 
and whose edges C G and B are a 

Individuals of this class of forms 
differ from each other in the com- 
parative length of the edges C G and B. 

The right square and right rectangular prisms have the 
same axis as the cube, besides which, they have an imaginary 
line pas^sing through the centres of their bases which is called 
a prismatic axis. 

§ 35. The Right Rhombic Prism, 

The right^ rhombic prism 
(Fig. 10.) is a quadrilateral sol- 
id, whose bases are equal rhombs 
and whose lateral planes are ei- 4 
ther equal squares or equal rect- •»-'* ^ 


The solid angles A are the ob- 
tuse and those at E the acute solid 
angles. The edge G is the acute and H the obtuse lateral 
edses. The individuals of this class will differ from each oth- 
er m the inclination of M on M', or in the ratio of the edge H. 
to the edge B. 

Fig. 10. 





% SB. The Right Oblique-Angled Prism. 

Fir. 11- 

The right oblique-angled 
prisnij (Fig. 11.) is a quadri- 
lateral solid, whose bases are 
and whose adjacent lateral 
planes are unequal, one of 
which must be rectangular, the 
other may be either a square 
or rectangle. 

The angles and edges of' this class are denominated as in 
the right rhombic prism. 

The individuals of this class will differ from each other in 
the mclination of M on T, and on ;the relative lengths of the 
edges, C, B and H. '^ » 

§ 37. The Oblique'Rhombic Prism. 

Fig. 12. 

The oblique rhombic-prism^ (Fig. 
12.) is a quadrilateral solid, whose 
bases are rhombs, and whose late- 
ral planes are e4ual oblique-angled 
parallelograms. . 

The figure is supposed to be ob- 
lique in the direction of O A, so that 
the terminal plane P forms an obtuse 
angle with the edge H. The planes 
M and M^ may meet at an acute or an 
obtuse* angle. The solid angle at 
A will, in either case, be called the acute solid afigle ; that at 
O the obtuse solid angle ; and those at E the lateral solid an- 

ThiB edges B are the acute terminal edges ; those atD the 
obtuse terminal edges. The edge H and its opposite are the 
obUque edges of the prism, and G and its opposite the lateral 
edges of the prism. The individuals of this class will differ 
m the mchnatibn of M on M', and in the ratio of the edee H 
to the edge D. ^ 

•When the planes M M' meet at an acute angle, the prism is said 
to be ohhquefrom an acute edge. When they meet at aa obtuse angle, 
tney are said to be oblique from an obtwc edge. 



Fig. 13. 

The oblique*rho(nbic prism has a greater and lesser, and 
two transverse axes, besides a prismatic axis. The first 
passes through the acute solid angles^ the second passes 
through the obtuse solid angles^ and the two transverse pass 
through the lateral soUd angles. 

§ 38. The Doubly Oblique Prism. 

The doubly oblique prism^ (Fig- 
13.) is a quadrilateral solid, whose E 
bases and whose lateral planes 
are generally oblique-angled par- 
allelograms. The only "equality 
which subsists is between the op- 
posite and parallel planes. 

This class of prisms differ from 
the oblique rhombic prisms in the angles A, E, I and O, 
Which are dissimilar, and also in the acute terminal angles B, 
C, and obtuse terminal edges D, F. 

The edges and angles of this class are designated by the 
same terms as have been used for the corrcjs ponding ones of 
the oblique rhombic prism. The figure is supposed to stand 
oblique m the direction O A, so that the terminal plane forms 
an obtuse angle with the edge H. 

The doubly oblique prism has four unequal axes passing 
through the pairs of opposite solid angles, and also a prismatic 
axis, which mdines from a perpendicular. 

Individuals belonging to this class will difiTer from each 
other in the inclination of P on M, P on T, and M on T, also 
in the ratios of the edges D, H, F. 

§ 39. Tht. Rhombohedron, or Rhomboid. 

The rhombohedron (14) is a solid con- ' 
tained within six equal rhombic planes^ 
having two of its solid angles composed 
of three equal plane angles, which arei 
sometimes called the summits. 

The angle A is the superior, and O the 
inferior angle of the plane P ; those at E 
are the lateral angles ; the edges B the su- 
perior, and those at D the inferior lateral 
edges. The solid angle at A is called the 

Fig. 14. 


Hie individuab of this cVam dxSsr from each other in the 
inclination of P on F ; when P on P measures more than 90° 
the rhomboid is obtuse ; when less, it is acute. 

The angle P on F is limited between 18CP and 60©, but can 
never reach those limits, for the planes P P^ would become 
one plane, and its axis would vanish ; or in other words, be- 
come infinite, and the figure would cease to be a rhomboid. 

§ 40, The Regular Hexagonal Prism. 

The regular hexagonal prisMy 
(Fig. 16.) is a solid whose bases 
are regular hexagons, and whose 
lateral planes are parallelograms. 

The adjacent planes M M' incline 
on each other at an angle of 120°, ^^^^ 

The prism has as many axes as it has opposite solid angles, 
but the line generally regarded as the axis passes through the 
centre of the bases. 

The only diflference which will exist between individuals of 
this class will be in the ratio of the edge G to the edge B. 

(For remarks on Isomorphism, see Note I.) 



§ 41. Secondary Forms. 

The secondary formes are those which are produced by 
modifications, which take place either on thp solid angles 
or edges of the primary forms. 

Whenever a plane appears in the place of an edge or angle 
which does not belong to the primary form, the edge or angle 
suflers a modification, which is called a replacement It is 
scarcely necessary to say that a replacement is something dif- 
ferent from a change in the dimensions of a form. .The latter 
can have no efiect to alter the shape of a solid. The seconda- 
ry forms, therefore, embrace all those varieties of form which 
differ in any respect from the primary, and though they are nu- 
merous and complicated, yet they are capable of being reduced 
to a few classes, and become intelligible to most students. 

2 • 

\ . 



§ 42. Transformation of Primary into Secondary Forms* 

Forms may be conceived to pass into each other by the 
replaceipent of the edges or solid angles. 

Fig. 16. 

The change spoken of in the proposition may be 

understood by reference to Fig. 16, the general A — V^ 
form of which is a cube ; the triangular planes | I 

which appear in the place of the soHd angles modi 
iy but slightly the original square faces of the 
cube. If these planes should be enlarged by any 
cause, the square faces would disappear, either 
wholly or in part, and the form of the cube would 
pass into the regular octahedron ; (Fig. 17.) a re- 
sult which may be verified by shaving down cubi- 
cal pieces of wax, or any soft substance. 

Again, the small quadrangular planes which 
appear in place of the solid angles of the reg- 
ular octahedron, ('Fig. 18,) if enlarged until 
the original faces of the octahedron disappear, 
would transform it into the cube. 

Other forms may be conceived to be pro- 
duced in the same manner : thus, if the 
regular octahedron (Fig. 19.) has its edges 
replaced by tangent* planes, the figure will 
be bounded by twenty planes, eight of 
which are triangular and twelve hexahedral. 
If the latter are enlarged until the triangu- 
lar or primary faces disappear, the rhombic 
dodecahedron will be produced. The in- 
clination of the planes c on P or P' 144^ 
44' 6". 

Again, the rhombic dodecahedron may be 
transposed into the octahedron, by remov- 
ing the obtuse solid angles, § 80, and en- 
larging them until the other faces disappear. 

Or, the cube will be the result of a 
modification of the rhombic dodecahedron, 
by replacing the acute solid^ angles by tan- 
gent planes, as '■ may be shown by inspect- 
ing Fig. 20. 

Fig. 17. 

Fig. 18. 

Fig. 19. 

Fig. 20. 

* A tangent plane iaclines equally on the adjacent planes. 



Fig. 22. 

Or,supposing the cube to be the primary ^* 

form, the rhombic dodecahedron will result 
from tangent planes, when applied to the 
edges of the cube, which is illustrated by 
Figs. 20 and 21. The inclination of the 
plane c on P or P'=135o. 

If the edges of the cube, (Fig. 22.) are 
replaced by two planes, a series of four- 
sided pyramids will be produced. Th^ 
planes of the cube on the one side and those 
of the rhombic dodecahedron on the other 
eide, will evidently limit this series of 

The following remarks will serve to illustrate summarily 
what is taught by the figures belonging to this section. 1. 
The replacement of the twelve edges of the cube and of the 
regular octahedron by tangent planes, produce the Dodeca- 
hedron. 2. The replacement by tangent planes of eight solid 
angles of the cube, or the eight obtuse angles of the dodeca- 
hedron, produce the regular Octahedrop. 3. The replacement 
of the six acute solid angles of the dodecahedron, (^and it may 
be added' though the figure is not given,) the six edges of the 
tetrahedron by tangent planes, produce the Cube. 

The student^ will meet with numerous examples of the 
above transitions among minerals. Thus fluor, the sulphurets 
o£lead, silver and zinc^ diamond, red oxide of copper, &c., 
are found crystalized under the forms of the cube, octahedron 
end rh(Anbic dodecahedron ; and, as has been shown, thosQ 
solids are transformed into each other by tangent planes, ap- 
plied either to the edges or solid aqgles. 

The following are instances of transformation by unequal 
inclination of the secondary on the primary planes- -,. g^ 

Thus if the cube suffers a replacement or. trun- '^^ ^ 

cation of its edges by single planes, inclining 
unequally on the primary, a solid will be produced 
which is bounded by twelve pentagonal faces. 
(Fig. 23.) 


area of the surface would constantly diminiBh until a pyramid 
was formed, which would terminate in a single molecule or 
point In Fig. 25, the pyramid is incomplete, a portion of 
the primary plane remains on which the letter P is placed. 

§ 46. Of Decrements. 

The term decrement is used to express the omitted 
rows of tnolecules spoken of in §45. 

§ 47. Simple Decrement. 
A simple decrement is said to take place when any 
number of rows of molecules are omitted, belonging to 
plates of two or more molecules in thickness, either on 
the edges or angles of primary forms. 

§ 48. Mixed Decrement. 
. A mixed decrement is said to take place when unequal 
numbers of molecules in height and breadth are omitted, 
neither of the members being multiples of the other, such 
as three in height and two in breadth, or four in breadth 
and three in height. 

§ 49. Intermediary Decrements. 

Intermediary decrements may be conceived to take 
place when rows of compound molecules are abstracted 
from successively superimposed plates, each compound 
molecule containing unequal numbers of single rows in 
lengthy breadth and heighth. 

The effect of decrement is always to produce a plane. When 
the decrement is on a solid angle and an equal number of mole- 
cules are abstracted on each side of the angle, a tangent plane 
is formed, and the direction will be parallel to the diagonal of 
the plane on which the, new plane rests. 

Intermediary decrements always affect the angles, but the 
direction in which they proceed is never parallel to a diagonal 
or an edge. It is evident that the inclination of the secoMary 
planes produced by decrement is increased or diminished by 
the number of omitted rows either in height* or breadth, for in- 
stanee, the inclination of a plane produced by the abstraetioti 
of a single row of molecules from an edge will be greater than 

*Decreinent in height relates to the thickness of the plate, and decremaat ia 
breadth to the width of the plate from which molecules are abstracted. 





if two row* were wibtmcted in breadth ; if a row of mdeoulee 
of the thickness of two plates is subtracted and only one in 
breadth, the inclination wiU be greater than in the first in- 
stance mentioned, and a pyramid which is formed by this de- 
crement would be acute, but by the second instance given it 
w^ld be obtuse or a low pyramid. 

§ SO. The effect of Decrement on edges or angles is regu^ 

. lated by Symmetrical Laws* 

Fig. 26. 

Decrements, or in other words replace- 
ments, take place on the similar edges or 
angles of primary forips. 

When a solid angle of the cube is replac- 
ed, all the angles are similarly affected, as 
is represented in Fig. 26. 

The modification of the rectangular prism 
(Fig. 27.) represents a decrement on the 
similar edges. 

The replacements which are exhibited 
in Figs. 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, are instances 
which conform to the law expressed in the 
pr^osition at the head of this paragraph. 

The above law is not however universal. 
Boracite and Tourmaline are instances of exceptions to it : in 
^ latter mineral, the planes which are formed at theextremi- 
ties of the prism are dissimilar, whereas, if the law of symme- 
try had operatedy.they would have been similar planes. 

§ 5L Imperfections of Crystals.. 

Crystals frequently exhibit irregularities in their exter» 
nal forms,, which may arise from contact with other bod- 
ies, or from a disturbance of the molecular attraction dur 
ing their formation. 

Instances of irregularities which are common to individuals 
may be noticed in the undue extension of similar faces of crys- 
tals, as in quartz, garnet, beryl, &c. Irregularities of this 
kind' do not affect the inclination of those faces on the primary 
planes, a fact which is quite remarkc^ble. Faces are some- 
times curved, as those of the Diamond, Fluor, Pearl-spar, &c. 

Another instance of irregularity occurs where only a part of 
die crystal appears, the ot£er part being implanted in tbuB sup- 
porting mineral, a situation in which most crystaline bodies 

1 *• 


are ibrmed. These individuals may however be considered aa 
perfect, since ^e may complete the planes at the defective ex- 
tremity according to the law of symmetry. 

§ 52, Structure and Cleavage. 
Crystals generally possess a regular structure which 
may be demonstrated by cleavage. By the latter term is 
meant the separation of laminsd in certain directions. 

If we apply a knife to the solid angle of a cube of fluor, in 
a direction to produce a tangent plane, we shall find that it 
will yield, and a portion of the corner will be removed and a 
surface more or less bright will appear. This plane will be 

Sarallel to the primary plane of the regular octahedron. Again, 
* we apply a knife to the face of a cubic crystal of common 
salt, in a direction parallel to a plane, it will yield readily and 
present a smooth and even surface parallel to the faces of the 
cube. Instances of regular structure which may be developed 
by cleavage are numerous, as sulphate of limcj .rhomb'Sparj 
strontiay bart/te9, galena^ mica^ ^c. 

§ 53. Direction of Cleavage. 

The direction in which a crystal can be split is called 
the direction: of cleavage* 

The direction of cleavage may depend upon the cempara- 
live force of molecular attraction in different directions, and 
maybe so proportioned as totidmit of cleavage in other direc- 
tions than parallel to the primary planes. In instances of this 
kind, the crystal is said to possess two sets of cleavage; that 
which is parallel to the primary planes, is called, the primary 
$etj and that which is not parallel to the primary planes, the 
sufpenwmerary set. 

^ 64. Cleavage of similar Planes. 
In primary forms whose faces are similar, the primary 
cleavages are usually effected, with equal facility, in the 
direction of those pbmes ; and the new planes developed 
by cleavage will be similar in lustre and general charac- 
ter. Galena and carbonate of lime are instances. 

When the planes are dissimilar, the primary cleavage is not 
effected with equal facility, neither are the cleavage planes 
similar. Feldspar^ Kyanitej Sulphate oflAme^ are instances. 
This enables us sometimes to determine what is a primaiy 
plane. . 


The terms single^ doubk and triple, fourfold or sixfold 
'tieavage, have reference to the primary form, and are used to 
express ^ number of directions in which a crystal can be 
cleaved. It is plain that a single solid only can be obtained 
from a triple cleavage ;* but from a four-fold or six-fold cleav- 
age more than a single solid can result. 

V 1$ 65, Nomerkdaiwre of Cleavage. 

The nomenclature of cleayage is expressed by iecms 
which indicate its direction in relation to the axes of 
primary forms. 

Conformably to this proposition, a cleavage is axotomous 
vhen it is single, and takes place in a direction perpendicular 
to the axis of the primary form. It is monotomous if it is sin- 
gle, and is either parblUU perpendicular or inclined to the 
axis. It is peritomous if it takes place in two directions paral- 
lel to the axis. This form of cleavage will result in the pro- 
duction of fr>ur-sided prisms. Again, cleavage is paratomous 
if the number of faces .are indeterminate, and the direction is 
neither parallel nor perpendicular to the axis. This form of 
cleavage produces tetrahedrons and octahedrons,, or pyramids 

§56. Goniometer. 

The goniometer is an instrumeat whick is used for 
measuring the angles at which the planes of crystals 
meet. There are two kinds, the common and reflecting- 

Soniometer. (For description and manner of usinff, see 
Tote B.) 

§ 57. Determination of Primary Forms, 
^ Primary forms may sometimes be determined by the 
direction of cleavage, the character of cleavage planes^ 
and by analogy ; and also, in the absence of cleavage, by 
llie character of secondary planes. 

In case a mineral possesses a cleavage which leads to a 
regular form, that form, in general, is to be considered as the 
priioary form, especially if those cleavages are equally perfect. 

* To cleave neatly, tome practice is necessary. The student will 
need a tmall light hammeri several knives, whose edres are even 
but fliot very thin, cutting pincers, and an anvil of iron, tead or block 
of wood, on which to rest the mineral. Persevering trials ia the way 
of deaving will bf worth mora than any directions which can be 


Thus Galena possesses a cleavage ia three directions, equalljr 
perfect and leading to the cube; the cube is therefore, to be 
considered as the primary form. For* farther remarks on this 
subject see, Note C. 

§ 58. Fracture. 
Fracture is the mechanical separation of the particles 
of a mineral, so as to show its irregular structure ; and 
th^ surfaces thus produced are called faices of fracture. 

The faces of fracture preserve no constant direction ; in this 
particular they differ from faces of cleavage. It is useful to 
distinguish several kinds of fracture. When the face of frac- 
ture resembles the inside of a shell, it is said to have a con." 
choidal fracture. If the face is smooth, it has an even frac- 
ture. If the face presents numerous and small irregular pro- 
jections, it is said to have an uneven fracture. When the face 
presents the appearance of a separation produce4 by tearing, 
it is called a hackly fracture. 

\ § 59. Surface. 

There are four kiilds of surface, viz : 1. Faces of crys- 
talization. 2. Faces of cleavage. 3. Faces of fracture. 
4. Faces of composition. For account of these surfaces 
see Note D. - 





§ 60. Regular Composition. 

The composition of two or more bodies is regular if 
the form produced by their connexion is regular, and join- 
ed in one crystaline form. Such a composition is de- 
signated by the name of twin crystal^ or sometimes by 
the term hemitrope crystal. 

The property peculiar to twin crystals consists in the close 
and exact connexion of the face of composition with the serien 
of crystalization of the species. To obtain a conception of 
the situation of the individuals, we first suppose them to be 
in parallel position, and then one of them to turn round a cer- 
tain line, in a determined direction, under an angle of 18(P, 
while the other remains unmoved. This line is the axis of 
r$valutiony and is either perpendicular to the face of compo* 

iprrRODUCTioN# 23 

•«itten, or it Coincides with this fece, and which is parallel to 
fte crystalographical axis of the individual. The angle of 
18(P is the ansle of revolution. 

^ Fig. 28. 

The character commonly taken for twin crys- 
tals is the presence of a re-entering angle. Fig. 

28, represents a twin crystal of the green car- ^J ]\^ | T 

bonate of copper. , nJ 

Another method of explaining the mode of composition in 
crystals of this kind, is to imagine the crystal to be bisected 
by a plane passing through it in a determined direction, and 
one of the halves to be turned through a certain number of de- 

frees, or a number equal to half the circumference, or 180°. 
[ence the term hemiirope crystals, 

§ 61. Irregular Composition, 

When a number of crystals are aggregated together so that 
one becomes the support of the others, while there exists no 
general support, the assemblage is termed a Groupe of crys- 
tals. If several crystals are fixed to a common basis, the as- 
semblage is termed a Geode of crystals. 

§ 62. Imitative Shapes, 

A compound mineral is said to have an imitative shape 
if it bears some resemblance to the shape of a natural or 
artificial body. 

Imitative shapes sometimes result from the groupes of crys- 
tals which assume globular or spheroidal forms. Reniform 
and botryoidal shapes may be formed when globular or sphe- 
roidal' masses are attached together. When the individuals 
are very small their surfaces are said to be drusy. 

§ 63. Imitative Shapes arising out of the Geodes of 


There are three kinds of shapes which result from geodes of 
crystals. 1. Those in which the individuals spring from or 
are attached to a common point of support. 2. Those in 
which the individuals form one in the support of the other. 3. 
Those in which the support is cylindrical, sometimes a line, 
and sometimes a tube. Examples of the first are furnished in 
prismatic Kouphone-spar, prismatic Ual-baryte, rhombohe- 
dral Iron-ore. Fruticose and dendritic shapes likewise be- 
long to this kind. In the second division are included the 
dentiform^ filiform and capillary shapes. These arise firom 
rows of ciystals which mutually support each other. Som^r 


times the individuals are so extended laterally as ta produce 
leaves or membranes. The strts on their surfaces indicate 
their composition. 

The third division comprehends the stalactitic and coral- 
loidal shapes. Examples of individuals under these shapes 
are found in rhombohedral Lime-haloide, rhombohedral Iron- 
ore ; also in the Gibbsite, Flos-ferri, &c. 

§ 64. Amorphous Compositions, 

When the mass, formed by the junction of several indi- 
viduals, presents no resemblance to any particular shape, 
and is also irregular, it is said to be massive. 

Massive minerals are usually composed of individuals of the 
same species which are in contact on all sides. When mas- 
sive minerals are subdivided according to the size of the indi- 
viduals, they are called disseminated* 

§ 65. Accidental Imitative Shapes* 

When a mineral is deposited in a space which has 
once been occupied by another mineral, it assumes the 
shape of the latter, and not from any property peculiar to 
it. Such shapes are considered as acci^entaL 

The space in which such minerals are lodged may be regu- 
lar or irregular. Those shapes which are regular must be de- 
posited in regular spaces, which have been produced by crys- 
talization. Forms produced in those spaces are termed pseu- 

§ 66. Particles of Composition. 
The individuals forming the masses of compound mine- 
rals are the particles of composition. 

The differences to be noticed among them arise fi'om their 
shape, arrangement, size, and the strength with which they 
are held together. They are always the result of crystaliza- 
tion, but are prevented from assuming regular forms, from the 
limited space they, occupy. The shape depends on their 
length, breadth and thickness. Those whose dimensions are 
equal in every direction are termed granular. Where the in- 
dividuals are much extended in length, they are said to be 
columnar, and they may be either parallel or diverging. 
Where their breadth exceeds the thickness, the composition is 
called lamellar. The latter may be likewise parallel or di- 
verging. The size of the individuals also vary. They may 
be large, and gradually diminish jantil the size is no longer 


perceptible, when the composition is said to Jbe itnpalptMe. 
Individuals of some species are always strongly connected ; 
of others but feebly. The mineral is then said to be friable, 

§ 67. Structure of Compound Minerals, 
The structure of compound minerals differs materially 
from that of simple ones. If broken they present only 
what is termed /ace* of fracture. 

Some of the kinds effaces of fracture have been sufficiently 
explained (§ 58.) The following kinds are still to be noticed. 
1. Splintery fracture, which is produced by the appearance of 
thin scaly particles on thp face of fracture, which are attached 
to the mass by their thicker ends. 2. Slaty fracture, which 
resembles imperfect faces of cleavage. It is cpipmon to the 
different kinds of slate. 3. Earthy fracture resembles the 
uneven fracture, but belongs to decomppsed minerals. 



§ 68. Division. 
Those natural-historical properties which are common 
to both the simple and compound minerals may be divided 
into the optical properties^ and into the physical proper- 
ties of minerals. 

The optical properties are those which depend upon light, 
and which are not observable except in its presence. They 
are lustre, colour and transparency. The physical properties 
are those which belong to matter in the mass, excluding colour^ 
lustre, transparency, and those which relate to the regular 
forms of bQdies. They are as follows : Hardness, specific 
gravity, state of aggregation, magnetism, electricity^ taste 
and odor. 


§ 69. Colour, Lustre and Transparency. 

The phenomena observable in minerals with respect to 
reflected and transmitted light, are comprehended under 
the heads of Colour, Lustre and Transparency. 

§ 70. Colour and Streak. 
It is necessary to distinguish between the colour of the 


entire mineral and that of its powder. The former is 
properly the colour of the mineral, while the latter has 
been designated as that of the streak. 

% 1\, Division of Colours, . 

Colours are divided into metallic and non-metallic 

This distinction depends more on the lustre connected 
with the colour than on the colours themselves. Hence the 
distinction is not, strictly speaking, correct ; hut is useful, as 
it serves to distinguish what is merely useful from that which 
is indispensible in discriminating minerals. 

§ 72. Metallic Colours. 
The metallic colours are : 1. Copper-red. 2. Bronze- 
yellow. 3. Brass-yellow. 4. Gold-yellow. 5. Silver- 
white. 6. Tin-white. 1. Lead-gray. 8. Steel-gray. 
9. Iron-black. 

As the colours which are here enumerated are selected from 
objects which are well known, and of which the student can 
scarcely fail of obtaining a correct notion, it seems unnecessa- 
ry to -describe them more particularly. 

*§ 73. Non-Metallic Colours. 

In the non-metallic colours there is a series of colours under 
each characteristic colour, which is expressed by a compound 
term. They will be considered in the consecutive order of 
the principal kinds, which represent the general series of 
colours. (See Note L.) 

Colours vary in intensity though tliey belong to the same 
variety. Differences of this kind are expressed bypah, lights 
deep^ dark. And where there are shades or varieties in the 
series, they are said to incline and pass into one another. 

^ 74. Peculiarities in the Occurrence of Colours. 

The peculiarities which occur in colours which are 
worthy of notice, are the Play of Colours, Change of Col- 
ours^ Opalescence, Iridescence, Tarnish, and JJichroism. 

The play of colours is that property which minerals possess • 
of exhibiting coloured points of great intensity, which change 
with the position of the mineral^ or with the direction of the 
rays of light. Examples are found in the Diamond and Opal. 

Change of colour consists in the reflection of bright hues of' 
colour in certain directions. The Labrador feldspar is a re- 
markable instance. 


' Opakscence consists in a kind of milky*white light, which 
is reflected from natural and artificial faces. This property 
may he seen in the Cats-eye and Moonstone. In the former 
it depends on composition, and in the latter on regular struc- 

Iridescence is the reflection of the coloured rays of light 
similar to the rainhow. It is generally produced by fissures, 
and depends on accidental circumstances. 

Dichroism is a property of showing different colours in trans- 
mitted light, in different determined directions. It depends on 
form and structure. Rhombohedral Tourmaline and prismatic 
Quartz are among the most distinct examples. Of the former 
some varieties are opake when viewed in the direction of the 
axis, but in directions perpendicular to it they possess con- 
siderable transparency, and show the different colours, as 
greien, brown and blue. 

The tarnish consists in the alteration of the colour of a mine- 
ral on the surface. It ought not to be confounded with the 
real colour of the mineral. Metallic minerals are most liable* 
to sufifer this change. 

^ 75. The Streak. 

If a mineral is scratched with a hard instrument, either 
a powder will be produced or the surface will assunie a 
higher degree of lustre. Both these effects are compre- 
hended under the expression, the streaks 

The streak is said to be unchanged when the powder retains 
the colour of the mineral. A white or gray streak is said to 
foe ui;^coloured. 

<^ 76- Degrees of Transparency. 
The degrees of transparency depend on the quantity of 
light which is transmitted through minerals. 

These degrees may be noticed as follows : 

1. Transparent^ if sufficient light is transmitted to enable 
us to see small objects placed behind the mineral. 

2. Semi'transparenif if it is possible to distinguish the gene- 
ral outline of bodies placed behind them. 

3k Translucent, when a small quantity of light only falls 
into the mineral, but not sufficient to enable us to discover ob- 
jects behind them. 

4. Translucent on the edges, when only the acute edges 
transmit a feeble quantity of light. 

5. Opake, if the mineral transmits no light at all. The mine- 
rals of the orders Metal, Glance and Pyrites are usually opake. 



, % 77. Lustre. 

The lustre of a mineral arises from the reflection of 
light from its surfaces, and is to be considered as to its 
kind and to its intensity. 

The kinds of lustre are metallic^ adamantinej resinous^ vitre^ 
oils and pearly. 

Metallic lustre is divided into perfect and imperfect metallic 
lustre. The perfect occurs in all the species of the orders 
Metal, Pyrites and Glance, and is the same as occurs in brass^ 
silver, copper and gold. The second is found in the ores, a» 
in prismatic Scheelium-ore,' octahedral Copper-ore, &c« 

Adamantine lustre is divided into metallic adamantine and 
common adamantine lustre. Examples of the first are found 
in the order Blende, especially those species which have a 
dark colour. The common adamantine lustre is peculiar to 
octahedral Diamond, the pale coloured varieties of Ruby- 
blende and Garnet-blende, and to some varieties of di-prismat-^ 
ic Lead-baryte. 

Resinous lustre is that which a mineral presents when it re- 
sembles that of resin. It occurs in pyramidal Garnet, and ia 
the varieties of empyrodox Quartz, or Pitchstone. 

Vitreous lustre is that of common glass, and may be ob- 
8erved in' common duartz. 

Pearly lustre is divided into common and metalKc pearfy. 
Examples of the first may be observed in prismatic Disthene- 
spar, and in some species of the order Mica / the second in 
the species of Schiller-spar. 

The following are the degrees of lustre. 1. Splendent. 2. 
Shining, 3. Glistening. 4. Glimmering, 5. Dull. 

Splendent surfaces possess the highest degree of lustre and 
resemble polished st^l. 

Shining is a less degree but is still lively, but not sujB- 
ciently strong to exhibit the distinct image of an object from 
its surface. 

Glistening surfaces reflect light disorderly and rather in de- 
fined patches. Common to many compound minerals when 
the particles of composition are discernable. 

Glimmering does not reflect light in defined patches, but a 
mass of defined light seems spread over the glimmering sur- 
face. This degree belongs to compound minerals, whose par- 
ticles of composition are very small. 

Dull possesses no lustre at all, and is mostly confined to 
decomposed minerals. 

In general the kind and degree of lustre which crystalized 
'todies present are pretty uniform. The gradation which majp 


sometimes be observed presents a continuous series, which 
allows of the same application as the series in the varieties 
of colours. In crystals similar faces agree as to the kind and 
intensity of lustre, and vice versa, such faces which do not 
agree in lustre are not similar. (For an account of Double 
Refraction and Polarization of Light, see Note £.) 


'^ 78. Explanation, 

The properties of minerals which are termed physical, 
comprehend all those which neither depend upon form, 
nor upon the presence or absence of light. 

Among these are the State of S-ggregatiorii Hardness, 
Specific Gravity, Magnetism, Electricity, Taste and Odour, 

§ 79. State of Aggregation. 

Minerals, in regard to their state of aggregation, are 
distinguished into solid and fluid minerals. 

A solid mineral may be brittle, malleable, seciile, ductile, 
Jlexible and elastic, 

A fluid mineral may be liquid, viscid and expansible. All 
these properties may pass into each other by insensible grada- 


§ 80. Hardness, 

Hardness is the resistance which solid minerals ofier 
to the displacement of their particles. The magnitude of 
this resistance is termed their degree of hardness. 

Hardness is one of the most useful properties in the natural 
history of the mineral kingdom, particularly in the determina- 
tive part. The existence of difierent degrees of hardness is 
easily ascertained ; but to form an accurate scale of hardness 
is very diflBcult. A scale of hardness which shall answer the 
purposes of ipineralogy may be formed by choosing a certain 
number of minerals, of which every preceding one»is scratched 
by the one which follows it, taking care that the intervals be-* 
tween every two members of the scale be not so disproportion- 
ate as to render its employment uncertain or difficult. The 
following minerals have been selected to represent the degrees 
of hardness, and the numbers which are affixed to them express 
respectively their comparative degrees of hardness. 1. Pris- 
matic talc-mica, 2. Prismatoidal gypsum-hahide, which is 
the same as hexahedral rock-salt 3. Rhombohedfal lime^ 
Aalotde. 4. Octahedral fiuor-hahiden 5. Bkombohedralfiuor- 



hahide. 6. PrwiKUic fMspar. 7» Rhmbohtdral quartz^ 
8. Prismatic topaz, 9. Rhombohedral carundwn. ID, Oc- 
iahedral diamond. 

This scale is employed by endeavoring to find the place 
which a mineral occupies in it, bj scratching the different 
numbers, and the degree is expressed by saying that the mine- 
ral equals a particular number. Thus, in speaking of the 
hardness of hexahedral rock salt, it is said that its hard- 
ness =2 or is 2. 

§ 81. Specific Gravity. 

If we suppose the absolute weight of one of two bodies 
which possess the same volume to be =1, the ratio of the 
absolute weight of the other to this unit is termed its 
^cific gravity. 

As we cannot secure sufficient accuracy merely by sight or 
by estimate, it is necessary that we use appropriate instru- 
ments to ascertain the specific gravities of bodies. (For the 
description and use of an instrument of this kind, see rioie F*) 

^ 82. Magnetism. 

Some minerals, on being brought within a certain distance 
of a magnetic needle, act upon it Others become magnets 
themselves. Both of these phenomena are used as charac- 
ters under the name of magnetism, (See Note G.) 

§83. Electricity. 

The different relations which different bodies sustain to 
the electric fluid, may be usefully applied as characters of 

Some minerals become electric by friction, some by pres- 
sure, and others by heat. Vitreous electricity is produced by ' 
friction in most minerals which belong to the orders Spar, 
Gem, Mica and Baryte. And resinous electricity is produced 
in the same way in the orders Sulphur, Resin and Coal. The 
conductors of electricity belong mostly to the orders Metal, 
Pyrites and Glance. 

§84. Taste. 

Several minerals, solid as well as fluid, produce a sensible 
taste. The different kinds of taste are, 1. Astringent. 2. 
Sweetish. 3. Saline. 4. Alkaline. 5. Cooling. 6. Bit- 
ter. 7. Urinous. 8. Sour. 

§85. Odor. 

Some minerals when rubbed or warn), emit some odor 
which may afford useful characters. 


The Mdek miDeral resins possess a bituminous odor ; the 
species of the genus Iron-pjrites emit a sulphureous odor, and 
the arsenical Iron-pyrites emits the odor of garlic. Other 
kinds might be mentioned, but it is unnecessary, 

^86. Chemical Characters, 

Chemical characters are those which are observed in bod- 
ies after some essential change has been wrought upon them. 

The chemical characters which are made use of are confined 
to the use of the blow-pipe and the action of acids. These 
characters have no place in a treatise of this kind, as they do 
not belong to the natural-historical properties. But that the 
student may be furnished with every aid in the investigation 
of minerals^ a particular account of these characters is given 
in Note H. 



§ 87. Identity. 

Natural productions which do not differ in their natu« 
ral-historical properties are identical. 

The consideration of this proposition supposes a separation 
of dl accidental differences in two bodies; such as the size of 
two individuals and the disproportional enlargement of their 
faces, and their junction with other individuals. By con- 
sidering two bodies as identical, is meant that every one of 
them may be substituted in the place of the other in every 
natural-historical respect So that if &ne belongs to a par^ 
ticular species the other must necessarily belong to it. 

§ 88. Difference* , 

Individuals which do not agree in their natural-histor- 
ical properties are not identical. 

If two individuals differ as to crystaline form, hardness or 
specific gravity, or in only one of these properties, they will 
not be identical. The same degree of difference, cannot be 
said to exist between every two individuals. Thus there is 
less difference between epidote and ziosite than between 
epidote and quartz. There is a less diSerence between two 
crystals of garnet, one of which is a rhombic dodecahedron, 
and the other a trapezoedron— than between either of them and 
a crystal of gold : which is sufficient to show that the degrees 
of difierence are not the same in every two individuals. 

§ 89. Species. 
An assemblage of individuals which are brought under 

32 introduction; 

the idea of identity constitutes a species : and the individu- 
als belonging to it are homogeneous individuals. 

Under this definition, the idea of a species becomes the 
foundation of scientific mineralogy, and is the starting point 
from which to obtain some knowledge of all the productions of 
4be mineral kingdom, when we wish to preserve a certain unity 
in the acquirement of our information. 

Individuals which constitute a species often possess a series 
of characters by which they pass or graduate into each other ; 
but individuals belonging to two species never pass into each 
other, as individuals connected by transitions are homogene- 
ous, and belong to one and the same species. 

The continuity which exists in the series of the characters 
of individuals is such, that all their differences may be joined 
into a whole. This enables us to comprehend all the varieties 
under one species, and also in the mineral kingdom ; so that 
it is not for the interest of mineralogy that the species should 
be subdivided, or distinguished into sub-species and varieties. 
The species itself is the proper object of classification, or the 
thin^ to be classed. The idea of the species is not produced 
by classification, i 

§ 90. Genus, 

An assemblage of species connected by the highest de^, 
gtee of resemblance is termed a genus. 

The resemblance which shall constitute a genus is not arbi- 
trarily fixed, and it is impossible to express it in one or in a 
certain number of characters. A resemblance is, however, 
manifest by occular inspection. Striking examples are fur- 
nished in the genera Garnetj Jron-pyritcsj Kouphone-spar^ 
UaJrbarytey Lead-barytSy 8fc. 

§ 91. Order. 

The order is-tm assemblage of similar genera. 

The orders in the mineral kingdom are the same as the natu- 
ral families of the vegetable kingdom, and their reception and 
determination in one and the other, depend upon the same 
principles. Where can be found in the vegetable kingdom 
families more natural than are the group of genera in the or- 
ders Spar, Ore and Pyrites ? Where the principles of natural 
history are applied in conformity to its proper objects, the re- 
sult will always be happy, and the employment of characters 
jnder the guidance of those principles can never fail of devel- 
oping the system intended. Thus, a chemical system of mine- 
ralogy would require for its develot>ement principles and char- 


Bcters peculiar to that science. When a mixed method is fol- 
lowed, confusion and obscurity must be the prominent features^ 

§ 92. Class. 

The class is an assemblage of similar prders. 

The inspection of the three classes in mineralogy will prove 
the orders in each class to resemble each other in. their natu- 
ral-historical properties, more closely, than those in the other 
classes. For instance, the order Spar has a greater resem- 
blance to the order Gem, than to the order Coal or Resin, prov- 
ing that the idea ofclass depends also upon natural-historical 
relations, and does not admit of foreign principles, and is not 
produced by mere division. 



§ 93. Definition* 

The systematic nomenclature is the assemblage of those 
denominations which natural history applies to natural 
productions^ and which refer to a natural-historical sy&* 

The systematic nomenclature provides every natural pro- 
duction with a denomination, and represents by these doQomi-^ 
nations the natural-historical resemblance by which these 
bodies are connected in the system. The species is the foun- 
dation^ and the systematic nomenclature the verbal expression 
of the system. The species therefore is the object to whicb 
the systematic denomination refers. 

§94. Object of the Names. 

The ideas expressed by the names are the higher uni« 
ties of classification, immediately preceding that of the 

The name is to be applied to an assemblage of natural pro- 
ductions, and belongs to a single species or individuals, only 
BO far as the one or other belongs to the assemblage in virtue 
of their natural historical properties. This points out the dif> 
ference between the systematic nomenclature and the trivial 
nomenclature. The latter applies the name directly to the 
object, without expressing the connexion of bodies. The 
trivial nomenclature is wholly arbitrary in the selection of its 




§ 95. JVamc of the Order, 

In the natural history of the mineral kingdom, the order is the highest idea 
expressed in the systematic nomenclature. Tiie order consequently will bear 
the simple name. 

^ 96. Selection and Signification of the Names of the 

The simple names are the foundation of the whole no- 
menclature, and receive their signification in agreement 
with the ideas of the orders. 

The names are Gas^ Water ^ Acidt Salt, Haloide, Baryte^ Kerate^ Matii- 
ehite, Spar, Gem, Ore, Metal, Pyrites, Glance, Blend, ^tUpkur, Resin and 

§ 97. Name of the Genus, 
In the genus the name of the order is restricted by con- 
necting another word with the name of the order ; and thus 
a compound word is formed, which is the generic name. 

The generic name refers to the natural-historical properties of the genus. 
It is therefore intended to express by ii eome striking feature of its resemblance 
with other bodies. Thus the name Garnet-blende indicates that it belongs to 
the order Blende, and that the individuals it contains have a Garnet-like ap- 
pearance. ' 

§ 98. Denomination of the Species. 
The denomination of the species is effected by the use 
of an adjective. 

The adjective which is employed for this purpose is selected from the na- 
tural-hititorical properties, and if possible is one which is the most useful in dis- 
tinguishing it from other species. The most desir^le are those which relate 
to form ana cleavage. Examples are hexahedral, prismatic, rhombohedral Iron- 
pyrites; or jjert/omow^, and j?yramiflfoZ rho7nbohedr al Titsinmm-ore \ prismatic 
rhombohedral^ macrotyphusy parato7nous L\me-hsAo\de. In this way the stu- 
dent is furnished in the denomination of the species with an image or represen- 
tation of it, which indeed will not answer in the place of the characteristic or 
jgeneral description. 

^ 99. Trivial Nomenclature. 
In the trivial nomenclature the name is fixed upon the 

The trivial nomenclature does not express the connexion amon^ bodies 
which it provides with names. Any name which does not express mis con- 
nexion is a trivial name, which rests upon the lowest idea of the system, that 
is, upon the species. 

The natural-historical determination of natural productions, does not go be- 
yond the species. The systematic nomenclature stops therefore at the de- 
iiomination; the trivial nomenclature at the name of the species. 




§ 100. Definition. 
"The characteristic is an assemblage pf certain natural- 


historical properties, arranged according to a certain sys^ 
tern, for the purpose of distinguishing the unities contain- 
ed in the system. 

A single property or collection of these, if subservient to the (distinction of the 
several species of a genus, or of the genera of an order, or the orders of a class, 
&c. is termed a character, and the single properties it contains, character- 
istic marks or terms. According to this definition, the existence of a character 
presupposes the existence of a system to which it applies. 

^ 101. Propefties of the Characters, 

The characters must be sufficient to a precise distinction within their respec- 
tive spheres, and as short as the necessary degree of evidence in the determi- 
nation of the species will allow. It may be remarked that characters are en- 
tirely useless, if they are ambiguous or apply equally well to two distinct natur- 
al productions. The characters require both conciseness and uniformity : 
bence ihe character should not contain any thing, but what is required for- the 
distinction and the evidence of the determination of the species. . 

§ 102. Absolute and Conditioned Characteristic Marks. 

A characteristic mark is absolute if it is by itself distinctive 
in- its sphere ; a conditioned mark is only distinctive under 
c^tain circumstances or restrictions. 

In illustration of the proposition, if a solid mineral shall belong to the first 
class, it must be s^pid, the character of this class is therefore solid : taste, 
where solidity is the condition under which the property of exciting taste must 
necessarily take place. If the mineral is not solid it is no matter whether it 
has taste or not ; hence the marks or .characters must be taken literally, and 
tbey admit of no other signification than that expressed by the words. 

§ 103. Base of a Perfect Characteristic* 

The perfection of the characteristic depends upon the 
perfection and accuracy of our natural-historical knowledge 
of natural productions. 

Our ideas of a system of nature will advance towards perfection, the more 
we inquire into the nature of bodies, and study their relation towaids each oth- 
er, and as our knowledge increases the more correct will be our views, and the 
nearer to perfection shall we be able to construct a characteristic. 

^ 104. Use of the Characteris{ic. 
The use of the characteristic i? to determine the name 
of a natural production. 

(For process in determining minerals, &c., see Note K.) 



§ 105. Definition* 
Physiography means a description of natural productions 

Physiography is not fitted to the purpose of distinguishing minerals or other 
nitoral productions. We cannot by its assistance find the place of a given min- 


«ralin the «7steni,oriii other words recognise it, for itii independent of that 
natural connexion among bodies upon which systems are founded. A. descrip- 
tion is not a character, since the peculiarity of a character consists in its being 
composed of a smaller number or characteristic terms than may be observed in 
the objects characterised. 

The description presupposes nothing but Terminplojjy. It is perfectly in* 
different what nomenclature is made'use of, provided the names serve to Keep 
separate the objects which really differ from each other. 

§ 106. Objects of Physiography. 
The object which physiography serves in the mineral 
kingdom, is the description of the individual. 

Individuals are described by indicating all the naturalhifltorical properties. 
In enumerating these a certain order should be fixed upon for the sake of per- 
spicuity, which should not be altered. All prolixity should likewise be avoided, 
and every thing foreign to the purpose rejected. 

^ 107, General Description of the Species. 

In order to represent the natui'al-historical species in the mineral kingdom, 
it is necessary to construct a general description which shall ^\ye a correct idea 
of all, or at least ail known varieties of a species in their proper connexion. 
The method of constructing a general description is as follows. First, any 
suitable variety of the Species is chosen and described with all possible accura- 
cy. The description will contain only single characters, consisting of a cer- 
tain colour and lustre ; a certain degree of hardness; a certain form, &c. all of 
which are members of their respective series. If in the place of every one of 
these single characters, we substitute (he complete series to which itbelongs, 
the description of the individual, or of the variety, is transformed into the col- 
lective or general description of the species. 

§ 108. Arrangement of the General Descriptions^ 

The general or collective descriptions require to be so 
arranged, as to facilitate their use, and to produce a com- 
plete view of the species. 

The characters which depend on the presence of light serve very much to 
create and enliven the image of the species, such as the colour, lustre and trans- 
parency, all of which should be particularly noticed next to the form and cleav- 
age, together with the character of the different fa.ces, and will contribute io fill 
up in our minds, a notion of the individuals described^ These are to b^ follow- 
ed by the hardness and specific gravity, after which the compound forms, their 
composition, &c. will serve to complete a perfect representation of the spe- 

§ 109. The Collective Descriptions do not depend on the 


The natural-historical species itself is the basis of every method, and in fact 
of every science ; it is the object, not the product of classification. The de- 
scriptions are applicable therefore in every system, even though the principles 
upon which it is framed should not agree with those of Natural History, llius 
the collective description is raised to a high degree of importance, since it be- 
comes the link between Natural History and other sciences, referring likewise 
to the Mineral Kingdom. When the collective descriptions are completed* 
Natural Histoir has fulfilled its duty, and the species is now prepared to be 
the subject of farther investigation in other sciences. The classifiable unity 
itielf may be clearly designated and distinguished from every other object. 







CarburttUd Hydrogen Gas. Jam. 

Amorphous. Transparent and expansible. Odor slight- 
ly empyreumatic. Sp. gr. 0.570. BerzeKus. 

1. The colour of litmus paper when exposed to the influence 
of this gas, is unchanged. It is highly inflammable, and burns 
with a yellow flame. It detonates powerfully when mixed with 
atmospheric air, and fired With the electric spark. It is com- 
posed by weight of 

Carbon 6, or one p. 
Hydrogen 2, two p. 

2. Carburetted hydrogen is formed abundantly in stagnant 
pools, from which it escapes in bubbles when the mud at the 
bottom is stirred or agitated. 

It is likewise developed in coal mines, and is identical with 
that dangerous compound known among miners as the Jirc' 
damp. Accidents arising from the explosion of this gas are 
much less frequent since the invention of the safetjf lamp by 
Sir Humphrey Davy. ^ 


Colourless and transparent. Odor of putrid eggs. 
Taste oiflfensive. Sp. gr. 1 . 1 8. BerzeKtis. 

1. Sulphuretted hydrogen is not a supporter of combustion^ 
as a flame is extinguished when immersed in it. When in. 



flamed, it burns with a pale blue light. It is found to possess 
acid properties, for it reddens litmus paper, and forms salts 
with alkalies; hence it is sometimes called hydro-sulphuric 

From its affinity for the metallic oxides, it is a chemical agent 
of great importance. It tarnishes gold and silver, forming with 
them sulphurets. It instantly blackens the cafbonate of lead ; 
for this reason it is often used as a test of its presence. It 
consists of 

Sulphur 16y one p. 

Hydrogen 1, ode p. 

2. This substance is a poison of considerable energy, as it 
is fatal to small animals, if it constitutes only a small propor- 
tion of the air which they inhale. 

3. Sulphuretted hydrogen is mostly found in connexion with 
those rocks which abound in pjrites and coal ; thus it is found 
issuing from the western bank of Niagara river, a mile south 
of the Falls : the rock is the shelly limestone, which contains 
thin seams of coal and iron pyrities. It occurs also under the 
same circumstances near the Otsquaga creek. Eaton, 


Pure Mmospherie Air, Jam. 

Colourless and transparent. Without odor or taste. Sp. 
gr. 1.00. 

1. Pure atmospheric air consists of 80 nitrogen, 20 oxy- 
gen, and O.OOI carbonic acid. 

Or of Nitrogen 4 p. 
Oxygen 1 p. 
The proportions of oxygen and nitrogen are constant ; but that 
of carbonic acid is variable. This compound constitutes the at- 
mosphere, and surrounds the whole globe. 

2. Atmospheric air is compressible and elastic. One bun* 
dred cubic inches at the temperature of 60^ of F. and when 
the mercury of the barometer stands at 30 inches, weigh 
90.5 grs. It is 828 times lighter than pure water, and near 
11260 times lighter than mercury. The height of the atmos- 
phere above the level of the sea is supposed to be about 45 
miles, and its pressure on every square inch of surface, is equal 
to 15lb8. hence it is capable of supporting a column of mercury 
00 inches high, and one of water of 34 feet. * It is well known 


that as we recede from*the surface of the earth and ascend into 
the higher regions, the pressure decreases ; this may be shown 
by the barometer, and by boiling water on elevated situations. 


Colourless and transparent. Without odor or taste. 
' Expansible. Not a supporter of combustion or combustible. 0.972. 

1. One hundred cubic inches at the mean temperature and 
pressure, weigh 29.65 grs. Turner, 

It issues fitov^ many springs in the valley of the Hoosic, and 
in some of them, in considerable quantities. It contains usual- 
ly oxygen in mixture, not, perhaps, varying much from 10 per 
cent. ' 



Colourless and transparent. Without odor or taste. 
Amorphous. Liquid. Sp. gr. 1.00. 

Water when heated to 212^ F. passes into ihe form of va- 
por, and when it cools to dSP F. congeals, or becomes solid. 
It is composed of 

Oxygen 86.94. 

Hydrogen 11.06. Berzelius. 
As found in springs and fountains it usually contains an admix- 
ture of the alkaline and earthy salts, as lime, magnesia and soda. 
These impurities are removed by distillation. Water when 
crystallized usually assumes the form of a star, with six radii. 
The primary form appears to be a prism, but its dimensions 
have not yet been satisfactorily determined. 



Colourless and transparent. Taste slightly acid. Odor 
pungent. Amorphous. 1.51. Biotand Arago. 


1. Carbonic acid reddens the vegetable blues, and forms a 
turbid compound when agitated with lime water. It extinguish- 
es all burning bodies, and deshxyjs life if inhaled into the 
lungs, by its poisonous qualities, as well as by excluding oxy- 
gen. When absorbed by water it communicates an acidulous 
taste. It consists of 

Carbon ,6, one p. 
Oxygen 16, two p. 

2. Carbonic acid is always present in the atmosphere ; even 
at the summits of the highest mountains. It is formed by the 
combustion of substances which contain carbon, and by the 
respiration of animals. When it is formed in low situations, it 
is likely to accumulate and form an atmosphere which is com- 
monly known as the choke-damp. This is almost instantly 
&tal to every animal placed in it* At the Grotto del Canej in 
Italy, it issues directly from the earth. 

3. This gas, when in solution in water, forms a pleasant and 
useful stimulant to the stomach. Many mineral waters owe 
their efficacy, in part, to this substance; this too iipparts that 
liveliness to the dififerent fermented liquors. 



Amorphous and transparent. Colour green or greenish. 
Taste strongly acid. Odor pungent and su|fi)cating. Sp. 

1. The natural form of this substance is a gas, which is 
colourless and transparent. It has a strong affinity for water, 
which causes it to appear like a white ck>ud when disengaged 
from iti9 combinations. It consists of 

Chlorine 37, one p. 
Hydrogen 1, one p. 

2. It usually occurs in the vicinity of active volcanoes, as 
Mount -^tna and Vesuvius. 



Colourless. Taste strongly acid. Sp. gr. 1.850. Berz. 

1. It reddens litmus and the other vegetable blues. It acts 
strongly on vegetable and animal matter, even when greatly 


It has a strong affioitj for water. The Bul[Auric acid of 
commerce freezes at —15° F. It is composed bj weight of 
Sulphur 16, one p. — Oxygen 34, three p, 

2. The sulphuric acid as found in nature is far from being 
pure. Those acidulous springs which are found in the neigh- 
borhood of volcanic mountains, contain free sulphuric acid. 
Sulphuric acid is sometimes produced also bj the decomposi- 
tion of iron pyrites, and vegetable matter — as the trunks of 
trees, leaves, &c. with which it comes in contact, are con- 
verted into coal, (or what is commonly called ligniiei) This 
effect may be observed on the lignite beds, a few miles south 
of South-Amboy. . 



SasoUnCf or Native Boracic Acid. Jam, 

Colour grayish and yellowish-white. Streak white^ 
Feebly translucent. Taste acidulous, afterwards bitter and 
cooling — lastly sweetish. 1.48. Berzdius. Pri- 
mary form an octahedron, whose dimensions have not 

been accurately determined. 

1. Boracic acid fuses in the flame of a candle and yields a 
glassy globule, which acquires resinous electricity by friction 
on being insolated. Mohs, It dissolves freely in hot alcohol, 
and when the solution is set on fire it tinges the flame green. 
It consists of Boron 8, one p. 

Oxygen 16, two p. 
Water 18, two p. 

2. It is deposited from the water of the hot springs, near 
Sasso, in Tuscany ; it occurs likewise at Volcano, one of the 
Lipari Islands. When crystallized it is pure, except an acci- 
dental admixture of sulphur. 


Oxide of Arsenic. Jam. i^raenious Md, 

Colour white. Often inclining to yellow. Streak whit eJ 
Lustre vitreous-adamantine. Semi-transparent#..opake. 
Sp. gr. 3.69. Taste sweetish. Astringent. Mohs. 
Cleavage parallel to the planes of the regular octahedron. 
Cross fracture conchoidal. 



1. When eiq>6Bed to heat it volatilizes and emits fhe odour 
of garlic. The vapor may be condensed by cold, when the 
acid appears again in the form of an octahedron. It is soluble 
in water. It is well known to be the most poisonous substance 
in nature. It is usually associated with the ores of cobalt, 
lead, bismuth, &;c. It frequently occurs in reniform, botryoi* 
dal and stalactitic forms, or in thin crusts or scales, of a pear- 
ly lustre. It occurs in most of the mining districts of Europe. 



Prismatic Natron. Jam. 
Carbonate of Soda, Phil. 

Taste mildly alkaline. Colour white. When gray or 
yellow it is owing to foreign admixture. Lustre vitreous. 
Hardness 1,0 — 1.5. 1.2 — 2.9. Massive and 
crystallized. Primary form a rhombic octahedron. 

1. Natron effervesces with the mineral acids. When ex- 
posed to air it effloresces. It is composed of 

Carbonic acid 22, one p. 
Soda 32, one p. 

Water 90, ten p. 

2. The native carbonate of soda occurs abundantly in Egypt, 
nea»r certain lakes called Natron Lakes. Their waters contain- 
ing this salt in solution, during the summer evaporate and 
deposite it in a solid form. This deposite is broken and packed 
in casks and sent to the European markets. It is likewise 
found on the surface of the soil on the plains of Debreczin in 
Hungary; also in Bohemia, Italy, and other European coun- 
tries. It is found too in the ashes of most sea-weeds, particu- 
larly the Sal^ola and Salicornia. 

3. This salt is chiefly employed in the manufacture of hard- 
soap and glass. It is useful in dyeing and bleaching. 



Prismatic Glauber- Salt, Jam. 
Sulphate of Soda. Phil. C. 

Colour white, grayish or yellowish-white. Lustre vitre- 


0U5. Streak white. Transparent. Taste bitter and saline. 
Hardness 1.6 — 2.0. Sp. gr. 2.2 — 2.3. Primary form a 
rhombic octahedron. 

1. Sulphate of soda effloresces on exposure to air. It is very 
soluble in warm or cold water. When exposed to heat it rea- 
dily undergoes watery fusion. It is composed of 

Sulphate of soda 72, one p. 
Water 90, ten p. 

2. This salt is found in many lakes in Austria,Lower Hungry* 
Siberia, Russia and Switzerland. It sometimes occurs in ef- 
florescences on old plastered walls. It is used principally as v 

a cooling purgative. ^^^ y ^ 


Prismalie Mire. Jam. t^^ 
Mtrcj Mtrale of Potash: Phil. & C. 

Colour white, Transparent...translucent. Streak white. 
Lustre vitreous.. Taste slightly saline, cool, and lastly al- 
kaline. Brittle. Hardness 2.0. 1.93. ^ 

1. Nitre deflagrates when thrown on burning coals and 
burns with a pink-red flame. It dissolves easily in water and 
is but little altered on exposure to air. It forms a detonating 
compound with qombustible substances. 

2. This useful substance occurs in many places in the 
United States ; in the caves where animal matter has undergone 
decomposition. In Kentucky, Madison county, there is a cave 
1936 feet long and 40 feet broad^ which contains nitre in mix- ' 
ture with earthy matter and nitrate of lime. The nitre is ob- 
tained pure by mixing the compound with wood-ashes and then 
subjecting it to lixiviation. From one bushel of earth is ob- 
tained from three to ten pounds of nitre. It is said to be found 
in some parts of Kentucky, in loose masses, which weigh sev- 
eral pounds. 

3. Nitre does not occur in suflicient abundance to meet the 
demands for it in the purposes of life. It is employed in the 
manufacture of gun-powder, and for making nitric acid. Be- 
sides this, it is used in medicine, and for preserving meat and 

other perishable articles. 




Common Salt, Phil. 
Muriate of Soda. C. 

Colour generally white, passing into yellow, flesh-red 
and ash-gray. Transparent-.translucent. Lustre vitreous, 
somewhat inclining to resinous. Streak white. Rather 
brittle. Hardness 2.0. 2.26. Taste saline. It 
yields a perfect cleavage parallel to all the planes of the 
cube. The solid angles are sometimes replaced by tangent 

1. The rock salt of Cheshire, England, contains in 1000 
parts, 9831 muriate of soda, 6J sulphate of lime, 0.3-16 of mu- 
riate of magnesia, 0.3-16 of muriate of lime, and 10 of insolu- 
ble matter. Ifenry. ' Muriate of soda consists of 

Muriatic acid 37, one p. 

Soda 32, one p. 

Rock-salt is usually massive, but sometimes occurs in imi- 
tative forms, as columnar, dentiform, &c. Fracture usually 
presents granular concretions. 

2. This substance is abundant. It forms about one-thir- 
tieth part of the waters of the ocean. It occurs too in beds 
and veins in the earth, which are associated pretty constantly 
with gypsum. These beds are sometimes superficial, as those 
of A&ica, or at very great depth, as those of Poland. In Spaing 
large isolated masses occur on the surface of the earth. 

3. As yet no beds of salt are known within the limits of the 
United States. Numerous salt-springs however exist, from 
which are made more than a million of bushels of salt annual- 
ly. It is worthy of notice, that these springs are situated in 
the interior of the country, at a distance from the sea-coast 
and from the ordinary course of navigation. Salt-springs are 
found in the states of New-York, Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio 
and Illinois. 

4. The uses of common salt are too well known to require a 
particular notice. 



Prismatic Borax, Jam. Borax, Borate of Soda, P. 
Bi'Boraic of Soda, Tnnier. 

Colour white, inclining to blue or green. Transparent, 
or translucent. Stre^ white. Taste alkaline. Hardness 
1.5. Sp, gr. 1.7 L Cleavage parallel to the planes of an 
oblique rhombic prism of 86° 30' and 93 oSC, and indis- 
tinct, in directions parallel to both its diagonals. 

1. Before the blow-pipe borax intumesces and melts into a 
transparent colourless bead. When dissolved in sulphuric 
acid and alcdiol it bums with a green flame. 

According to Thompson, pure borax consists of 

Soda 33, one p. 

Boracic acid 48, two p. 
Water 72, eight p. 

2. Borax is brought principally from Thibet, in an impure 
state. It is procured from the borders of certain lakes whose 
waters are impregnated with this salt. It is brought to Europe 
in the form of brown or grayish masses, in which state fit is 
called Tincal. It is said also to occur in Ceylon, and in Potosi, 
South America. 

3. Borax is use^ as a flux in the production of artiflcial gems ; 
in the process of soldering, and in medicine as an external ap- 


Sulphate of Magnesia, Phil. C. 

Colour white. Streak white. Transparent...translucent. 
Lustre vitreous. Brittle. Hardness 2.6. Sp. gr. 1.75. 
Taste saline, and bitter. Slightly efflorescent on exposure 
to air ; crystallizes in irregular six*sided prisms. Primary 
form a right rhombic prism, the angles of which are 90° 30* 
and 89° 30.' Brooke. 

1. Epsom-salt is soluble in an equal weight of water at 6Q^« 


When exposed to heat^ it undergoes watery fusion. The coni- 
position of the pure salt may be stated thus : 

Sulphate of magnesia 60, one p. 

Water 63, seven p. 

2. It is generally the product of decomposition, as it is found 

in efflorescences on rocks in their original repositories, or on 

the exterior of plastered walls. It forms a principal ingredient 

in certain mineral waters. 



Octahedral Sal Ammoniac, Jam. 
Muriate of Jmmonia. Phil. C. 

Colour generally white, inclining to gray, yellow or 
green. Transparent.,.translucent. Lustre vitreous, faint. 
Hardness L6— 2.0. Sp. gr. 1.52. Taste sharp and pungent. 
Yields to mechanical division parallel to the planes of a 

The massive varieties occur in the form of stalactites, 
or botryoidal, globular or reniform concretions, and some- 
times in the form of a mealy efflorescence. 

1. The composition of this substance, from Mount Vesuvius, 
was found to be 

Muriate of ammonia, 99.5. 

Muriate of soda, 05. KlaproiJu 

Sal ammoniac occurs in cracks and fissures in the immediate 
vicinity of active volcanoes, and is the product of sublimation. 
Its localities are Mount iBtna, Vesuvius, the Solfateras, and 
the Lipa^i Islands. 

2. This salt occurs only sparingly in nature. It is therefore 
principally formed artificially by various chemical processes, 
it is employed in dyeing, medicine, and in several operations' 
in metallurgy. 

2. MASCAGNIN. KarsUn. 
Sulphate of Ammonia, 

Colour yellowish inclining to gray. Taste sharp and 
bitter* Regular forms unknown. 


When triturated with lime, it is decomposed, and the ammo- 
nia escape^ in the form of a pungent gas. It consists of 

Ammonia 17, one p. 

Sulphuric acid 40, one p. 

Water 27, three p. 

It occurs in the vicinity of volcanoes, forming yellowish 'crusts 
on the lava and ejected stones. 


Octahedral Alum. Jam. Alum. P. ' 
Sulphate ofAlumine and Potash, C. 

Colourwhite. Streak white. Transparent.. .translucent* 
Lustre vitreous. Hardness 2.0 — 2.5. 1.76. Taste 
sweetish, astringent. Pure alum crystallizes in regular 
octahedrons, the solid angles of which are often replaced. 
Fracture conchoidal with smooth surfaces. 

!• In natijire, alum is never pure. It is usually formed 
from the decomposition of aluminous rocks, which contain 
pyrites, hence it contains iron and other impurities. It consists 

Sulphuric acid and water, 77.00. 
Potash, 0.25. 

Oxide of iron, 7.50J Klaproth 

It dissolves easily in water ; and melts before the blow-pipe in 
its water of crystallization, and is converted into a spungiform 


Cdlour white. Transparent... translucent. Lustre|pearly. 
Structure fibrous. Sectile. Brittle. Hardness *12.0. Sp. 
gr. 1.88. Form prismatic. 

1: One hundred parts of water at 62^ dissolve 377.3 parts. 
Boiling water dissolves an indefinite quantity. When exposed 
to air, it loses its water of crystallization and becomes opake« 
Under theinfluence of heaf it appears like common alum. It 
consists of Sulph. acid, 4 atoms* 

Alumina, 3 do. 

Soda, 1 do. 

WatoTi aO do, Thon^iu 


The difleience between ^e native soda akiai and the arttfieiai 
soda akim is, that the former contains only 20 atoms of water^ 
and the latter 25. This is supposed to occasion a dijQbrence 
in the shape of the crystalline forms. Thompson. 


Sulphate of Alumine. 

Colour white, greenish, or yellowish-white. Taste nause- 
ous and highly astringent. Lustre, as observed on a recent 
fracture, pearly. Regular forms unknown. 

1. This substance, on being subjected to the action of the 
blow-pipe, first gives off its water of crystallization, and after- 
wards its sulphuric acid, whiph may be known by its suffocating 
odour. It changes the vegetable blues to red. It is composed 
of Sulphate of alumine, 38.0. 

Sulphate of iron, 2.4. 

Free sulph. acid, 4.6. 

Water, 51.8. 


Clauberite. Jam. Phil. C. 

Colour yellowish or grayish-white. Semi-transparent... 
translucent. Brittle. Hardness 2.5. — 3.0. Sp. gr. 2.80. 
Taste valine, feeble. Lustre vitreous. Fracture conchoi- 
dal. Cleavage perfect, parallel to the planes of an oblique 
rhombic prism. P on M or M^ 104^ 15'. M on M' 8So 
30'. Brooke. 

1. PrLmiatic brythene salt consists of 

* Sulphate of lime, 49.0. 

Sulphate of soda, 5L.0. Brogniart. 
It consists of one atom of anhydrous sulphate of lime, and 
one atom of anhydrous sulphate of soda. If immersed in water 
it loses its transparency and is partly dissolved. 

2. It occurs imbedded m rock-salt at Yillarubia, Spain ; like- 
wise in Aussee, in Upper Austria. 

The foUowmg earthy and alkaline salts are but little known* 

*From brWtM dense (hetT^r.) 



Colour white, yellowish or grayish. Streak white. 

Transparent...translucent. Rather brittle. Lustre vitreous, 

incliniDg to resinous. Hardness 2.6. — 3.0. 1.73. 

Taste saline, bitter, disagreeable. 

1. It consists of Sulphuric acid, 45.93. 

Potash, 54.07. Berzdius. 

It occurs at Mount Vesuvius. 

2. BLffiDITE. Leonhard. 
Sulphate of Magnesia and 8§da, 

Colour between flesh-red and brick-red. Translucent, 
becoming white by decomposition. Lustre vitreous, faint. 
Structure fibrous. Fracture splintery, soft, massive, com- 
posed of thin columnar concretions. 

1. It is composed of Sulphate of magnesia, 36.66. 

Sulphate of soda, 33.34. 

Muriate of soda, 22.00. 

Water, 0.34. Johns. 

It occurs at Ischel, in Upper Austria, along with prismatic 
gypsum, and polyhalite. 

3. POLYHALITE.* Stromeyer. 

Colour smoky and pearl-gray, brick or flesh-red, from 
the presence of iron. Lustre resinous or pearly. Brittle. 
Fracture splintery. Structure columnar, compact. Hard- 
ness 3.6. — 4.0. Sp. gr. 2.77. The compact variety yields 
a cleavage parallel to the planes of a cube. Taste saline 

and bitter. 

1. In the flame of a candle it melts into an opake globule. 
When exposed to air it is slightly efflorescent. It consists, ac- 
cording to Stromeyer, of 

Sulphate of potash, 27.70. 
Anhydrous sulph. lime, 44.74. 
Do. magnesia, 20.63. 
Muriate of soda, 0.19. 

Water, 5.95. 

Peroxide of iron, 0.38. 

Fvon Um Grtek, iigBifyiii|; muj itltt. 




JiUraU of Soda. Mariano de Rivero. Ann. del Mines. 

Colour white. Streak white. Transparent. Rather sec* 
tile. Fracture conchoidal. Surface smooth. Lustre vitre- 
ous. Hardness 1.6. — 2.0. Sp. gr. 2.09. Taste bitter and 
cooling. It has a perfect cleavage parallel to the planes of 
the rhombohedron of 106° 33'. 

1. When thrown on burning coals it deflagrates, but not so 
actively as prismatic Nitre-salt By friction it acquires strong 
negative electricity. Efflorescent when exposed to air. It is 
soluble in three times of its wei^t of water at 60^. 

2. It occurs, according to Mariano de Rivero, in beds of 
clay, in Peru, near the seaport of Yquique, which are said to 
extend more than fidy miles. It sometimes appears in efflor* 
escences on the surface of the earth. 

6. GAY LUSSITE. BousringauU. 

Colour white. Transparent...translucent. Opake by de- 
composition. Brittle, and easily reduced to powder. Lustre 
vitreous. Hardness 1.6. — 2.0. Sp. gr. 1.92, — 1.95. 
Fracture conchoidal. It possesses double refraction in an 
eminent degree* Taste alkaline, mild. 

1. Gay Lussite decrepitates before the blow-pipe and melts 
into an opake globule. In nitric acid it dissolves with efler- 
vescence, and if left to partial spontaneous evaporation, crystals 
of nitrate of soda are formed which float in a Solution of nitrate 
of lime. It occurs disseminated in clay in several places in 
Colombia, S. A. It resembles Selenite. 


Colour white, yellowish-white or grayish-white. Taste 
bitter and pungent. Form prismatic, or undetermined. 

1. It occurs in silken tufts, or in delicate needles, or in a 
pulverulent form. Deliquescent When thrown on burning 
coals it emits slight detonations somewhat similar to nitre. 
Soluble. It is found on old walls from decomposition, or on 
calcareous rocks in the vicinity of which animal matter has de- 

YITlaiOL SALT. 61 


Green VUriol, Suljthate of Iron. Phil. C. 

Colour green, yellowish-greeia. By partial decoinpou- 
tion it becomes yellowish- white. Streal( white. Brittle. 
Hardness 2.0. Taste astringent, metallic. Primary form 
an oblique rhombic prism. P on M, or M' 59^ 2(y. M 
pn M' 82^ 20'. Brooke. 

The compound varieties are stalactitic, botryoidal and 
reniform; and sometimes pulverulent 

1. It consists of Protoxide of iron 96, one p. 

Sulphuric acid 40, one p. 
Water 54, six p. 

Those varieties which are of a yellowish-white, are anhydrous. 
' Green vitriol is easily soluble in water, and the solution becomes 
black on being mixed with a solution or tincture of galjs. 

2. This salt, in most cases, is the product of decomposition ; 
hence it occurs in connexion with iron pyrites. The sulphur of 
the pyrites taking oxygen from the atmosphere is converted into 
sulphuric acid, wad acting on the oxide of iron produces the-salt 
in question. 

This fact has taught us to manufkcture this article extensive- 
ly in those places where its elements are found. 


Blue Vitriol. Sulphate of Copper, Phil. C. 

Colour sky-blue, in different degrees or shades. Streak 
white. Semi-transparent... translucent. Opake by partial 
decomposition. Fracture conchoidal. Primary form an 
oblique rhombic prism. Cleavage imperfect, in the direc- 
tion of the planes M and T. Hardness 2.6. Sp. gr. 2.21. 
Taste astringent and metallic. 

Blue vitriol, like the preceding salt, is the result of decom- 
position, and of course occurs in the vicinity of those metallic 
deposits which contain its elements, as the pyramidal Copper 
pyrites. It consists of 


Oxide of coppery 32.14. 
Sulphuric acid, 31.30. 
Water, 36.30. Berzdius. 

This salt when moistened and rubbed on polished uron leaves a 
trace of metallic copper. 
It is used in dyeing and in printing cotton and linen, &c. 


mUe Vitriol Pritmatie Vitriol- ScUt Mohs. 
Sulphate of Zinc. Phil. C. 

Colour white. Streak white. Transparent...translucent« 
Brittle. Lustre vitreous. Hardness 2.0 — 2.6. Sp. gr. 
2.03. Taste astringent, metallic. It crystallzed in four, 
sided rectangular prisms. Primary form, right rhombic 

Compound varieties are reniform, botrvoidal and sta- 

lactitic. Sometimes granular, passing into an impalpable 


1. It consists of Oxide of zinc, 27.5. 

Sulph. acid, 20.0. 
Water, 50. Klaproth. 

7he sulphate of zinc, or white vitriol of commerce, is produced 
ih the same way as the sulphates of iron and copper. It is em- 
ployed as an active emetic in medicine ; but its principal use 
is in dyeing. 


Sulphate of Cobalt. Phil. 

Colour pale rose-red. Semi-transparent...translucent. 
Lustre vitreous. Form prismatic. Taste astringent. 

Compound varieties are coralloidal and stalactitic j 


It is soluble in water. To borax, before the blow-pipe, it 
communicates a blue colour. It consists of 

Oxide of cobalt, 38.71. 
Sulph. acid, 19.74. 

Water, 41.55. Kopp* 

It occurs in the rubbish of old cobaltic mines. 


GTP9UM« -Si 


Colour emerald-green. Lustre vitreous, transparent.'., 
opake. Brittle. Soluble in water, and is said to crystal* 
ize in flat prisms. 


Colour bright sulphur-yellow. Friable and partly solu- 
ble in water. 

The two last species occur in the Uranium mines at Joa- 
chimsthaL in Bohemia. 




* Axifrangiblt Gypsum. Jam^ 
Sulphate of Lime. Phil. C. 

Colour generally white, sometimes inclining and pass- 
ing into flesh-red, ochre-yellow, smalt-blue, and gray of 
difierent shades. Impure varieties, dark-gray, brick red 
and tinged brownish-red. Streak white. • Transparent... 
translucent. Sectile. Hardness 1.5. — 2.0. The lowest 
degree on the plane P. Sp. gr. 2.31. Thin laminae 
flexible but not elastic. Lustre pearly. Primary form a 
right oblique angled prism. Cleavage perfect, parallel to 
the plane P. Inclination of PonMorT90°. M on T 
113^ 08'. 

Compound varieties numerous ; consisting of granular, 

fibrous, compact and earthy forms^ The white compact 

variety is the alabaster; the ^fibrous variety possesses a 

pearly lustre, and passes into coarse columnar. 

1. Gypsum before the blow-pipe exfoliates and melts into 
a white enamel, which after a few hours falls to powder. With 
a smaller particle of fluor than of gypsumi it fuses easily and 

• 5» 

fi;4 orrwn' 

combines, and the comj^aond is converted into a colourless 
transparent bead, which on cooling assumes the appearance of 
8 white enamel. Berzdius. 

Gypsum is composed of 

Lime 28^ one p. 

Sulph. acid 40, one p. 
Water 18, two p. nompeon. 

The compound varieties sometimes contain a few per cent 
of carbonate of lime, iron, &c 

2. The crystalized Tarieties occur mostly disseminated in 
argillaceous deposites ; thej are thus found near Hudson, in' 
the state of New- York. 

3. The compound varieties of this species form beds in secon- 
dary deposites. These beds are quite limited in length and 
breadth. Its associations are with the compact limestone and 
sandstone, as principal deposites ; and with rock salt and marly 
clay as accompanying deposites. These deposites contain or- 
ganic remains of extinct species of terrestrial quadrupeds, as 
at Montmartre, near Paris. 

4. Gypsum is found abundantly in Nova-Scotia, large quan- 
tities of which are imported into the United States ; it occurs 
also at Niagara, near the falls, and at Manlius and Lockport, 
in the state of New- York. 

5. Gypsum is employed in the manufhcture of artificial mar- 
ble, stucco w<»:k, and hard mortar or finish. The finest white 
variety is employed in sculpture, under the name of alabaster. 
Ground and spread on certain soils it is highly valuable as a 


Prismatic Gi/psum, or Anhydrite. Jam. 
Anhydrous SuiphcUc of Lime, C. 

Colour generally white, sometimes ash-gray, flesh-red, 
violet, smalt, an(| pale sky-blue. Streak grayish-white. 
TFanslucent...opake. Brittle. Lustre of the crystalized 
Tarieties more distinctly pearly than vitreous. Hardness 
S.O — 3.5. Sp. gr. @.89. Cleavagie parallel to the planes 
of a rectangular prism, differing but little from the cube. 
'Most distinct and easy parallel to P. 




P ooMorT 

9(P 0', 


Mon T 


Mon d 

140 4 

T oa d 

129 66 

Compound varieties. — ^These admit of the same dis- 
tinctions as those under axifrangible gypsum. The con- 
fused crystalized variety is usually called sparry anhy- 
drite. It is composed of plates either parallel or contort- 
ed. Others Kte fibrous^ granular and compact — ^in the lat- 
^ter the fracture is splintery. 

1. The anhydrite before the blow-pipe does not melt distinct- 
ly, but becomes coated with a white friable enamel. It con- 
fiv&% according to ThompsoUi of 

Lime 28, one p. 

Sulphuric acid 40, one p. 

It sometimes contains one per cent of muriate of soday from 
which circumstance it has been called muriacite. 

2. The geological relations of the anhydrite are the same as 
in the preceding species. The different varieties may be found 
at Lockport, in the state of New-York ; and generally in the 
geodiferous lime-rock, associated with calc. and pearl spar, 
yellow blende, &c. The varieties which are compact, possess 
a firm composition, and are polished for various ornamental 
purposes. It is sometimes called vulpinite ; a small per cent 
of silex is usually found in it. 


Cryolite. Phil. 
Prismatic Cryone. Jam. 

' Colour white, sometimes verging upon red or yellow- 
ish-brown. Translucent. ..opake. Hydrophanous. Lustre 
vitreous, inclining to pearly. Brittle. Hardness 2.6. — 
8.0. Sp. gr. 2.96. Cleavage perfect, parallel to all 
the planes of a rectangular prism. 

Compound varieties. — ^Massive. Composition coarsely 

56 FLUOR. 

Cryolite consists of 

Alumioei 21.0. 

Soda, 32.0. 

Fluoric acid and water, 47. 
Before the blow-pipe on charcoal, this mineral fuses into a 
transparent globule, which becomes opake on cooling. With 
borax it fuses into a transparent glass, and when cold it be- 
comes milk-white. 

It occurs at West-Greenland, and is yet a scarce substance. 
It is geologically connected with gneiss, or slaty granite. 


Rhomboidal AlumSlont. Jam. 
Jilum-Stone, Phil. 

Colour white, sometimes reddish or grayish. Streak 
white. Transparent.. .translucent. Brittle. Hardness 5. 
Sp. gr. 2.64. Lustre vitreous, inclining to pearly, upon 
the more distinct faces of cleavage. Primary form an 
obtuse rhomboid of the following dimensions : 
' PonF 92°50'. P,on F or P" ST^ir. 

The obtuse solid angles are sometimes replaced. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it first decrepitates : by a continu- 
ance of the' blast a sulphurous gas is emitted. If it is now 
placed on the tongue it imparts a strong taste of alum, {f the 
heat is continued till the sulphurous odour ceases, it does not 
melt, but becomes insipid. 

It consists of alumine, 39.65 ; sulphuric acid, 35.49 ; potash, 
10.02 ; water and loss, 14.83. 

It occurs in a secondary rock at Tolfa. 

It is used in the manufacture of alum, and the superior 
quality of that produced at Tolfa is ascribed to the employ- 
ment of this mineral. Mohs. 



Fluor, Fluate of Lime, Pbil. C. 

Colour generally violet-blue or emerald and pistachio- 
green, rose-red and crimson-red ; rarely white or blacks 
Streak white. Transparent.. .translucent. Brittle. Hard- 
ness 4.0. 3.14. Lustre vitreous. Cleavage 
perfect^ parallel to the planes of the regular octahedron. 







Compound varieties. — ^Massive. Composition coIum« 
nar or coarsely fibrous, passing into compact, with a flat 
conchoidal fracture. Columnar varieties rarely curved. 
Colours oflen appear in zones. 

1. Octahedral fluor consists of 

Lime 28, one p. 

Fluoric acid 16, ^ne p. 
or a compound of 1 atom of fluorine lO.-f-l atom of calcium 20. 

Before the blow-pipe Jluor decrepitates and melts into an 
opake globule. Its powder effervesces when thrown into 
warm sulphuric acid, and the vapour which escapes possesses 
the property of corroding glass. 

Most varieties phosphoresce when placed on a hot shovel. 
Those specimens which exhibit a bright-green colour, are 
called chlorophanes, 

2. Fluor never forms a part of the rocky strata. It i« usu- 
ally associated with deposites of lead, zinc and silver, both in 
beds or veins. It is found in all the rock formations, as primi- 
tive, transition and secondary. Most of the countries in Eu- 
rope produce the different varieties of fiuor. 

3. Jt is found green at Putney, Vt. ; purple at Southamp- 
ton, Mass. and white or colourless at various places in the 
geodiferous lime rock in New-York, and perfectly black in 
the county of Genessee, N. Y. 


Rkombohedral Jipaiite. Jam. 

Apatite, Phosphate of Lime, Phil. C. 

Colours white, yellow, gray, red and brown. Fre- 
quently violet-blue, mountain-green, or asparagus-green^ 



Transparent..«translucent. Lustre vitreous, inclining to 
resinous. Brittle. Hardness 5.0. Sp. gr. 3.22. Cleavage 
imperfect and difficult, parallel tQ the planes of a regular 
hexahedral prism, which is considered as the primary 
form. This prism is often terminated by six-sided pyra- 
mids. In the anViexed figure the pyramid is incomplete. 

M 6n P 90° 

M on M 120 

X on P 140 47' 

X OQ M 129 13 Treott, 

Compound varieties, — These belong in part to the imi- 
tative forms,, as the globular, reniform and the imperfectly 
columnar. It is sometimes massiVe, and then the com- 
position is granular, either coarse or fine, and passing into 
an impalpable powder. 

1. Rhombohedral Fiuor consists of 

. Lime 28, one p. 

Phosphoric acid 28, one p. 
It dissolves slowly in nitric acid without efiervescence. Some 
varieties phosphoresce on hot coals. When exposed to a krong 
heat on charcoal, the corners of the fragment are rounded, but 
it does not melt without addition. 

2. This substance belongs to the older rocks, as granite 
gneiss and mica slate. The hexahedral prism truncated on 
the terminal edges, as in the figure, occurs at Chester, Ms. and 
at St. Anthony's nose, near New- York. It may also be found, 
though it is scarce, in most of the granitic veins in N. England. 

Phosphate of lime occurs too at Topsham, Me. West 

Marlborough, Chester co. Pa. at West Farmsi at WarWick# 
Orange ca N. Y. and at MUford Hills, Ct. 

Herderite, 'Haidinger. 

Colouryellow or greenish-white. Streak white. Trans- 
lucent. Lustre vitreous, inclining to resinous. Brittle. 
Hardness 5.0. Sp. gr. 2.98. 

1. Prismatic fiuor occurs in the tin mines of Sazon^i asso- 
ciated with octahedral floor. (Rare.) 



Prismatic Limettoni, Arragonite. Jam. 
Arrdgoniit, Phil. C. 

Colour white, sometimes passing into gray, yellow, 
mountain-green and violet-blue. Lustre vitreous, as observ- 
ed on cleavage*planes, or cross-fracture. Transparent... 
translucent. Streak grayish-white. Brittle. Hardness 
3.5—4.0. Sp. gr. 2.93. Doubly refractive. Yields td 
cleavage parallel to the planes of a right rhombic prism . 
of 1160 5'and68o65' 

Compound varieties. — ^They are commonly composed 
of individuals, disposed in coralloidal and columnar 
forms ; the former are beautifully white, and come principal- 
ly from Eisenerz in Stiria, and Huttenberg in Carinthia. 
The latter occur not only in parallel columns, but likewise 
in radfated masses ; in both cases the individuals vary much 
in size. Some are large while others are so small as to 
be discerned with difficulty. 

1. Arragonite is composed, according to Stromeyer, of 
Carbonate of Ume, ^ 95.29—99.29. 
Carbonate of strontian, 0.50 — 4.10. 

The latter substance is not constant, but it is remarked that 
the purest varieties contain it in the greatest proportions. To 
th6 presence of carbonate of strontian is attributed the peculiar 
crystalline form of arragonite. But it appears from recent in. 



vestigations in crystallography^ that simple bodies are capable 
of assuming at least two distinct forms ; hence it may be mfer- 
red that the presence of strontian does not modify the dimen- 
sions of the simple forms of this substance. Notwithstanding 
the relation which prismatic lime-haloide bears to rhombohedral 
lime in chemical composition, it is still, for good reasons, con- 
sidered a distinct species. Its form, hardness, and specific 
gravity, vary essentially from rhombohedral lime. 

2. Prismatic Lime-haloide occurs at Weir's cave, Va. Suck- 
asunny mine, N. J. Ball's cave, and Foxe's creek, Schoharie 
CO. N. Y. The coralloidal variety is sometimes found in the 
geodiferous lime rock in the state of N. Y. 


Limestont. Jam. Carbonate of Lime. Phil. C. 

Colour of the pure varieties, white. Impure and mixed 
varieties, different shades of gray, red, green, yellow, and 
sometimes dark-brown and black. Streak white and gray- 
ish-white. Transparent.. .translucent. Lustre vitreous. 
Double refraction, very distinct and easily observed. Brit- 
tle. Hardness 3.0. 2.72. Cleavage perfect, parallel 
to the planes of a rhomboid of the following dimensions : 
Obtuse angles, or P on P' or P" 105^ 5'. Acute angles 
740 55'. 

Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig, 3. 

Fig. 1 . The primary foim, which if an obHifa ihoBiboid. 

Fig. 2. A regular hexahedpal pritm formed 1^ <t|e onuMioii of a liogle row 
tifoBrticles along the lower edget of the rbomb. 

Fig. 3. is a dodecahedral citsuI, formed by thu oraiMton of two rowf of 
particles along the same ed^es as in the precedug fignre. 

Count Bournoo has deicnbed 56 modi&caiioBi of the rhomboid of ctrbonato 
of lima, and other miiiendogiiti haTopaatly increaaed the munber. 

LIME* 61 

Compound massive vamftet.-— They have a composition 
both granular and compact. Individuals, in some instan* 
ces, are sufficiently large to exhibit the internal structure 
of the species. In others, they are so small as to become 
imperceptible ; the mass then assumes a compact structure, 
and is known under the name of compact limestone. 
Other compositions are columnar. When the individuals 
are thin and closely aggregated, the mineral is known 
under the name of satin spar^ or fibrous carbonate of lime. 
Under favorable circumstances the external forms are 
imitative, as sialacticaly tuberose, hotryoidal, and co- 
ralloidal : surfaces rough and dull, frequently dj;vsy, 
and internally they are made up of distinct layers, either 
parallel, curved or divergent. . 

1. Carbonate of lime burns to quick-lime before the blow- 
pipe, and effervesces with the mineral acids. It consists of * 

Carbonic acid 22, one p. 
Lime 28, one p. 

2. Rhomboh6dral Lime-hak>ide is distributed extensively in 
nature, and in such great quantities that it composes l-5th of 
all the rock formations. Sometimes it forms considerable 
masses or beds in other rocks. The white granular varieties 
belong to primitive formations, while the dark compact belong 
to the transition and secondary formations. Several other va- 
rieties of limestone form extensive deposites, and are distin- 
guished by particular names — thus, Oolite or roe-stone^ con- 
sists of roundish grains which internally exhibit columnar in- 
dividuals, disposed like the radii of a sphere. Pea-stone^ or 
pisolite^ resembles in form and composition the oolite, but each 
globule is formed around a particle of sand. Chalk is a spe- 
cies of compact limestonis whose particles possess only a fee- 
ble coherence. Rock-milk^ or agaric mineral, has considerable 
resemblance to chalk, but the particles are much more loose 
and friable. Calcareous tufa, is a recent deposite from the 
water of springs, which contain carbonate of lime in solution. 
Swinestone, marl apd bituminous limestone, are mixed and im- 
pure varieties of rhombohedral Lime. 

3. Several of the preceding varieties are extensively used 
for various purposes. Those employed in sculpture and oraa. 


62 LtMC 

mental architecture, are galled marbles. These are prized and 
valued according to pureness, colour, translucency, and tbe 
size and aggregation of their particles. When polished they 
form tlie most durable of all materials for sculpture and build- 
ing. A peculiar fine grained "variety is employed in forming 
plates for lithographic printing. Carbonate of lime when free 
from intermixture of siliceous particles, forms good quick-lime 
by burning. It is likewise useful as a flux, for smelting the 
ores of iron. When burned into quick-lime it enters into the 
composition of mortar. It forms for some soils a valuable ma- 

1. Sub- Species, Argentine. 

Colour pure while ; sometimes greenish or reddish. Trans- 
lucent.. opake. It is composed of thin slaty individuals which 
are geberally undulating or curved. Surfaces smooth, or dru- 
sy. The slaty particles often intersect each other so as to form 
cavities, which are often. studded with crystals of rhombohedral 
quartz. Lustre pearly, eminent. 

It occurs in beds and veins in primitive rocks. In Goshen 
and Southampton, Mass. it is found in granite. 

2. Aphrite. Jam, 

Colour white. Streak white. Lustre pearly. Cleavage mo- 
notonous. Composition granular, scaly, slightly coherent. 
Opake. Feels soft. Soils a little. Hardness 0.5. — 1.0. Sp. 
gr. 2.53. 

1. Effervesces in the mineral acids and completely dissolves. 
When friable, it absorbs water readily. 

It consists of lime, 5L50. 

Carboriic acid, 39.00. 
Silex, 5.7L 

Oxide of iron, 3.28. 
Water, I.OO. 


Bitter 8par. Ptarlsjiar, ^Dolomite, 
Magnesian Limestone, Phil. C. 

Colour seldom pure white except the compound granu^ 
lar varieties, but generally inclines to red or green. Streak 
grayish-white. Semi-transparent... opake. Brittle. Hard- 

• From makrot, long, and tupos, die form. 

LIME. 63 

Bess 3.5. — 4.0. Sp. gr. 2.88. Cleavage perfect, parallel 
(o the planes of a rhomboid of 106^ 15'. 

Compound massive varieties* — They are usually granu- 
lar, individuals often sufficiently large to exhibit the struc- 
ture of the species. Forms sometimes imitative, as glob- 
ular, botryoidal and fruticose, whose surfaces are often 
drusy. Composition rarely columnar; when columnar, 
the variety is called miasite. The granular variety is 
known under the name of dolomite^ and is often friable, 
or only slightly coherent. 

• 1. Macrotypous Lime-haloide, is a carbonate of lime and 
magnesia. The relative quantity of its elements are found to 
vary. According to Klaproth it consists of 30.56 lime, 22.18 
magnesia, 47.26 carbonic acid ; hence it consists of two atoms 
of carbonic acid, one atom of lime, and one atom of magnesia. 
2. The present species is soluble in the mineral acids with 
effervescence, but not so rapidly as the preceding species. 
Before the blow-pipe it often assumes a darker colour, and be- 
comes harder. It phosphoresces by friction with hard bodies, 
with a yellowish-white light. 

Dolomite occurs abundantly in nature ; it enters extensively 
into rock-formations and frequently prevails ovei^ extensive dis- 
tricts. It is easy to mistake it for the granular variety of rhom- 
bohedral lime. It is more frequently associated with talcb8$ 
date, steatite, serpentine, Sfc, It occurs in Middlefield, Cum- 
mington, Williamstown, Pittsfield, Adams, Windsor, Hins- 
dale, Sheffield, and Gt. Barrington, Mass. ; Newfane and 
Marlborough, Yt. ; Washington, Milford Hills, and Litchfield, 


Carbonate of Magnesia and Iron. Phil. . 

Colour generally inclinirjg to yellow, also^ white and 
brown, Streakgrayish-wbite. Translucent... opake. Lus- 
ire vitreous, ipcUning to pearly on the faces of cleavage* 
Brittle. Hardness 4.0. — 4.5. Primary form a rhomboh^- 

* From hrachut, short, and liipox, form. 

64 LIHE. 

drofty whose planes incline to each other at angles of 107^ 
22 '. Cleavage perfect. 

^ 1. This mineral is composed of carbonate of magnesia and 
carbonate of iron. According to H. J. Brooke, Esq. it con- 
sists of 1.315 carb. iron, 8.605 carb. magnesia, without a 
trace of lime. 

It is found in the Tyrol, in single crystals of a yellow colour, 
imbedded in talc or chlorite. Phil, This mineral is abundant 
in New Fane and Marlborough, Vt. imbedded in a grayish- 
green steatite. 


Colour white with various tints of gray, red, and brown. 
Streak white. Translucent, often, only faintly* Brittle. 
Hardness 3.5. — 4.0. Sp. gr. 3.08. 

Before the blow-pipe it becomes black, and magnetic. It 
dissolves with brisk effervescence in the mineral acid. The 
colour becomes dark on long exposure to the air. The chem- 
ical constitution of this species is not well ascertained. The 
principal constituents are carbonate of lime and carbonate of 
magnesia. Jt is deposited on mica slate in the Rathausberg in 
Salzburg. ^ 

It forms an excellent addition in the process of smelting iron 



Wavellitt. Sub-photphate ofAlumine, Phil. 

Colour white, passing into several shades of green, 
gray, brown and black. Translucent. Hardness 3.5. Sp. 
gr. 2.3. Primary form a right rhombic prism, M on M' 
about 122° 15'. Cleavage perfect, parallel to the planes 
M and M' and to the longer diagonal. Lustre of those 
planes intermediate between pearly and vitreous. 

Compound varieties consist of implanted globules com- 
posed of thin columnar individuals radiating from a com- 
mon centre. 

* From pttra about, and temnOf I cleara. 

1. Before the blow«ptpe on charcoal it intumeacesy loses its 
crystaline form, and becomes snow-white. Withboracicacid 
and iron it gives a fused product of phosphuret of iron. Bert. 

Wavellite is composed of alumina 35.35, phosphoric acid 
33.40, fluoric acid 2.06, lime, oxides of iron and manganese 
1.75, water 26.60. It was first discovered by Dr. Wavel, in 
or near Barnstable, in Devonshire, Eng. 


Hopeite, Brewster. Trans, R, Soc. Ed, 

Colour grayish-white. Streak white. Transparent... 
translucent. Lustre vitreous. Surface often striate. Re- 
fraction double. Sectile. Hardness 2.5. — 3.0. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it melts easily into a clear colour- 
less globule, which tinges the flame green. Fused with soda, 
it gives a yellow scoria while hot, and copious floccoli of zinc 
and sonie cadmium are deposited near the scoria. The melted 
mineral forms a fine blue glass, with a solution of cobalt. 

2. Hopeite resembles stilbite, for which it had been mista- 
ken. It is considered as a compound of some of the stronger 
acids, as phosphoric or boracic acid, zinc and an earthy base, 
with a little cadmium and a large quantity of water. 

It has been found only at the calamine mines of Altenberg, 
near Aix-la-chapelle. (Rare.) 

The following species have not as yet received scientific 
names ; their places in the systematic arrangement of minerals 
are not satisfactorily determined, and some of them are but 
little known. 


Carbonate of Magnttia. 

Colour white, grayish or yellowish white. Opake, or 
only feebly translucent. Lustre pearly or dull. Hard- 
ness ranges between 1. — 3.9. Sp. gr. 2.8. 

Compound varieties. — Long capillary crystals, either 
parallel or diverging ; sometimes in mamillary concre- 
tions, whose surfaces are covered with delicate crystaline 


tufts. Massive vafieties vtt granidar and compttctj often 
passing into pulverulent, impalpable. 

1. In the mineral acids it dissohres with eflbrresoence and 
forms soluble compounds, which are usually bitter. 
It consists of Magnesia 20^ one p. 

Carbonic acid 22, one p. 
Water 27, thre^ p. 

It is found at Hoboken, N. J. in horizontal veins, traversing 
a soil serpentine* 

Rotdiie Levy. Ann. of Phil, ilvii. p. 4, 39. 
Edinburgh Jour, of Science, toI. ii. p. 177. 

Colour deep rose-red. Streak white. Translucent, 
flardness 3.0. Primary form a right rhombic prism. 
Cleavage perfect, parallel to the plane P. 

1. Before the blow-pipe, it gives off water and becomes 
black. .To borax and salt of phosphorus it imparts a fine blue 
colour. In muriatic acid it dissolves without residue. 

Roselite is composed of cobalt, lime, arsenic acid and mag- 
nesia, in proportions not well determined. 

FluellUe of Wallaston. Levy. Ann of Phil. Oct. 1824, p. 241. 

Colour white. Transparent. 

1. It occurs in minute crystals which affect the form of a 
scaline four-sided pyramid, with most of its acute solid angles 
replaced. It is associated with the Wavellite from Cornwall. 

Okildrenite. Brooke. Brande's Q. J. v. ivi. p. 274. 

Colour yellowish- white, wine-yellow, ochre-yellow and 
pale yellowish-brown. Streak white. Translucent. Lustre 
vitreous, inclining to resinous. Fracture uneven. Hard- 
ness 4.5—6.0. According to Dr. Wollaston, it is a com- 
pound of phosphoric acid, alumina and iron. (Rare.) 

Antniate of Lime. Pliil. 

Colour white. Translucent... opake. Lustre vitreous. 
Pearly in the thin columnar particles. Sectile. Very soft. 
Sp. gr. 2.64 Klaprotk 


Compdund varieties occur in globular, reniform and 
botryoidal masses, which are composed usually of thin co- 
lumnar particles. * Sometimes it occurs in the form of ao 
impalpable powder. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it emits an arsenical odour, and 
melts with difficulty into a white enamel. It dissolves with 
efiervescence in nitric acid. It consists of 

Lime, 25.00. 

Arsenic Acid, 60.54. 
Water, 24.46. 

2. It is found at Andreasberg in the Hartz. The picro- 
pharmacolite of Stromeyer, differs from the above incontainipg 
about three per cent of magnesia and a trace of cobalt. 


H.=3.6— 4 5. 
G.s=3.3— 3.9. 


Sparry Iron, Jam. 

Spathott Iron. Carhonate of Iron. Phil. C. 

Colour various shades of yellow, passing into ash and 
yellowish-gray, also into several kinds of yellow,white, red 
and brown, and by long exposure, into black. Streak white. 
Translucent in different degrees. Lustre vitreous, inclin- 
ing to pearly. Brittle. Hardness 3.5,-4.6. Sp. gr. 
3.82. It yields to cleavage parallel to the planes of k 
rhomboid of 107^ and 73^. It often occurs massive, in 
which form there exists a regular composition. 

1. Carbonate of iron consists of 

Carbonic acid 22, one p. 
Protox. ir6n 36, one p. 
Before the blow-pipe it becomes black and magnetic, but 
does not melt. ' It dissolves slowly and with a feeble efferves- 
cpnse in nitric acid. When exposed to air it changes colour 
and disintegrates, diminishes in hardness, and finally passes 
into the form of a dark-brown or blackish powder. 

* From paracbrosist change of colour. 


2. It is fouad acoompanying rhombohedral Lime-baiojde in 
primitive formations. It occurs abundantly at New-Milford, 
Gt. chiefly in foliated masses, but sometimes in the primary 
fi>rm of the species. 

3. Carbonate of iron is a valuable mineral ; large quanti- 
ties of wrought and cast iron are obtained from it. Its great- 
est value however, as an ore of iron, arises from the facility of 
converting it directly into steel. 

Rhomhoidal Red Mangatuie. Jam. 
Carbonate of Manganese, Phil. C. 

Colour rose red, reddish-white and brownish. Lustre 
vitreous, inclining to pearly. Streak white. Translu- 
cent in different degrees. Brittle. Hardness 3.6. Sp. 
gr. 3.69. Cleavage parallel to the planes of a rhomboid 
of 107°. Occurs massive with a granular composition. 
The individuals in this case are sometimes small and even 

1. Carbonate of manganese consists of 

Protoxide of manganese 36, one p. 
Carbonic acid 22, one p. 

The native carbonate often contains silex, oxide of iron and 
lime. It effervesces with the mineral acids. Before the blow- 
pipe its colour is changed into gray, brown and black, and it 
decrepitates strongly, but does not melt Without addition. It 
dissolves in borax, which becomes violet-blue or purple. The 
rose-red varieties on exposure to light and air become paler. 

It occurs in metalliferous veins, associated with the ores of 
copper, silver and lead. 



• G.==3.3--4.6. 


Prismatic Calamine or Electric Calamine, Jam. 
Siliceous Oxide of Zinc. Phil. C. 

Colour yellowish, or grayish-white and light-brown, 
and sometimes greenish and bluish. Transparent.. .trans- 


lucent. Lustre vitreous^ inclining to pearly on the faces 
of cleavage. Brittle. Hardness 5.0. Sp. gr. S.37. 
Cleavage perfect, parallel to the planes of aright rhombic 
prism, which is the primary form. M on P 172° SC. M 
on M' 132^ 85'. 

Compound varieties occur in botryoidal and stalactical 
forms ; composition oilen granular and columnar. Some- 
times it is compact. 

1. When reduced to powder it dissolves in warm sulphuric 
or muriatic acids, and when cold, it forms a jelly. Before the 
blow-pipe alone in the matrass, decrepitates slightly, gives oflT 
water, and becomes milk-white, infusible without addition. 
With borax it fuses into a colourless glass. The silica may 
be made perceptible with a large quantity of salt of phosphorusi 
Phosphorescent by fHction. Remarkably electric by heat. 

2. Siliceous oxide of zinc consists of 

Oxide of zinc 42, one p. 

Silex 16, one p. 

Water 9? one p. 

This mineral belongs principally to calcareous rocks ; it in 
usually associated with blende, carbonate of zinc and sulphu- 
fet of lead. It occurs at the Perkiomen lead mines. Pa. and 
at Franklin, N. J. 


Bhombohedral Calamine, Jam. Carbonate of Zine, 
Calamine. Phil. C. 

Colour white, rarely pure ; frequently gray, green or' 
brown. Streak white. Semi-transparent.. .opake. Lus* 
tre vitreous, inclining to pearly. Brittle. Hardness 5.0. 
Sp. gr. 4.44. Cleavage perfect parallel to the planes of 
a rhombohedron of 107° 40^. 

The compound varieties occur in reniform, botryoidal 
and stalactitic forms. It appears in crystaline coats in- 
vesting other minerals. By decomposition it becomes 



1. Carbonate of zinc consists of 

Oxide of zinc 42, one p< 

Carbonic acid 22, one p. 
it dissolves with effervescence in the mineral acids. Before 
the blow-pipe in the reducing flame, it covers the charcoal 
with zinc fumes, but does not fuse. 

2. Jt accompanies the preceding species, and occurs at the 
same localities. It is found at Franklin, N. J. 


H.=4.0— 4.6. 


Pyramidal Tungsten. Jam. 
Tungstate of Lime, Phil. C. 

Colour generally white, or passing into yellowish-gray, 
orange-yellow, or reddish-brown. Streak white. Semi- 
transparent... translucent. Lustre vitreous, inclining to 
adamantine. Brittle. Hardness 4.0. — 4.6. Sp. gf. 
6.07. Yields to cleavage parallel to the planes of an oc- 
tahedron with a square base. P on P' 100° 40'. P on 
P" 129° 2'. Brooke. Fracture imperfect conchoidal. 

The compound massive variety resembles the carbonate 

and sulphate of lead or barytes. 

1. Pyramidal scheelium-baryte consists of 

Lime, 19.40 

Oxide of scheelium, 80.42 
Alone on charcoal it is infusible. With borax it gives a 
white glass. It generally occurs in those repositories (?) which 
contain tin, topaz, fluor, quartz, &c. It is found at Hunting- 
ton, Ct. 


G.==3.6— 4.7. 


Strontlan, Carbonate of 8trontian, Phil. C. 

Colour asparagus-green, or yellowish-white, Translu*^ 

• From j^« jronnd, aad lemno, I clMre. 


cent. Fracture splintery. Lustre resinous, pearly and 
Titreous. Streak white. Brittle. Hardness S.5. Sp. 
gr. 3.60. Cleavage perfect, parallel to the lateral faces of 
a right rhombic prism ; less perfect parallel to the plane 
P. MonM' 117° 32^ 

Compound varieties have a fibrous structure both paral- 
lel and divergent. Lustre pearly. Seldom granular. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it is infusible except on the surface, 
but the mass becomes white and opake. It intumesces and 
exhibits a brilliant light. During the blast the flame is tinged 
faintly of a purplish-red ; taste of the fragment alkaline. Dis- 
solves with efiervescence in the mineral acids. It consists of 

Protoxide of strontium 62, one p. 
Carbonic acid ' 22, one p. 

2. This mineral occurs in metallic, veins traversing primi- 
tive and transition mountains, in company with hexahedral 
Lead-glance, prismatic Hai-baryte, arsenical pyrites, quartz, 
&c. (Rare.) 


Rhomboidal Bafyie or Witherite. Jam. 
Carbonate of Barytes, Phil. C. • 

Colour generally yellowish-white, approaching orange- 
yellow, grayish, greenish and rarely reddish-white. Semi- 
transparent... translucent. Streak white. Lustre vitre- 
ous and shining. Brittle. Hardness 3.0. — 3.5. Sp. gr. 
4.30. Fracture uneven. Cleavage imperfect. Primary 
form is supposed to be a right rhombic prism. M on M' 
118° 30'. The ordinary hexagonal prisms probably re- 
sult from the intersection of three of the primary crystals. 

Compound varieties are stalactitic and fibrous, or thin 

columnar, passing into crystals of a bladed form. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it decrepitates slightly and melts 
easily into a transparent bead, which becomes opake on cool* 
ing. It dissolves with eflfervescence in the mineral acids. 


Di-prkiiKitk barjtes connBts of 

. Prot. oxide of barium ?8, one p. 
Carbonic acid 22, one p. 

It occurs in veins traversing the metalliferous limestone and 
flie primitive formations, and most generally associated with 
lead, silver, tin, &c. 

The carbonates of strontian and barjtes are violent poisons. 


Prismatic Bary^t or Htavy Spar, Jam. 
Sulphate of Barytt, Phil. C. 

Colour generally white, sometimes inclining to gray, 
yellow, blue, red, and brown. Transparent...opake. 
Streak white. Lustre vitreous, inclining to resinous. 
Brittle. Hardness 3.0. — 3.5. Sp. gr. 4.44, Cleavage 
parallel to the planes of a right rhombic prism, and to the 
short diagonal. M on M' 101° 42'. 

Compound varieties occur of various imitative shapes, 
as globular, reniform and stalactical. Composition often 
lamellar, sometimes fibrous or thin columnar. The form- 
er variety is known as the lamellar sulphate of barytes and 
the latter as the fibrous sulphate of barytes. It is some- 
times granular, which graduate into impalpable. Less 
important varieties have been described. 

L Prismatic Hal-baryte consists of 

Protoxide of baryum 78, one p. 
Sulphuric acid 40, one p. 

Before the blow-pipe it fuses with difficulty and decrepitates 
if heated suddenly. It decomposes in the interior flame and 
gives sulphuret of barytes, which when moistened, exhales a 
slight hepatic odour. Taste hepatic and pungent. 

2. It accompanies the ores of lead and iron, and frequently 
octahedral fluor. 

The localities of this mineral are numerous. Southhamp- 
ton, Hatfield, Greenfield, Mass. ; Berlin, Farmington, Hart- 
ford, Southington, Ct. ; Little Falls, on the Mohawk, Living- 
ston's lead mine, and Watertown, N. Y. At the latter place, 
in large flesh coloured masses. 




Jtxifrangiblt Burftt, Jam. 

Celeaine. Sulphate of Slrontian, phil. c. 

Colour usually white, passing into blueish-gray, sky- 
blue and smalt-blue. Also reddish-white and flesh-red. 
Transparent... opake. Brittle. Hardness 3.O.— 8.6. Sp. 
gr, S.86. Cleavage perfect, parallel to the planes of a 
right rhombic prism. 



Fig, IJPrimary form. Fig. 2. Salpbate of Strontian, tpoiniec 

M on M 1040 48' 
O on P 128 3 
O on 77 2 
d ond 101 32 

Compouni varieties have a structure both lamellar and 
^raui, thus forming two distinct varieties. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it decrepitates and melts without 
colouring the flame, into a white friable enamel. It consists of 

Protoxide of strontium 52, one p. 
Sulphuric acid 40, one p. 

This mineral is more frequently n^t witii in the secondary 
limestone, sandstone and trap rocks, in globular and laminat- 
•^d masses of various sizes. 

2. It occurs at Liokskport and Moss Island, N. Y. and at 
numerous placed in the same rock formation, associated with 
prismatic gypsum, yellow blende and octahedral fluor. 


Baryto-CalcUc. Brooke. Ann. of Phil. xliv. p. 114. 

Colour white, grayish, yellowish or greenish. Streak 
white. Transparent. ..translucent. Lustrd as observed 

<m, a recent fracture vitreous^ inclining to pearly. Hard- 




ness 4.0. Sp. gr. S.66. Cleavage not very di£ScuIt, 
parallel to M^- perfect parallel to P. 

M on M 106^ 64' 

P on M 102 64 

b on b 96 16 

c on c 146 64 

1. It consists of Carbonate of barytes, 65.9. 

Carbonate of lime, 33.6. Children. 

Before the blow-pipe it does not melt. With borax it gives 
a clear globule. Occurs at ^Alston Moor, in Cumberland, 
Eng. both massive and crystallzed. 

Bary'SirontianiU. Traill. Trans. R. Soc. Ed. vol. ix. p. 81. 

Colour white, yellowish-white, grayish-white after dis. 
integration. Lustre inclining to pearly, faint. Translu- 
cent. Brittle. Hardness 3.5. Sp. gr. 3.70. Massive. 
Composition thin columnar. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it is infusible. Effervesces with 
acids. It consists of 

Carbonate of strontia, 68.6. 
Sulphate of baryta, 27.5. 
Carbonate of lime, 2.6. 

Oxide of iron, 0.1. TraUIf 

2. It occurs in clay slate at Stroniness, in Orkney. A min- 
eral agreeing in many of the characters of the stromnite is 
found in Clinton, near Hamilton college, N. Y. 


H.=s2.6— 4.0. 
G.=6.0— 7.3. 

Di- Prismatic Lead- Spar. Jam. 
Carbonate of Lead, Phil. C. 

Preyailing colour white, passing into yellowiah-gray, 


ash-gray and smoke^gray. Sometimes tinged blue or 
green by the carbonate of copper. Streak white. Trans- 
parent.. .translucent. Brittle. Lustre adamantine. If 
the colours are dark, the lustre is often metallic. Frac- 
ture conchoidal. Hardness 3.0. — 3.5. Sp. gr. 6.46* 
Primary form a right rhombic prism. Cleavage perfect 
parallel to the plane P, M & M' and to the shorter diagonal, 
but liable to be interrupted by the conchoidal fracture. 
M on M' 1 17^. P on M or M' 90°. 

Compound varieties. — Composition granular, passing 
into earthy — the latter is known as the earthy lead spar. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it decrepitates, becomes yellow 
and red, and finally yields a globule of lead. It effervesces in 
the mineral acids and is easily soluble. It consists of 

Protoxide of lead 112, one p. 
Carbonic acid 22, one p. 

2. Occurs abundantly in the different mining districts of 
Europe. In the United States, at the ferkiomen lead mine, 
And near Lancaster, Pa. Also, at Southampton, Mass. 


Rhomboidal Lead'8par, Jam. 
Jlrstniaie of Lead, Photphale of Lead, Phil. C. 

Colour generally green or brown. According to Mohst 
there is an uninterrupted series of colours from various 
shades of white through siskin-green, asparagus-green, 
grass-green, pistachio-green, olive-green, oil-green ; wax- 
yellow, honey-yellow, orange-yellow; aurora-red, hya- 
cynth-red ; pearl-gray and ash-gray. Streak white, some- 
times inclining to yellow. Semi-transparent.. .translu* 
cent on the edges. Brittle. * Hardness 3. 5.— 4.0. Sp. 
gr. 7.09. Fracture imperfect conchoidal. Lustre resin- 
ous. Cleavage parallel to all the planes of the regular 
•ix-sided prism, and also to the planes C C C"j which 
would give a double six-sided pyramid as the primary 

form ; but the prism, being the most simple solid, is se* 
lected as the primary form. 

M OB M 121^ 00' 

P o« M 90 00 ' 

H or M' 00 A' ISO 00 

M OD c' 131 46 

P OB « or c' 138 30 

o'oB e ore" 110 5 

Compovnd varietiei occur in botry oidal, reniiorm and 
Gruticose shapes. InlerDal composition columnar. 

I. Before the blow-pipe it melts by itseifon charcoal and the 
bead aseumea a polyhedral form of a dark colour. If bo- 
rax is added to the pulverised globule, it is partially reduced. 
It dissolves in warm nitric acid without efierreeceDce, 
ItcoosietsofProtoxidei^Lead, 112. 
Phosphoric acid, 28. 
A trace of moriatic acid is usually found. 
Si. It occiva in the vnrioue minijig districts of Engtand, in 
the United Statea. in the Petkiomeo lead imnea, Pa. and at 
SouthaniptfSi, Mase. 

^nie (olloving analysis of sjpecimeiui, coalaininf; arsenic 
acid, exhibits the proportiona of the elements Ibrmiag those 

Ostde of lead, 77.60—77.60. 
Phosphoric acid,. 7.50—00.00. ■ 

Arsenic acid, 13.00—19.00. 
Mwialic acid. 1.00—01.63. 

Pnmaaiie Ltad-Spmr. Itta, 
ChTumoit 9f Uad. Fhil. C. 
Colour various shades of hjacinth-red. Streak orange- 
yellow. Translucent. Sectile. Lustre adamantine. 
Hardness S.5.— 3.0. Sp. gr. 6.00. Fracture small con* 
choidal, uneven. Cleavage parallel to alt the planes of 
an oblique rhombic prism of 93° 30' and 86° 30- 

1. BefiH'e the blow'^ipe it crackles and melts into a grayi^ 
slag. With borax it IS partially reduced, and gives, to the flux 
a green colour. 

BARYTEt ff7 

It CQQsistfl of Protoxi^ of lead 112, one p. 
Chromic acid ' 52, one p. 

2. It is found in Siberia in the gold mine of Beresofi in a 
Tein traversing gneiss and mica slate. 


Pyramidal Lead- Spar. Jam. 
Molybdate of Lead. Phil. C« 

Prevailing colour wax-yellow, olive-green, orange-yel- 
low, yellowish-gray and grayish-wliite. Lustre resinous. 
Streak white. Translucent on the edges. Structure per- 
fectly lamellar. Brittle. Hardness 3.0. 6.7. It 
yields to cleavage parallel to the planes of an octahedron 
with a square ,base, and also to the common base of the 
two pvramids. The angle of one face on th^ opposite 
face over the summit is 49^ 45'. The inclination of P 

on P'' or F on F" 131° 16'. PonF99O50'. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it decrepitates, and fuses on char<- 
coal into adarli gray Haass, in which globules of lead are visi- 
ble. With a little borax it forms a brownish glo^buld ; with a 
large quantity, a blue or greenish-biue glass. It consists of 

Protoxide of lead 112, one p. 

Moiybdic acid, containing oxygen 24 72, one p. 
It generally contains 1 or 2 per cent of oxide of iron. 

2. It occurs at the ^Southampton lea2l mine, Mass. and at 
the Pekiomen lead mine. Pa. . 


Tri-Prismatic Lead-Spar, Jam. 
Sulphate of Lead, Phil, and C. 

- - ■ ' * 

Colour yellowish-gray and greenish-white; also yel- 
lowish, smoke and ash-gray. Streak whife. Transpa- 
rent...translucent. Lustre ijidamantine. Brittle. Hard- 
ness 2.5.— 3.0. Sp. gr. 6.29. Structure perfectly lamel- 
lar. It admits of cleavage parallel only to the planes of 
a right rhombic prism, which is therefore the primar/ 

form. M on M' 103° 42'. P on M or M' 90^* 



Campoufid varieUei often granultry of yarions sizes of 

!• Before the blow-pipe it decrepitatesi then melts, and is 
soiili reduced to a metallic state. It consists of 

. Protoxide of lead 113, one p. 
Sulphuric acid 40, one p. 
2. It occurs at the Southampton lead mine, Mass., at Hun- 
tingtOQf Con., and at thePerkiomen lead mine, Pa. 

Sal]^iiUO'iri'Corbonate of Lead. Brooke. Ed. Phil. Joar. 

Colour yellowish-white, passing into various shades of 
gray, green, brown and yellow. Streak white. Trans- 
parent... translucent. Hardness 2.5. Sp. gr. 6.26. Lus- 
tre resinous, inclining to adamantine. Cleavage axoto- 
inous. Primary form an acute rhomboid of 72^ SCK and 
107O 30'. 

Composition of ^ massive varieties lamellar or gran- 

1. Before tiie4>low-pipe it first intumesces and then becomes 
yeMowt but reasmimes a white colour on cooling. It efiferves* 
ees brUddy in nitric actd, but leaves a white residue. 

It occurs at the lead hills j in Scotland, with various other 
ores of lead. 

Brookt, Ed. Phil. Jour. vol. 3. p. 1 17. 

Colour greenish or yeltowish-white. > Streak white.. 
Translucent. Sectlfe. Lustre adamantine, inclining to 
pearly on a perfect face of cleavage. Hardness 2.0. — 2.6. 
Sp. gr. 6.8. — ^T.O. Brooke^ Cleavage in two directions, 
in one more distinct than the other. Primary form a right 
oblique angled prism of 59^ 15' and 120° 45^ Crystals 
minute and indistinct, and variously aggregated. 

1. Before the blow-pipe on charcoal it fuses into a globule 
whidi is white when cold, and is nearly reduced to metalUe 
lead. Bfiervescence in nitric acid scarcely perceptible^ Itcon- 
•ists of 46.9 of carbonate of Jead and 53.1 of sulphate of liead. 



2. It occurs at tbe lead bills is ScotlaiKL 

Brooke. Ed. Phil. Joar. vol 3, p. 117. 

Colour 4eep verdigris-green, inclining to mountain* 
green. Streak greenish-white. Translucent. Lustre 
resinous. Fracture uneven. Brittle. Hardness 2.5. — 3.0. 
Sp. gr. 6.3. It yields to mechanical division parallel to 
the planes and shorter diagonal of a right rhombic prism, 
M on M' 95°. P on AT or M 90°. 

1. It consists of Sulphate of lead, 55.8. 

Carbonate of lead, 92.8. 

Carbonate of copper, 11.4. 
Occurs at the lead hills, Scotland. 

Brooke, Add. of Phil. vol. 4, p. 117. 

Colour deep blue, resembling the purest varieties of blue 
carb. of copper. Streak pale, blue. Faintly translucent. 

Britde. Hardness 2.5. — 3.0. Sp. gr. 5.30 5.43. Lus. 

tre adamantine. Cleavage parallel to the planes M and 
T of a right rhombic prism ; perfect, parallel to the for-* 


M on T WBP 45' 

P on M 90 00 

P on T «0 00 

-^ on fi 90 00 

M on d 120 ao 

1. It consists of Sulphate of lead, 74.4. 

Oxide of Copper, 18.0. 

Water, 4.7. H. J. Brooke. 

Occurs at the lead hills, Scotland. 

Comeout Lead, Jam. 

Colour white, exhibiting occasionally pale tints of gray, 

yellow or green. Streak white. Transparent...translu- 

. cent. Lustre * adamantme. Sectile. Structure said to 


be lamellar. Hardness 2.0. Sp. gr. 6.05. It yields to 
cleavage parallel to all the planes of a square prism* 

1. Before the blow-pipe it melts quickly into a yellow glob- 
ule which becomes white, and crystalizes on thepurface while 
cooling. Upon charcoal it is reduced. It consists of 

Oxide of lead, 85.5. 
Muriatic acid, 8.5. 
Carbonic acid, 6.0. 
a. It is said to occur at Southampton lead mine, Mass. as- 
sociated with other ores of lead, fluor and barytes. 

A ntvf ore of Lead, Berzelius. Ana. of Phil. xliv. p. 164. 

Colour yellowish-white, straw-yellow, rose-red, pale. 
Fracture imperfect chonchoidal. Translucent. Lustre 
adamantine. Brittle. Hardness 2.5. — 3.O. Sp. gr. 7.0T. 
Haidinger. Cleavage perfect and easily obtained par- 
allel to a four-sided prism of 102^ 27', with traces in the 
direction of the shorter diagonal* 

1, Before the blow-pipe it decrepitates slightly and isetsily 
melted. The globule becomes a deeper yellow than the miner- 
al. On charcoal it is reduced with fumes of muriatic acid. 
Treated with oxide of copper and salt of phosphorus, the flame 
assumes an intense blue colour. 

2. Occurs near the Mendip hills in Somersetshire, Eng. 


Colout yellowish and reddish-brown, striped. Translu- 
cent. Hardness 4.5. Massive; composition thin columnar, 

1. If rubbed when insulated, it acquires a strong negative 
electricity. Before the blow-pipe it decrepitates and loses its 
water, but is infusible per se. With borax it is not reduced, 
but yields a transparent glass. 

It consists of Oxide of lead, 40.14. 

Alumina, 37.00. 

Water, 18.80. 

Sulphurous acid, 0.20. 
Lime and the oxides of iron and magnesiai 1.80. 

Silica, 0.60. 

2. Occurs in Brittany in clay slate. 



Colour yellowish-gray, faintly translucent. Lustre res* 
inous. Crystals acute, ibur*sided pyramids, much aggre*- 
gated in bunches. 

1, Before the blow-pipe it melts and gives off vapours of 
lead, leaving a crystaline globule of a daik colour and metallic 
aspect, which yields a pale-gray powder. With soda it yields 
a large quantity of globules of lead. 

2. Occurs at 2Knnwald9 in Saxony. 


Colour raries from straw-yellow to reddish-brown. 
Streak white. Brittle. Fracture conchoidal. Lustre 
resinous. It is scratched by the knife. Sp» gr. 6.99 — 
7.83. Primary form and cleavage unknown; Crystal- 
izes in six-sided prisms. 

1. Heated to redness in a platina crucible, it decrepitates 
and becomes orange yellow, but becomes pale as it coojfi. If 
kept in fusion, mixed with charcoal, it becomes steel-gray and 
globules of lead soon appear in the mass. Sulphuric and inu- 
riatic acids decompose it and form solutioas of a green colour. 
With nitric acid a yellow solution is formed. When the latter 
acta upon it, the oxide of lead is first dissolved and the re- 
maining fragments are coated with vanadic acid, which is of a 
reddish cdour and in the form of crystaline grains. 

2. It occurs in two forms — one, is in the form of mamillated 
masses, composed generally of microscopic crystals, but some- 
times large enough to discover their forms, which are six-sided 
prisms. In the other it occurs in an impalpable powder, like 
calamine sprinkled over the surface of other minerals, or form- 
ing on them roundish pisiform masses. Both forms somewhat 
resemblQr.the earthy peroxide of manganese. 

3. It is found at the lead mines of Zimapan, in Mexico, and 
atWanloekhead, Scotland, and at Fahlun, Sweden. 


H=2.5— 3.0. 
G=6.6— '5.6- 

Prismatic White JSiUimonif, Jan. 
Oxidi of Mtimany. Phil. 

Prevailing colour white, also yellowish or grayish* 


white, sometimes peacH blossom-red. Streak white. Semi- 
tran8parent...traDslucent. Lustre adamantine. Sectile. 
Brittle. HardQess 2.5. — S.O. Sp. gr. 5.56. It yields to 
cleavage parallel to the sides of a rhombic prism of 137^ 
43' and ASP 17', but the most distinct cleavage is parallel 
to the shorter diagonal. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it melts very easily and is volatil- 
ized in white fumes. It consists of 

Antimony, 44. 
Oxygen, 6. 
It contains both a trace of iron and silex. 

2. It occurs at Przibram, Bohemia, and at Braunsdorf, in 


H=1.0— 2.0. 


Hexahedral Corneous Silver, Jam. 
Muriate of 8ilver, Horn Silver, PhU. C. 

Colour pearl-gray, passing on the one hand into laven- 
der-blue and violet-blue, and on the other into grayish- 
yellowish and greenish- white, into siskin-green, asparagus, 
green, pistachio and leek-green. When exposed to the 
light it becomes brown. Streak shining. Translucent. 
Lustre resinous, passing into adamantine. Sectile and mal- 
leable. Hardness 1.0. — 1.5. Sp. gr. 5.55* Cleavage 
none. Crystalizes in cubes and acicular prisms* 

Composition of compound varieties granular, passing 
into impalpable. 

1. It melts in the flame of a candle. Before the blow-pipe 
on charcoal it is r^uced, giving off at the same time the va- 
pours of muriatic acid. When rubbed with a piece of moisten- 
ed zinc it becomes coated with a film of metallic silver. 

2. Occurs chiefly in primitive rocks, accompanyinjp; other ores 
of silver. It is most abundant in the silver mines of Potosi, 8. 



It €0081818 of Silver, 67*00. 

Oxygen, 8.00. 

Muriatic acidy 14.76. 
Oxide of iroB, 6.00. 
Alumina, 1.75. 

2. pyramidal' PEARL-EERATE. 

Pyramidal Corneous, Mercury. Jam. 
Muriate of Mercury, Phil. C. 

ColouT yellowish-gray or ash-gray, also yellowish and 
grajrish-white. Streak white. Translucent. Lustre ada- 
mantine* Sectile. Hardness 1.7 — 2.0. Sp. gr. 6.48. 
Crystalizes in .quadrangular prisms terminated by pyra- 

1. B0fi>re the blow-pipe on charcoal it is 'perfectly volatil- 
ized. Soluble in water, from which it is precipitated by lime 
water of an orange colour. 

3. It consists of Oxide of mercury, 88.48. 

Muriatic acid, 11.52. 

It occurs chiefly at Moschellandsberg, in Deuxponts, and 
at Almaden, in Spain. 



H=:2.0— 3.0. 
G=^2.0— 2.2. 


Common Copper-green or Chrysoeolla. Jam^ Pbil. 

Colour emerald green, pistachio-green, asparagus-green, 
passing into sky-blue. The appearance of brown indi- 
cates impurity. Streak white. Semi-transparent...trans- 
lucent on the edges. Hardness 2.0. — 3.0. 

Compound varieties occur in botryoidal and reniform 

shapes. Structure compact and fibrous, with a choncoidal 

fracture. Sometimes earthy. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it becomes black without melting* 
With borax it forms a clear green glass, mixed with particles 

* From MtapkuUi ^ grtpe. Tlie Tarietiei httbtito known ultoHy praieBt 
tMtryoidal formr. 


of reduced copper. It dtssdvcB witk effirvetceace ia nitric 
It consists of Copper, 40.00—42.00. 

Oxygen, 10.00-- 7.63. 

SiUca, 26.00—28.37. 

Water, 17J0O— 17,50. 

Carbonic acid, 7.00— 3.00. 


G«2.8— 3.0. 


JH'Priimatic Olivenite. Jam. 
Octahedral Arnniait of Copper, Phil. 

Colour sky-blue, verdigris-green. Streak similar to 
the colour, paler* Semi-transparent...translucent* Not 
perfectly sectile. Lustre vitreous, inclining to resinous* 
Hardness 2.O.— 2.5. Sp. gr. 2.92. 

It yields to mechanical division, though with difficulty, 
parallel to all the planes erf a rectangular octahedron. P 
on P' 60^ 40^. M on M' 72^ g^^. M on P ISS^ 30'. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it loses its colour and transparency, 
and emits arsenical vapours, and is changed into a friable scoria 
containing white metallic globules. With borax, it yields a 
green globule and is partly reduced. In nitric acid it dissolves 
with effervescence. (Rare.) 
It consists of Oxide of copper, 49.00. 

Arsenic acid, 14.00. 
Water, 35,00, 


Hexahedral Olivenite or Cube Ore, Jam. 
Artenictte of Iron, Phil. C. 

Colour olive-green, passing into yellowish-brown and 
blackish-brown, hyacinth-red, grass green and emerald 
green. Streak olive-green...t)rown, pale. Translucent 
on the edges. Lustre indistinctly adamautiibe* Sectile* 

-^Fnxn/cjhMipiUfaiMil^iitapowdtf. ' 


Fracture-concboidal, uneven. Hardne^S.^. ^•^gr.S.OCK 

It yields to cleavage parallel to the planes o[ the cidbe, 

but difficult and imperfect* 

1. Exposed to a gentle heat, it becomes red. On charcoal, 
before the blow-pipe,, it emits copious arsenical vapors, aqd 
melts in the inner flame into a metallic 8C<»ria, which acts upon 
the magnetic needle. 
- It consists of Oxide of iron, 45.50 

Arsenfc acid, 31.00 
Oxide of copper,. 9.00 
Silex, 4.00 

Water, 10.50 

It occurs in Cornwall, Eng. ' 


H=3.0— 4.a 


Acieular Olivenite, Jam^ 
Right'Prismatic Jirseniate of Copper. Phil. C. 

Colour various shades of olive-greeni passing into leek- 
green, brown and wood-brown. Streak oIive*green 
brown*. Lustre indistinctly adamantine. Translucent, 
opake. Brittle* Hardness 3.0. , Sp. gr. 4.28. 

Compound varieties occur in globular and reniform 
shapes. Surface rough and drusjr. Ccnnposition colum- 
nar ; individuals straight and divergent : granular and 
lamellar: the latter often curved* 

1. Before the blow-pipe it remains unchanged— ^with char- 
coal it melts and is reduced. A white metallic globule is form- 
ed which on cooling becomes coated with the oxide of copper. 
Soluble in nitric acid. 

It consists of the Oxide of copper, 50.62 

Arsenic acid, 45.00 
Water, 3.60 

Occurs in the mines of Cornwall, Eng. 

Pkotphale of Copper* Phil. C. 

Colour dark olive-green. Streak olive-green* Trans- 





lucent on the edgesw Lustre resinous. Fracture conchoi- 
dal. Brittle. Hardness 4.0. Sp. gr. 3.6. — 38. Pri- 
mary form a right rhombic prism of 110° and 70° Cleav- 
age distinct, parallel to the plane P — less distinct parallel 

to M or M'. 

1. Before the blow-pipe on the first impression of heat it fuses 
into a brownish globule, which by further action of the blow- 
pipe it extends on the surface of the*cbarcoal and acquires a 

* reddish-gray metallic lustre ; in the centre is a small globule of 

It consists of Oxide of copper, 68.13 

Phosphoric acid, 30.95 Klaproth, 


H=:3.5— 4.O.- 
G=3.7— 3.9. 


' Blut Copper or Prismatic Malachile. J^m. 
Blue Carbonate of Copper. Phil. C. 

Colour various shades of azure-blue, passing into berlin- 
blue. Streak blue, pale. Translucent on the edges. Lus- 

* tre vitreous. Brittle. Hardness 3,5 — 4.0. Sp. gr. 
3.83. Fracture conchoidal. Structure lamellar. Prima- 
ry form an oblique rhombic prism. Cleavage perfect 
parallel to the planes M & M' and both diagonals ; diffi- 
cult parallel to the plane P, which is usually striated. 

Compound varieties occur in botryoidal, reniform and 
stalactitic shapes, with a composition more or less colum- 
nar. Rarely granular or earthy. 

1. Before the blow-pipe on charcoal it melts and colours the 
glass of borax green in the oxidating flame. 
It consists of Protoxide of copper, 72 one p. 
Carbonic acid, 22 one p. 

Water, 9 one p. 

It is met with in veins accompanying other ores of copper, 
lead and silver. 

It is found at Southampton, Mass. ; Perkiomen lead mines, 
Pa.^ Schuyler^s mines, N. J, 



G=3.2— 3.4. 

Diopiase, Emerald Copper, Phil. C. 

Colour emerald-green, passing into blackish-green and 
verdigris-green. Streak green. Transparent..«translu* 
cent. Lustre vitreous, inclining to resinous. Fracture 
concholdal, uneven. Brittle. Hardness 5.0. Sp. gr. 3.27. 
Primary form an obtuse rhomboid of 126° 17' and 53^43'. 
It frequently occurs in what appear to be elongated rhom- 
bic dodecahedrons. 

1. Before the blow-pipe on charcoal it becomes black in the 
exterior of flame, and red in the interior, without melting. It 
ie soluble in borax, and imparts to it a green colour, m mu- 
riatic acid it dissolves witiiout effervescence. 

2. It consists of 

25.57— Oxide of copper, 55.00 
28.57— Silex, 33.00 

0.00— Water, 12.00 

42.85— Carbonate of lime, 00.00 
Lowitz, Vauqudin, 


H=3.5— 6.0. 
G=3.6— 4.3. 


Prismatic Olivenite or Phosphate of Copper, Jam. 
Hydrous Phosphate of Copper, Phil. 

Colour emerald-green striate with blackish. Streak 

green, pale. Translucent on the edges. Lustre vitreous, 

inclining to adamantine. Brittle. Hardness 4.5. Sp. 

gr. 4. 20. Primary form is considered to be an oblique 

rhombic prism. Cleavage undetermined. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it boils and melts easily into a small 
vesicular metalloidal globule. 

^ From Sbros, delicAte, and ncniot thread. 


It consists of Oxi<le of copper, 66.13— &iM 
Phosphoric acid, 30.95—21.68 
Water, 00.00—15.45 

Klapratk, Lunn. 

It is found at Bono and Yirneberg, on the Rhine. 

Malachite, Jam. 
GrttnGarhonatttfCopftr.'Ph^, C. 

Cdtour grass-^een, emerald-green, verdigris-green. 
Streak green, pale* Translucent on the edges. Lustre 
vitreous, ofteh pearly and adamantine. Brittle. Hard* 
ness 3.5-^4.0. Sp/gr* 4.0. Primary form right thombic 
prism. Yields readily to cleavage parallel to th6 planer 
P and M, With (Kfficdty to T. 

Compound tnzrig^^j are usually divided into compact and 
fibrous malachite; in the fomaer the individuals have dis^ 
appeared from thefir minuteness. The masses are often 
tuberose, globular and botryoidaL Structure thin colum- 
nar. Surfaces often drusy. 

1. Before the:blow^pipe it decrepitates, becomes black and 19 
partly infui^ible^ and partly converted into a black scoria. It 
dissolves easily in borax to which it imparts a green colour, and 
yields a globule of copper. 
It consists of Copper, 58.00 

Oxygen,/ 12.50 

Carbonic acid, 18.00 
Water, 11.50 

. 2. It occurs in the same repositories as the other ores of cop- 
per, especiallyifae Prismatic Aztti^eMaltichife. 

ItisifouodatSoulJbamptOQ, Mass. ; Perkkunen lead mine^ 
Pa. 5 Cheshijre, Ct. 

Fropidrftte of the ^ollo«ring tninerafe are hot suffici^tly 
known to be placed in tfaesystem. 


Pritmatic Ataeamilt, Jam. 
Muriate of Copper, Phil. C. 

Colour olive, leek, grass, emer«M abd blackiiA-greeiu 


Streak apple-^een. Translucent* Rather brittle* Hard- 
ness 3.0 — 3.5. Sp. gr. 4.43 Leonhard. Cleavage per-* 
feet and brilliant parallel to P, less perfect and more diffi- 
cult to obtain parallel to M and M'. Primary form a right 
rhombic prism of 100^ and 80^. 

1. Exposed to the flame of a candle it tinges it blue and 
green. With the blow-pipe it is decomposea with the devel« 
opement of muriatic acid vapours. 

It consists of Oxide of copper, 73 

Muriatic acid, 10 
Water, 16 

It occurs investing some of the lavas of Vesuvius. 

Broehantite. I#evy. Ann, of Phi|. Qct. 1824. p. 241. 

Colour emerald-green. Transparent* Hardness 3.$-^ 

1. It is considered as a compound of sulphuric acid an4 
oxide of copper, containing either an excess of base or silex or 
alumina. Occurs in Siberia. 

Emerald EuehroiU. Haidinger. Ediog. Jour. Science. 

Colour bright emerald-green. Streak pale apple-green. 

Transparent...translucent. Possesses double refraction. 

Brittle. Hardness 3.5. — 4.0. Sp. gr; 3.38. Fracture 

small conchoidal. 

1. Heated in a matrass it loses water and becomes yellowish^ 
gieen, and friable. When heated to a certain point it is suddeiv- 
ly reduced with a kind of deflagration,leaving globules of malle- 
able copper. It occurs at Libethen, in Hungary, in quartzose 
mica slate. Its proper designation is prismatic EmeraU^ala^ 

Malachite f 

Colour sbkin-green, passing into black and yellow. 
Streakyellowish-gray. Lustre resinous. Massive. Frac^ 

ture erexh— uneven. Surface smooth and shining* Com- 



position thiii coltiihimr. ' Occurs ia botryoidal, reniform 
and globtila^ fonkis, and sometimes ih a powder* Brittle. 
Semi-hard and dot heatrjrj' 

1. Before the blow-pipe it becomeB black, or brown, but 
does not melt. Occurs at Schne^b^g; in Saxony. 

Oblique Ptismatic Arteniaie of Copper^ Fbil. 

Colour external blueish-BlacIc, passing into deep black, 
verdigris-green inclining to sky-blue. Streak verdigris- 
green. Traitoparent on the edges. Lustre pearly on the 
cleavage planes. Not very brittle. Hardness 2.5 — 3.0. 
Sp. gr. 4.19. Primary oblique thombic prism of 124° 
and 56^ 

1. Before the blow-pipe it deflagrates and emits arsenical 
vapors. It cboststB of 

Oxide of copper, 54.00 
Arsenic acid, 30j00 
Water, 16.00 

Found only in Gornwedl, England. 


Maldchite f 
^ Martial Aruniate of Copper. Fhil. 

Colour principally leek-green, passing into white, or 
also kitor dive^green and liveir4)rown. Streak white. 
Sei]f)3-.traYlspa):ent...translticeiit on theedges. Lustre vit- 
reous* Brittle. Hardness 3 j5— -4.0. Sp. gr. 3. 1 6. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it emits arsenical vapours and melts 
into a reddish-brown scoria, which acts on the magnet. It 
consists of 

Arsenious acid, . 31.40 

Sulphuric acid, 1.54 

Water, 18.00 

Protoxides iron, manganese, 
lime and magnesia, 47.80 

Occurs in the BrasU and the Cornish mines. 

MieA4 91 

Malachite f 
Chromate of Lead and Copper, 

Colour blackish-green, olive-green. Streak brownish- 
green. Lustre adamantine. Faintly .translucent, with a 
fine green olive tint, opake. Fracture uneven. Rather 
brittle. Hardness 2.5— 3.0. Sp. gr. 5.5— 5.7 Leonhard. 
Occurs in minute crystals, irregularly aggregated, and 
constituting a thin crust. 

Alone before the blow-pipe it intumesces a little and then 
melts into a grayish globule, giving a few globules of lead. 
It imparts a green colour to borax. 
It consists of Oxide of lead, 60.87 

Oxide of copper, 10.80 
Chromic acid, 28.33 
It occurs at Beresof, in Siberia, and also in Brazil. 

Malachite f 

Colour bright smalt-blue. Translucent. Lustre pear-* 
ly. Occurs in short capillary crystals, or velvety druses 
and coatings. Rare. 

Chemical composition unknown. Occurs at Moldawa, in 
the Bannat of Temeswar, with other ores of copper. 


H.=:l .0—2.5. 

Prismatic Copper-Mica. Jam. 
Rhomboidal drseniaie of Copper, Phil. 

Colour emerald-green, grass-green. Streak emerald- Transparent..translucent. Lustre 
pearly. Seqtile. Hardness 2.0. Sp. gr. 2.54. Pri- 
jnary form an acute rhomboid of 110° 30' and 69° 30'. 
Cleavage perfect, perpendicular to the axis of the prism. 

* From eUchloroSf bright, lively green. 



P onP'orP" 1100^' 
FonP" 69 12 

P on a 108 40 

P'orP"ona 128 18 
a on m or m' 124 42 

PhilUps, p. 317. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it decrepitates, and passes, first to 
the state of a spongy scoria ; aAer which it melts into a black 
globule of a slightly vitreous appearance. With borax it af- 
fords a bead of copper. 

It consists of Oxide of copper, 39.00 

Arsenic acid, 43.00 
Water, 17.00 Vauquelin. 

2. It is associated with other ores of copper, particularly 
those of the order malachite. It occurs in the vicinity of the 
copper mines of Redruth, in Cornwall. 


Colour pale apple-green and verdigris-green, inclining 
to sky-blue. Streak apple-green, paler. Translucent on 
the edges. Lustre pearly. Very sectile. Thin laminae 
flexible. Hardness 1.0 — 1.5. Sp. gr. 3.09. Occurs 
reniform and botryoidal. Primary form aa oblique rhom-* 
bic prism. 

It consists of oxide of zinc and copper. Brooke. Occurs 
in the Bannat of Temeswar, and in Derbyshire, Eog, 


Pyramidal Uranite, Jsun. 
Phospkatt of Uranium, Phil. C. 


Colour emerald-green, grass-green, and sometimes leek- 
green, apple-green or siskin-green, lemon yellow, gold* 

MICA* 93 

yellow. Streak corresponds to the colour, but paler. Lus- 
tre pearly. Transparent«.translucent on the edges. Sec- 
tile. Hardness 2.0 — 2.5. Sp. gr. 3.11. Fracturjs not 
observable. Primary form a square prism. It yields to 
mechanical division with remarkable ease, parallel to the 
plane P. It is found crystalized in four, six and eight- 
sided tables. Structure perfectly lamellar. 

1. It consists of Oxide of uraniumi 60.00 

Phosphoric acid, . 16.00 

Oxide of copper, 9.00 

Water, 14.50 

Alone before the blow-pipe it becomes yellow, and loses its 

transparency ; upon charcoal it intumesces and melts into a 

black globule, with traces of crystalization upon the surface ; 

with borax it yields a yellowish-green bead ; in nitric acid it 

forms a yellow solution. 

2. It is accompanied with the ores of copper, tin and urani- 
um. Occurs in Cornwall, and other mining districts in Eu-^ 


G.==2.9— 3.1. 


PrUmatic red Cobalt, Jam. 
Jirteniate of Cobalt, Phil. 

Colour grayish-white, crimson-red ; peach blossom-red 
it sometimes appears by transmitted light. Streak corres- 
ponding to the colour, though a little paler. Powder of the 
dry mineral possesses a deep lavender-blue tinge. Trans- 
parent.,.translucent on the edges. Sectile ; thin laminae 
flexible. Hardness 1.5 — 2.0. Sp. gr. 2.94. Primary 
fbrm a right oblique angled prism. M on T 124^. ' 

1. It consists of Oxide of cobalt 34, one p. 

Arsenic acid 58, one p. 

Water 18, one p. 

Before the blow- pipe it emits abundant fiimes of arsenic^ 
and tinges borax blue. 

94 MtCA. 

2. It occurs principally at Schneeberg and Anoaberg, Sax- 
onyy in primitive rocks. It occurs however, in rocks of all 


G.=2.6— 2.7. 


Prismatic Blue-Iron, Jam. 

Vioianite, Phosphate of Iron, Phil. C. 

Colour various shades of blue and green. Streak blue- 
ish-white, which soon changes to indigo-blue. Powder 
when dry, liver-brown. Transparent...translucent. Sec- 
tile. Thin laminae perfectly flexible. Lustre pearly on 
the face of cleavage. Hardness 1.5—2.0. Sp. gr. 2.66. 
Primary form a right oblique angled prism. Cleavage 
perfect, only parallel to the plane P. Crystals prismatic, 
aggregated and of considerable length ; it sometimes oc* 
curs in reniform and globular masses. Composition often 
impalpable or earthy. 

1. It decrepitates before the blow-pipe, but melts, if first 
reduced to powder, into a dark-brown scoria, which moves the 
magnetic needle. It is soluble in dilute sulphuric and nitric 
acids. Those varieties which are found white in their original 
repositories, soon assume a blue tinge on exposure to light 
and air. It consists of , 

Protoxide of iron, 47.50 
Phosphoric acid, 32.00 
Water, 20.00 

2. This mineral occurs in New-Jersey, in the tertiary for* 
mation, particularly at MuUica Hills, Gloucester co. It is 
found there in cylindrical masses, which are composed inter- 
nally of groups of crystals, radiating from different centres. 
These cylinders are about two inches Long and half an inch in 
diameter, externally incrusted with a brown silicious sand. It 
16 likewise^found ta an earthy form in the same deposites. 

KICA# 05 




H.Tsl.O— 2.0. 
G. =1.8— 2.1. 


Rhomboidal Graphite. Jam. 

Plumbago Graphite, Black Lead, Pbil. C. 

Colour iron-black, light and dark steel-grayi Streak 
black, shining. Opake. Lustre metallic — highest de- 
gree on the faces of cleavage. Sectile. I'hin laminse 
highly flexible. Hardness 1.0 — 2.0. Sp. gr. 2.08 

Compound varieties occur in granular, scaly and com- 
pact forms. Fracture of the granular form uneven. Lus- 
tre glimmering. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it is combustible, and leaves a small 
residue of iron. Infusible. 

Occurs in beds in slaty or primitive rocks, and disseminat- 
ed in the fo|'m of scales. It consists of 

Carbon, 96.00 
Iron, 4.00 Saussure. 

One of the most remarkable mines of this mineral is that 
of Borrowdale, in Cumberland, Eng. It occurs in almost 
every primitive rock. The finest localities in the United 
States are in the vicinity of Lake-George, N. Y. and Sterling, 
Mass. At the latter locality it is nearly as fine as that of Bor- 


H.=1.0— 2.6. 
q,=2.7— 3.0. 


Rhomboidal Mica (in part.) Jam. 

Talc. Green Earth. Chlorite. Phil. C. 

Colour various shades of green, varying from pale to 
very dark-green, greenish and grayish-white. Stregjt 
corresponding to the colour. Translucent in very thin 
ficales. Lustre pearly. Cleavage monotonous. Sec* 
tile and flexible. Hardness 1.0 — 1.5. Sp. gr. 2.71. 

86 MICA. 

Compound varieties occur in stellalar groups, and in 
laminae irregularly aggregated* Sometimes slaty and 
earthy. The more common forms are made up of small 
scaly shining individuals, strongly coherent. The earthy 
or impalpable variety is termed green earth* 

1. Before the blow-pipe some varieties l6se their colour and 
are fused with difficulty ; others are changed into a black sco- 
ria, ^md others are infusibre. It is composed of 

Silex, 62.00 

Magnesia, 27.00 

Oxide of iron, 3.50 

Alumine^ 1.50 

Water, 6.00 

2. Included in the description of Prismatic Talc-mica ore, 
those varieties are known under the . name of Chlorite and 
Talc : the former is subdivided into foliated, slaty and earthy 
chlorite, which are of a dark-green colour : the latter includes 
those varieties which are of a light or pale green colour, arid 
the perfectly white, and is subdivided into common^ earthy and 
indurated tala ^ 

Scaly talcy or JSTacrite, consists of particles which cohere 
but slightly. It is but little known, and is considered by some 
mineralogists as a distinct species. 

3. The more compact kinds of Prismatic Talc-mica possess 
considerable toughness as well as soilness ; properties which 
make them suitable for turning and forming them into vessels 
of various kinds. One variety, from its having been used for 
>coarse pots, has received the name of Pot-stone. Steatite or 
SQapstone cannot be considered as more than a mere variety 

* of Prismatic Talc-mica. It often passes into serpentine, as 
may be seen by inspecting the Middlefield quarry of soap- 
etone ; indeed the quarry itself might be denominated Steatitic 
terpentine, Soapstone very rarely crystalizes j the only 
locality in the United States is that of Middlefield, in a ledge 
of serpentine, in the south part of the town. The crystals are 
i^ot pseudomorpJiousj as some mineralogists have suggested* 

4. Prismatic Talc-mica is abundant. It forms insulated 
]|eds in Talcose Slate on one side and Hornblende on the oth- 
er. Beds of this mineral may be traced through Vermont, . 
some of which may be seen to advantage in Newfane ; and 
across JMassachusetts and Connecticut, nearly in the same 
range. The vicinity of these beds, furnish nearly the same 

HICA. ^7 

smiiierels : the most common are the varieties of hornblendey 
drusy quartz, chrysoprase, chalcedony, epidote, zoisite, sea- 
polite, &c. 

Scal;^ talc or Nacrite has been found in veins of lead. It 
occurs in Middlefield, about one mile west of the church. 
The green mica of Brunswick, Me. is considered as Nacrite. 


Rhomboidal-Mica (in part.) Jam. 
Mica. Phil. C. 

Colour various shades of gray, green, brown and bhck. 
Streak white... gray* Transparent in the direction of the 
axis. Lustre pearly, often splendent or metallic. Sec- 
tile. Thin laminae flexible and elastic. Hardness 2*0 — 
2*5. Edges of the laminse sometimes scratch glassi^ Sp. 
gr. 2.94. Primary form an oblique rhombic prism. 
Cleavage eminent, parallel to P. M on M' 60^ 00\ P 
on M' 98° 40'. P on M 81° 20. 

It occurs in the form of six-sided tables. 

Compound varieties rarely globular or reniform : granu- 
lar form common. Sometimes imperfectly columnar. 

1. Mica before the blow-pipe first loses its transparency 
and then melts into a scoria^ coloured in proportion to the dark- 
ness of the specimen employed* Some micas are infusible. 

It consists of Alumina, 36.80 i 

Silica, 46.36 

Oxide of iron, 4.53 

Potash, 9.22 

Fluoric acid and water, 1.81 Rose, 

2. From the diversity which exists in the optical properties 
of several varieties of mica from different localities, and like- 
wise from the different results obtained by chemical analysis, 
it is plain, that two or more species still exist in the varieties 
oomprehended under the general name of mica. The determi- 
nation of these species can be made only by a correct applica- 
tion of the principles of natural history. 

3. This mineral| enters largely into the composition of most 
of the primitive rock formations, and is an essential constitu- 
ent of granite, gneiss and mica slate. In the coarser granite 
it forms large plates of folia. Beautiful specimens occur in 


99 MCA. 

the Highlands, in tbe state of N. Y. particularly in the town 
of Monroe. 


Colour usually peach-blossom red, sometimes pale, or 
even passing into pale-green. Sp. gr. 2.83. Composi- 
tion generally granular, though sometimes the individuals 
are large and cleavable. ^ 

1. Before the blow-pipe upon charcoal it fuses very easily 
into a transparent globule* 

It consists of Alumine, 33.61 

Silex, 49.06 
Oxide of manganese, 1.40 

Magnesia, 0.41 

Lithia, 3.60 

Potash, 4.18 

Fluoric acid, 3.45 

Water, 4.18 > 

2. The large cleavable variety occurs in Goshen, Mass. A 
fine, but less cleavable kind, is found in Brunswick, Me. 


H.==3.6— 4.6. 


Rhomboidal Pearl-Mica. Jam. 
Margarite, Phil. Fuchs. 

Colour grajrish-white, passing into reddish. Streak 
white. Translucent. Lustre pearly. Brittle. Hard- 
ness 3.5-— 4.6. Sp. gr. 3.03. Cleavage perfect in one di- 

!• It is composed of small laminsB which intersect each 
other in every direction. It strongly resembles silvery mica. 
It consists, according to M. Du Menil, of 

Silex, 37.00 

Alumina, 40.50 

Oxide of iron, 4.50 

Lime, 8.96 

Soda, 1.24 

MICA* 99 

Water, 1.00 

Loss, 6.80 

2» Rhombohedral Pearl-Mica has been found in a bed of 
primitive rock, mixed with Prismatic Talc-mica, at Sterzing, 
m the Tyrol. It is associated with rhombohedral Flupr-hal- 
oide and axotomous IronK)re. 

The following minerals belong to the order Mica, but are 
little known, aware not designated by scientific names. 


Cronstedite. .Steinmaniu Schweigger*s Joarnal. 
Crotuiedite* Phil. 

Colour brownish-black* Streak dark leek*green. Opake* 
Thin laminae elastic. Hardness 3.5. * Sp. gr* 3.34. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it froths a little without melting. 
With borax it yields a black opake globule. Reduced to pow- 
der it gelatinizes with muriatic acid. 

It consists of Silex, 23.45 

Oxide of iron, 58.53 

Oxide of manganese, 2.88 
Magnesia, 5.0? * . 

Water, 10.70 

It occurs at Przibram, in Bohemia, associated with silver 


Mica f 
Kaiivt Hydrate of Magnesia* Brewster. Trans. Roy. Soc. Ed. v. ix. 

Hydrate of Magnesia, I*fail. C. 

Colour white, inclining to green. Streak white. Trans- 
lucent on the edges. Sectile, Lustre pearlj. Thin 
laminae flexible. Hardness 1.0 — 1.5. Sp. gr. 2.35. 
Massive, rarely crystalized. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it loses its water and becomes fria- 
ble. In acids it dissolves without efiervescence. 
It consists of Magnesia, 70 

Water, 30 

It occurs in thin veins in serpentinoi at Hobokooi N. J. , 

100 8PAR* 

/ P^rotmalUi, Jam. Phil. C. 

Colour pate liver-brown, passing into gray and green. 
Streak paler than the colour. Translucent... opake. Lus* 
tre pearly. Brittle. Hardness 4tf0— 4.5. Sp« gr. 3^07- 

!• Before the blow-pipe it becomes reddish-brown, and 
gives off the vapours of muriatic acid. In a strong fire it melts, 
mto a globule, which is attractable by the magnet. 

It consists of 

Silex, 35.85 

Protoxide of iron, 21.81 

Protoxide of manganese, 21.14 
Muriate of iron with excess of base, 14.09 

Lime, 1.21 

Water, 5.39 

2. It occurs in the iron mines of Nordmark, in Wermerland 
in Sweden. 


O.302.6— a4. 


i^ommon Schiller- Spar. Jam. 
Schiller-Spar (in part.) Phil. C. 
Bidllage (in part.) 

Colour olive-green and blackish-green, inclining to 
pinchbeck brown upoii the perfect faces of cleavage. 
Streak grayish*white, inclining a little to yellow. Trans- 
lucent on the edges. Lustre pearly-metallic upon the 
cleavage planes. Rather sectile. Hardness 3.5—4.0. 
Sp. gr. 2.69. Cleavage perfect in one direction, and tra- 
ces of cleavage in another, producing faces of crystaliza- 

* From did, thronglif and temnOf I cot i-^-easily cleayable So one 
directlQD through the ciystals. 

SPAR. 101 

tion which incline to each other at angles of 138^* Com« 
position usually lamellar, but sometimes passing into gran- 

1. Before the blow-pipe it becomes bard, formmg a porce- 
lain-like mass. It consists of Silex, 62 

Magnesia, 10 
Alumina, . 13 
Oxide of iron, 13 

2. The present species is found imbedded in serpentine. It 
is difficult to cite localities of this mineral with accuracy, as 
it is easy to confound or mistake for it the following species : 
In Europe, the Baste, in the forest of Harzeburg, in the 
Hart^, is the only locality which is distinctly indicated. A 
mineral agreeing very nearly with the description, occurs in 
Blandford, Mass. on the Westfield road, in a block of serpen- 


Bronzite, Schnier-Spar (in pivt^ Z -^jl."* X:. "..-":' 

Colour dirty shades of leek-greeh and bladdsb-isrtai^a^: : /. 
brown liver-brown, hair-brown and cfove-^fd^n fgteeft-' '* ' 
ish and ash-gray. Streak corresponds to the colour, buf a 
little paler. Lustre metallic-pearly on the faces of cleav- 
age, and vitreous on a recent fracture. When the colour 
is pinchbeck-brown the lustre is heightened, or becomes 
metallic. Sectile* Hardness 4.0 — ^5.0. Sp. gr. 3.35. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it loses its water, becomes lighter 
coloured, but is infusible. It consists of 

Silex, 60.00 

Magnesia, 27.50 

Oxide of iron, 10.50 

Water, 0,50 

2. It occurs in beds in serpentine, often mixed with bemi- 
prismatic Augite-spar. 

It is found in Warwick, near Amity church, associated with 
green spinelle and brown hornblende, in carbonate of Ume- It 
has become scarce. 


108 8PA*^ 


Hyperithene, or Labr^or Schitlef'Spar, Jam. 
Hyptrsthene, Phil. C. 

Colour dark-brOwn or greenish-black : Several varie- 
ties almost copper-red on the faces of cleavage. Streak 
greenish'gray. Thin laminae translucent. Lustre highly 
metallic-pearly upon the face of cleavage. Brittle. Hard- 
ness 6.0. 3.38. Fracture uneven. Cleavage 
parallel to the sidea of a four-sided prism of 87^ and 93^. 
More perfect, parallel to the short diagonal, and traces 
parallel to the long diagonal of the prism. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it is but little changed, but melts 
on charcoal into a greenish-gray opake globule, easily soluble 
in borax. 

2. According tf the late analysis of this mineral by Prof. 
•Tfhomps'^tt,* J^^5B|Bi|ents of the Isle of Skye-Hyper^thene and 
the PaQlile <5f Labrador are as follows : 

•-/*:'.*'*• " •". PauMle. Isle of &kye Hypcrsthene. 

•«a^x, '^'^ ■- "-46.11 51.34 

Magnesia, 25.87 11.09 

Peroxide of iron, 14.11 33.92 

Lime, 5.29 1.83 

Alumine, 4.06 0.00 

Water, 0.48 0.50 

Mn, Lyceum JV. F. jj|prtl, 1828. 

Notwithstanding there is a differeqce in the chemical consti- 
tution of the Paulite and the Isle of Skye-Uypersthene, yet 
they appear to constitute but one species ; both seem to be es- 
sentially composed of Silex, Magnesia and Iron : the Paulite 
consisting of 3 atoms of bisilicate of magnesia and 1 of iron, 
while the Hyperstbene contains 2 atoms of bisilicate of mag- 
nesia and 3 atoms bisilicate of iron. The composition of Hy- 
perstbene in general is denoted by the formula — x M n S *-f-y 
FS. X & y — denoting the unknown number of atoms of the 
two bisilicates.* 

* Fr. Kohler infers from his late examination of Metalloidal Diaf- 
loge, Bronzite and Hypersthene, (hat they are mineralogically and 
chemically identical with Augite or Pyroxene. Poggendorff, ./^nn.xii. 
p, lOl'^uoted in vol 20 oftht Am%u Jour, Science, p, 168. 

8PAR. 103 


JitUhophuUite, Jam. Phil. C. 

Colour between yellowish-gray, clove-brown and green-- 
ish-black. Streak white, translucent, sometimes only on 
the edges. Lustre pearly, inclining to metallic, particu- 
larly on the face of cleavage. Brittle. Hardness 5.0 — 
6.5. Sp. gr. 3.12. Cleavage parallel to the sides of a 
four-sided prism and both diagonals, but more distinct in 
the direction of the long diagonal. Inclination of the faces 
about 124o.3(y. 

Compound varieties, — Composition columnar, straight, 
divergent and rather broad. 

1. Before the blow-pipe alone it is not altered. Borax dis- 
olves it with difficulty, and yields a glass coloured with iron. 

It consists of Silex, 56.00 

Alumine, 13.30 

Magnesia, 14.00 

Oxide of iron, 6.00 
Oxide of manganese, 3.00 

Lime, 3.00 

Water, 1.43 John. 

2, Anthophyllite occurs in Chesterfield, Chester and Bland- 
ford, Mass. It is generally associated with pyroxene, garnet, 
and staurolide, imbedded in mica-slate. 

The mineral found near the city of New- York, well known 
to mineralogists as radiated asbestus or actynolite^ and sup- 
posed by some to be anthophyllite, has been determined by 
rroC Thompson to be a new mineral : It consists of 

Silex, 54.98 

Magnesia, 13.37 

Protoxide of iron, 8.94 

Do. manganese, 1.20 

Potash, 6.80 

Alumine, 1.56 

Water, 11.44 

The formula given for this analysis is — 5 M S^+2/S3+k 
S3+9JAq. It maybe denominated hydrouM Anthophyllite* 




H. =6.0—7.0 
■r.-i^- G. =6.0— 3.7 


J\%smatic Kyanite, Jam. 
KyaniU. Cyanitt, Phil. C. 

Colour some shade of blue, as sky-blue, passing into 
white, or inclining into green or gray : intensity of col- 
our not uniform, but frequently appearing deep blue in 
spots, passing oflf into pale blue or white. Streak white. 
Transparent... translucent. Lustre pearly on the cleavage 
planes. Rather brittle. Hardness 5.0—7.0 : the high- 
est degree appears on the solid angles and edges. Sp. gr^* 
3.67. Cleavage parallel to all the planes of a doubly 
oblique prism : difiicult, parallel to the terminal planes : 
perfect in the direction M and T. 

MonT 106O16' 

P on M 100 50 
.. on T 93 16 

i 97 48 

k 83 38 

Mon i 146 16 

T oA i 140 55 

k 122 20 

PhiL Mineralogy f p. 82. 

' 1. Before the blow-pipe it is infusible, but dissolves with 
difficulty in borax. It consists of 

Alumina, 55.5 Silica, 43.0 Oxide of iron, 0.5 Klaproth. 

Prismatic Disthene-spar always occurs in primitive rocks, 

more particularly in mica slate ; it is most commonly m long 

crystaline masses, the individuals of which are applied to each 

other by thin broad planes. i» «.,,,/. u j 

2. It occurs at Chesterfield, Worthmgton, Middlefield and 
Chester, Mass. At the latter place, small dark co oured he- 
mitrope crystals occur in a black fine grained mica slate. 1 he 
variety, Rhatizite, is composed of aggregated fibres, generally 
interlaced, and of a reddish or graytsh-white colour. It has 
the 6ame geological relation as the species. It occurs m 
Blandford and Russel, Mass. 

SPAR. 105 


H.=:6.0— 7.0. 
G.=:2.8— 3.1. 


' Prismatic Spodumene, Jam. 

Spoduij/iine. Pbil. C. 

Colour various shades of grayish-green, passing into 
greenish-wliite, likewise reddish-white and brown. Frac- 
ture uneven. Lustre pearly. Streak white. Translucent 
on the edges. Moderately brittle. Hardness 6.6 — 7.0. 8. 1 7. It yields to mechanical division parallel to the 
sides of li rhombic prism of about 100® and 80<^, likewise 
to the shorter diagonal. Structure perfectly lamellar. 

I* Alone before the blow-pipe on charcoal, it intumesces and 
fuses into colourless and almost transparent beads. It intu- 
mesces but does not fuse so readily with borax. With salt of 
phosphorus it intumesces, and leaves a skeleton of silica. 
It consists of Silex, ,66.04 

Alumine, 35.03 
Lithia, 8.85 

Oxide of iron, 1.45 
Hence it is composed of 1 atom of trisilicate of lithia4-3 atoms 
of btsilicate alumina. 

2. It occurs in Goshen, Mass. and Saratoga, N. T. in 
coarse grained granite. 


Pritmatie Prtnitt, Jam. 
PrthniU. Phil. C. 

Colour various shades of green, as leek-green, apple- 
green, likewise passing into white and gray. Streak 
white. Lustre vitreous. Semi-transparent..ftranslucent. 
Brittle. Hardness 6,0— 7.0. * Sp. gr. 2.92. 

Compound varieties occur mostly in two forms— ;^6rott* 
and foliated. It assumes reniform, botryoidal, stalactitic 
and globular shapes. Surface always drusy or rough. 

108 SfARr 

1. Before tiie blow-pipe it becomes a wbhe frothy Bcor'iBf 
and then melts into a compact globule, which becomes trans- 
parent with borax. It dissolves slowly in dilute Muriatic acidr 

It consists of ' Silex, 43.83 

Alumina^ 90.33 

Lime, 18.53 

Oxide of iron, 5.66 

Water, 1.83 Klaproih. 

It agrees with the composition of 1 atom bisilicate of fime+ 
3 atoms silicate of alumina. 

2. This mineral was first brought fi'om the Cape of Good 
Bope, by Colonel Frehn. Since that time it has been discov- 
ered in many counties : it is commonly found ia trap rocks, 
and particularly greenstone, but rarely in primitive^ It is 
found in New-Jersey, Connecticut, Vermont and Massachu- 
setts, wherever trap rocks occtir. At Bellows FaDs, in Yt^ 
it occurs in a coarse mica slate« 





PritmoHe DatolUe, Jam. 
Borate of Lime. Phil. C. 

Colour white, inclining to green, yellow or gray. Some- 
times dirty olive-green or of a honey-yellow tinge. Streak 
white. Translucent in various degrees. Lustre vitreous, 
inclining to resinous. Brittle. Hardness 5.0 — 5.5. Sp. 
gr. 2.98. Fracture imperfectly conchoidal. Primary 
form a right rhombic prism of 103^ AV and 76^ 2(y. P 
on M or M' 90° 00'. M on M' 103^ 40'. 

Compound varieties have a gr^ular structure. That 
variety which consists of mammillary concretions, formed 
of concentric layers on a splintery fibrous structure, has re- 
ceived the name of BotryoUte. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it loses its transparency, intumes- 
ces and melts into a siossy gfobule. In the flame of a candle 
it becomes firiabto. lit is easily spluble in nitric acidy forming 

J»PikR. 107 

a 6ilioeous gekttne. If Ihe powder be moistened with a drop 
of muriatic acid and dried on a slip of paper» and then wet 
with alcohol and burnt, the flame towards the ead of^combuch 
tion will be tinged green. 
This mineral consists of Silex, 36.60 

Lime, 35.00 

Boracicacid, 24.00 
Water, 4.00 Klaproth 

The chemical composition is 1 atom of bi-borate of Iime+ 
1 atom of tri-silicate of lime+1 atom of water. BerzeUus. 

2. It occurs in primitive as well as trap rocks, accompanied 
with octahedral Fluor-haloide,, rhombohedral (Quartz and axo« 
tomous Triphane«par. 

It occurs at Patterson, N. J^ 


H. =3.6—6,0 
G. =2.0—2.6 

' Dodeeahedral Zeolite or LeucUe. Jam. Leucite, Phil. C. 

Colour reddish, yellowish or grayish-white ; ash or 
smoke-gray. Streak white. Semi-transparent.. .translu- 
cent. Lustre vitreous. Brittle. Hardness 5.5. Sp. gr. 
2.48. It yields to cleavage, though imperfectly, parallel 
to the planes of the cube, which is considered as the pri- 
mary form. Generally occurs in the form of a trapezoe- 
dron as represented in the figure. 

c on c =1310 48' 16" 

c on c*' / 

or >=14a 26 33' 
c' on c'" J Hauy, 

See Phil. Mineralogy, p,109. 

This mineral exhibits double refraction, which phenom- 
enon is an exception to the law which has been stated, viz. 

* From Katg^hoif light ' 

108 SPAR. 

that the platonic solids do not possess the doubly refractive 

1. Before the blow-pipe it is infusible, but with borax or 
lime it fuses with difficulty into a clear globule. Reduced to 
powder it changes the colour of tincture of violets into green* 
It consists of Silex, 54.00 

Alumine, 24.00 

Potash, 22.00 

Spieimei}from Jllbano by Klaproth, 

According to the analysis, Leucite is a bi-silicate of alumine 
and potash. 

2. This species occurs chiefly in imbedded crystals and 
grains in lava. It occurs at Vesuvius and Albano. 

Sodalite, Jam. Phil. C. 

Colour green, greenish-white, passing into grayish and 
€now-white. Streak white. Lustre vitreous. Transpar- 
ent. Brittle. Hardness 5.5—6.0. Sp. gr. 2.29. It 
yields to mechanical division parallel to the planes of a 
rhombic dodecahedron as well as the cube. P on P' or P 
on P'^ or P' on F' 120^ 00'. 

1. Alone before the blow-pipe on charcoal it suffers no 
change, except that its edges become rounded : with borax it 
afifords with difficulty a transparent glass. It consists of 

Silex, ' 38.52 

Alumine, 27.48 

Soda and a little ? oo en 
potash, ^ ^-^ 

Muriatic acid, 3.00 

Lime, 2.10 

Oxide of iron, 1.00 

Volatile substances, 2.10 Thompson. 
The composition, according to this analysis, is 1 atom of 
silicate of soda + 2 atoms of silicate of alumina. 

2. The dodecahedral Kouphone-spar is found in West- 
Greenland, in a bed of mica slate, accompanied with feldspar, 
zircon and pyroxene." 

SPAR* 109 


Htxahtdral Zeolite or Analcime. Jam. Phil. C. 

Colour white prevalent, ][)assiDg into gray, red4ish-white 
and flesh-red. Transparent... translucent. Lustre vitre- 
ous. Brittle. Hardness 6.5. Sp. gr. 2.06. Cleavage 
apparently parallel to the faces of the cube. 

1. 2- 3. 

Fig. 1 . The primaiy cube. Fig. 2. The same of which each soh'd anrle if 
truncatedor replaced by three planes.^ Fig. 3. The secondaiy plane of fig. 
2, complete. The trapezoidal planes incline on the primary 1449 44' and on 
^ each other at angles of 146^26'. 

The compound varieties are massive, with a granular 

1. Upon charcoal it melts without ebulition into a clear glass. 
It gelatinizes in Muriatic acid. It consists of 

Silex, 58. 

Alumina, 18. 

Soda, 10. 

Lime, 2. 

Water, 8.50 
It corresponds to 1 atom bisilicate of soda+3 atoms of bisili- 
cate of alumina+3 atoms water. This mineral usually occurs 
in trap rocks, rarely in primitive. 

2. It is found in Chester, in the form of implated globules, 
or imperfect crystals on mica slate,' which exhibit half the 
number effaces of the trapezoidron* 


Pyramidal Zeolite or Cross Stone. Jam. 
Harmotome, Phil. C. 

Prevailing colour white, passing into gray, yellow, red 
and browh. Streak white. Semi-transparent..«translu- 
cent.^ Lustre vitreous, passing into pearly. Brittle. 
Hardness 4.5. Sp. gr. S^.39. It yields to laechaniaal 


110 epAR. 

division parallel to die planes and both diagonals of a right 
rectangular prisofi. 

1. Before the bbw-pipe it fuses easily without intumescence 
into a diaphonous glass, with borax into a colourless glass; 

It consists of Silex, 49. 

Alumine, 16. 
Baryta, 18. 
Water, 15. 
It is represented as consisting of 1 atom of quadricilicate of 
baryta-f4 atoms bisilicate of alumina+7 atoms of water. 

2. It occurs in cruciform crystals in metaliferous veins, as- 
sociated with baryta and calc spar, as at Andreasberg, in the 
Hartz. Rare. 

Rhombohtdral Zeolite or Chabtuite, Jam. 
Ckabane, Phil. C. 

Colour white, grayish and yellowish-white, the latter 
confined to the surfaces. Streak white. Semi-transparent 
...translucent. Lustre vitreous, Brittle. Hardness 4.0— 
4.6. Sp. gr. 2.10. Cleavage pretty distinct, parallel to 
the planes of an obtuse rhomboid of 94P 46' and 86^ 14'. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it melts into a white frothy mass. 
It is not acted upon by acids. It consists of 1 atom of trisili- 
cate of lime+3 atoms of bisilicate of alumine+6 atoms of wa- 

2. Chabasie is confined mostly to trap rocks, in which it 
occurs in cavities or geodes. It usually appears under the 
pimary form. 

It occurs at Chester, in Mica Slate, accompanied with Stil- 
bite and Heulandite, and hexahedral prisms of carbonate of 
lime. It is scarce and nearly exhausted. 

The variety, termed Mesoline^ occurs in whitish crystaline 
coats, lining the cavities of an amygdaloidal rock in Faroe. 


Diprismatic Zeolite or Laumonile, Jam. 
Laumoniie. Phil. C. 

Colour white, passing into reddish, yellowish or gray- 
ish tints. Streak white. Lustre when recently fractured 



Titreous, inclining to pearly. Translucent. Not very 
Iwittle. Hardness Sp. gr. 2.3. It yields to me- 

chanical divisions parallel to the planes and bpth the di^ 
agonals of an oblique rhombic prism. 

MonM' 1130 30' 
FonMorM' 86 15 
M or M»on c 104 20 

Phil, Mintralogyi p, 46. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it behaves like the preceding spe- 
cies. It gelatinizes i|i aciqs and becomes electric by fnctioo. 
When exposed to the air it disintegrs^tes and falls to a white 
mealy powder. Diatomous Eouphone-spar yields by analysis, 

Silex, 48.30 
' Alumine, 22.70 
Lime, 12.10 
Water, 16.00 Vogaf. 
This mineral is composed of 1 atom of bipilicate of lime+ 
4 atoms of bisilicate of aIumiaa+6 atoms of water. 

2. It is usually found in trap rocks, accompanied by otheri 
of the same^nus. It thus pccurs in the trap of Connecticut, 
Maine and Nova-Scptia. See Min.'and Geof. of Nova-Scotia, 
by Messrs C T. Jackson and FrancU Alger. 


PrismcUic Zeolite or Mesotype. Jam. 
Metotype* Phil. C. 

Colour generally grayish-white. Streak white. Trans- 
parent... translucent. Lustre vitreous. Brittle* Hard- 
ness 5.0 — 5.5. Sp. gr. 2.24. It cleaves parallel only 
to the side of a prism of 91° 20^ and 88° 40^. 

The compound varieties are often fibrous, either parallel 
or radiated ; it appears too in an earthy form, which are 
soft and friable masses and of a rough meagre feel : it is 
kiA>wn as the Mealy Zeolite. 



1. Before the blow-pipe on charcoal it loses its transparencjr 
and melts into a glassy globule. 

Three varieties seem to be comprehended under this spe* 
cies — Uie Scohzite^ MesoUte or Needlestoncj and Natro&te. 
The compositions of each is as follows : 






















12.41 . 


Oxide of iron. 




The atomic combination seems to be 1 atom of tri-silicate of 
BOda+3 atomd of silicate of alumina+2 atoms of water. 

The general repository of the prismatic as well as other 
Kouphone spars, is in the cavities 6f trap rocks, accompanied 
generally with calcareous spar. 


Prismatoidal Zeolite or SUlbite. Jam. 
SUlbite. Phil. C. 

Prevailing colour white, reddish-white and flesh-red. 
Streak white. Translucent. Lustre vitreous, inclining 
to pearly on the faces of cleavage. Brittle. Hardness 
S.5 — 4.0. Sp. gr. 2.16. Primary form a right prism 
with rectangular bases. It yields to cleavage parallel to 
the planes T and M. 

M on T 900 00' 

PonMofT 90 00 
Monk 120 30 
aon^ lis 60 

Mond 133 88? 




In the compound varieties the crystals are often aggre- 
gated in the form of sheafs, or collected into stellular 
groups, or inflated globular masses. Fracture often p^« 
sents broad folia, of a beautiful pearly lustre. 

WAtU 113 

1. Befbre the blow-pipe it ex&littes and mdU ififo yesicii* 
lar globulet. It does not gelcgtinize with acids. 

It consists of Alumine, 16,10 

Silex, 58.00 
Lime, . 9.30 
Water, 16.40 Msinger. 

Atomic constitution is 1 atom.tri-silicateof lime-f3 atomsof 
■ tri-silicate of alumina+6 atoms water. 

2. It occurs at Chester, Mass. in Mica Slate, la Nova- 
ScOtia in trap. At the latter place it is abundant. 


Prismatoidal Zeolite or BtilbiU. Jam. 
Beulandile. • Piil. C. 

Colour various shades of white passing into flesh-red^ 
gray and brown. Streak white. Transpareni...translu- 
cent on the edges. Lustre strongly pearly on the plane P. 
Brittle. Hardness 3.5—4.0. Sp. gr. 2,20. It yields 
to mechanical division parallel only to the plane P of a 
right oblique angled prism, which is the primary form. 
P on M or T 90° 00'. M on T 130^ OO'. Brooke. 

Compound varieties are usually in globular and stellu- 
lar forms, strongly resembling those of stilbite. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it gives the same results as the for- 
mer species. It consists of , 

Alumina, 10.00 7.19 ■ 

Silica, 45.00 59.90 

Carb. lime, 16.00 0.00 

Lime, 11.00 16.67 

Water, 12.00 13.43 

Oxide of ifon, 4.00 IQ.OO 

„ manganese, 0.50 0.00 

Laugier. WalmstedU 
% It occurs in the same natural repositories as the other 

species of Konphone Spars. It occurs in Chester, in mica 


Axifrangibh ZeoHte or jSpophyUiU Qn parli) Jaiii» 
j^^ophifUiU. Phil. C. Miiotyp^ SpointSct ,HaUy. Albin. Werner* 

Colour i^Ter^l shades of white, grayish^ bluish w r«d^ 


lU fiTASU 

<&lu Streak white. Tr&iiqpftrent..traii8l<icent [Lustre 
vitreousi passing into pearly. Brittle. Hardness 4.5-^ 
5.0. Sp. gr. MS. It yields to mechanical diviuon par- 
allel to the planes of a square prism ; most readily at right 
angles to the axis, or in the direction of the plane P. 


JixifrangibU Zeolite^ or Jp^phyllUe (in part.) Jam. 
Jipophyllite. Phil. 
lehthyophthcUmita. Werner. 

Colour several shades of white. Streak white. Tn^ns- 
parent...traiislucent. Lustre vitreous, inclining to pearly* 
Brittle. Hardness 4.5 — 5.0. Sp. gr. 2.46. HaUy. It 
yields readily to cleavage perpendicular to the axis. Slight 
traces of cleavage appear parallel to the axis., 

This and the preceding species may constitute hut one. 
Thevare provisionally separated until further examination 
Bhali dispel the present uncertainty in regard to their constitu- 

1. Before the Mow-pipe both species exfoliate and melt into 
a whi'e vesicular globule. They dissolve easily in borax and 
then gelatinize in acids. They consist of 

Pyramidal Kowahtme^Spar, Azoiom, K. Spar. 

Silex, 52.13 52.38 

Lime, 24.71 24.93 

Potash, 5.27 537 

Fluoric add, 0.82 0.64 

Water; 16.20 16.20 

The atomic constitution may be given as consistmg of 1 atom 
of sex-silicate of pota8h-f8 atoms of tri-silicate of lime+16 
atoms of water. 

2. Apophyllite occurs in Farboi Uton and Nova-Scotiiu 

12. BREWSTERITE. H. J. Brooke. 

Colour white, inclining to gray or yellow. Streak 
white* Lustre vitreous. Transparent... translucent. Hard- 
ness 5.0 — 5.6. Sp. gr. 2.12 — 8.20. Cleavage perfect, 
paniijiiol to the plane P, and apparently at right angles to 



it Primary form, as deduced from tbe seeoadary plaaes, 

is a right oblique angled prism. * 

1. Befi)re the blow-pipe it becomes opake, then awelts iu> 
but fuses with difficulty. It gives ,a skeleton of talC| with salt 
of phosphorus. Brewsterite consists of 

Silex, 53.66 

Alumine, 17.44 

Strontian, 8.32 

Ox. iron, ' 







Its atomic constitution may be expressed by 2 atoms of bi- 
silicate of strontia+1 atom bisilicate of baryta+12 atoms trisi- 
licate of alumina+6 atoms of water. 

2. It was formerly confounded with the prismatoidal and 
hemi-prismatic Kouphone-spar. It occurs at Strontian, in 
Argyleshire, associated with calcareous spar. 

Compionitc. Dr. Brewster, Ed. Phil. Joar. 

Colour white. Streak white. Transparent-.trans- 
lucent. Lustre vitreous. Hardness 6.0 — 5.5. It yields 
to cleavage, parallel to the lateral planes of arightrec- 
tangular prism. 


T on c' 93 00 

cone' 177 5 

Mondl36 35 PhilM%n.p,20h J 




1. Before the blow-pipe it appears much like other species 
of the Kouphone-spar. In nitric acid it gelatinizes. 

2. It occurs lining cavities of an amygdaloid rock, on Ye- 

14. GMELINITE. Brewster. 
Sareoliie. VauqueUn. F«r. ofAnalcime. HaUy. BydrolUt ^ 

De Dr6e. 

Colour white, passicig into flesh-red. Streak white. 

116 SPAIU 

Tnuteluc^t LtMire vltrfedus. Hardness 4*5. Sp. gr. 
2.05. Cleavage direct^ parallel to the planes of a rhom- 
bohedroD* Fracture uneven. 

1. When held in the flame of a candle it flies ofi* in numer- 
ous scales. It yields by analysis 

Silex, 50.00 

Alumine, 20M 

Lime, 4.50 

Soda, 4.50 

Water, 21.00 Vauquelin, 

2. It occurs in Glenarm, county of Antrim, Ireland. 

16. LEVYNE. 

Ltvyne, Dr. Brewster, Ed. Jour. Science. 

Colour t^rhite. Streak white. Semi-transparent. Lus» 
tre vitreous. Brittle. Hardness 4.0. Fracture uneven, 
conchoidal. Cleavage indistinct, parallel to the planes of 
a rhombohedron. 

1. When heated in a glass tube it gives off* considerable 
^irater, and becomes opake. With salt of phosphorus it yields 
a transparent globule, which contains a skeleton, of silica,, but 
becomes opake on cooling. 

2. It occurs in Faroe with Heulandite in amygdaloid. 

Mesole, Berselius. Ed. Phil. Jour. vol. vii. p. 7. 

Colour white, sometimes inclining to yellow. Faintly 
translucent. Hardness 3.6. Sp. gr. 2.37. 

It is composed of crystals, radiating from a centre, 
which together form globular and reniform masses. 

. It consists of 











2. It is found in Faroe, linmg the cavities in an amygda* 
totdal rock« 

SPAR- 11 T 

'fiTflrco We of Thompson. 

Colour flesh-red. Fracture presents a vitreous appear- 
ance* Hardness sufficient to scratch glass. 

1. It is supposed by Hally to be a varietur of hexahedtal 
Kouphone-spar. An accurate determination of this species has 
never been made. 

Thomptonite. Brooke. Ann. of Phil. 

Colour -white. Streak white. Small fragments trans- 
parent. Lustre pearly. Brittle. Hardness 5.O. Sp* 
gr. 2.37. Fracture uneven. Cleavage parallel to the 
lateral planes only of a square prism. 

1. It intumesces before the blow-pipe, and becomes white 
and opake, but does not melt. 

It consists of Silex, 36.80 

Alumine, 31.36 

Lime, 15.40 
Magnesia, 0.20 

Perox. iron, 0.60 

Water, 13.00 Thompson: 

3. It occurs in the Trap rock of Eilpatrick, near Dunbarton^ 
in Scotland. 


H.=6.0— 6.5 
G.=2.4— 2.6 

Prumatic PetcUitem Jam. PetalUe, Phil. C. 

Colour white, in reddish and grayish shades, sometimes 
inclining to green. Streak white. Translucent. Lus- 
tre vitreous, inclining to resinous* Brittle. Hardness 
6.0 — 6.5. Sp. gr. 2.43. It yields to cleavage parallel 
to the plants, and more distinctly to the lotig diagonal of 
a prism of 95^. Traces of cleavage parallel to the shorter 
diagonal ; also perpendicular to the axis. 

iia SPA4* 

1. It melts with great difficulty before the blow-pipe, only 
on the edges. If gently heated it emits a blue phosphorescent 
light It consists of 

Sitex, 79.21 

Al^|nin«9 ^7.22 
Lithia, 6.76 Arfwedson, 

It is atomically constituted of 1 atom of sex-silicate of lithia 
and 3 atoms of tri-silicate of alumina. 
It is found at Bolton^ Mass. 


H.:=6.0— 6.0 
G.=2.5— 2.8 


Bhomboidnl Ftldtpar or Jfephclim, Jam. 
Somnite, Phil. J^ephtlint* C. 

Colour white ; sometimes grayish or greenish. Streak 
white. Transparent... translucent. Brittle. Hardness 6.O. 
Sp. gr. 2.56. It cleaves parallel to all the planes of a 
regular hexahedral prism. Gross fracture conchoidal* 

Compound varieties often granular. 

1. BefiH-e the blow-pipe it fiises into a porous opake bead^ 
and gelatinizes in nitric acid. 

It consists of AluminOi 49.' 

Silexy 46. 

Lime, 2. 

Oxide of iron, 1. YauqueUn, 

2. It occurs principally at Moiite-Sommay in the cavities of 
limestone rocks, ejected from Vesuvius. 


Pritmalic Feldtpar, Jam. 
feldspar. Phil. C. 

Colour white and reddish-whitOi inclining to gray, 
green and blue. Streak white, or grayish-white. Trans- 
parent...opake. When polished it presents a greenish* 
white chatoyant reflection of light* Lustre vitreous. 
Hardness 6. Sp, gr. 3.55* Limits of the species 2.^3-— 



2.60. Structtire always lamellar* It yields to mechanical 
division parallel to the plane of a doubly oblique prism of 
the following dimensions : 



67 15 
145 20 
IS29 30 


120 30 


See Phil. Min, p. 114. 

160 00 

60 60 

164 42 

160 45 

149 10 

152 30 


1. The varieties of this species require to be noticed more 
particulftrly than those of the preceding i^cies. The more ' 
common forms of the compound varieties are gmnular and 
compact in different degrees, or in lamellar masses with tra- 
ces of cleavage more or less distinct The following are some 
of the most important varieties. 

yar« 1. Adularia. Colour white, bluish-white. Struc- 
ture perfectly himellar. It is the most perfect form of the 

Tar. 3. Aventtaine Feldspar. Cekmrs various. It is 
characterized by ireflecting light more or less strongly from 

Yar. 3. Labrador Feldspar. It presents a beautiful play 
of colours when viewed in particular directions. 

Var. 4. Fetid Feldspar^ J^Turonite. It possesses the 
common characters of the speciesy but when broken or scraped, 
it exhales a fetid odor. 

Yar. 5. Amazon Stone. Colour apple-green. 

2. Feldspar when placed on charcoal before the blow-pipe 
generally melts with difficulty into a blebby, semi-transparent 
glass. The following varieties consist of 


JiiuUtria, Labrador FMnar. 

Silex, 64.00 55.75 

Alumine, 20.60 26.50 

Lime, 12.00 11.00 

Potash, 14.00 0.00 

Soda, 0.00 4.00 

Oxide ofiron, 0.00 1.25 

Water, 0.00 0.50 

Pfismatic Feldspar is an essential element in granite and 
gneiss; here it is abundant in nature. It passes by disinte- 
gration into an earthy form, resembling clay, which is called 
porcelain earth Both the earth and common feldspar are used 
in the manufacture of porcelain. 


Colour grayish- white, occasionally it is said to occur 
yellowish or greenish-white. Lustre vitreous. Very brit- 
tle. Hardness 6. Primary form a right rhombic prism* 
It jrields to meqhanical division parallel to all the primary 
planes, but with difficulty parallel to P, arid with ease to 
TandM. P on M 90^ 00'. M on T 129° 00^ 

Before the blow-pipe it fuses with difficulty on the edges into 
a blebby transparent glass. 


Colour white or bluish-white. Translucent. Lustre 
vitreous, inclining to pearly. Streak'white. Structure 
foliated. Hardness 6.0. 2.61. Primary form a 
double oblique prism, yielding angles of 93° 30' and 86o 

It usually occurs in thin rhombic tables, one or more of 
the lateral edges are sometimes truncated. A compound 
variety consists of thin slender prisms applied to each oth- 
er by the broad planes, which frequently Vadiate or form 
stellular groups. It also occurs in granXilar masses^ more 
or less fine, resembling granular dolomite. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it fuses with more difficulty than 
feldspar, but gives the same result. 




I consists of Silex, 70.7 

Aluminey 19.8 

Soda, 9.0 

Lime, oxide of manganese, 0.3 
It is oonstitnted of 1 atom of tri-silicate of 8oda+3 atoms of 
bisilicate of alumina. It is usually associated with blue, green 
and red tourmaline, in the coarser granites. It is better known 
under the name of Chavelandite, 

It is found at Chesterfield, at the celebrated tourmaline lo- 
cality, at Ch^ter, Mass. and at Brunswick, Me. 


Pyramidal Ftldspar, or ^capolite, Pritmato-Pyramiddl Feldspar i or 

Miconitt, 3 9m, JHpyne. Scapolite. Mieonitt, Pbil. 

Colour various shades of gray, white and green, and 
red and purple. Streak grayish-white. Transparent., 
translucent on the edges. Lustre vitreous, inclining to' 
pearly. Brittle. Hardness 5.0 — 5.5. Sp. gr. 2.61. It 
yields to cleavage parallel to the sides, terminal planes 
and both diagonals of a square prism. 

M on M^ 90O 00' 

M or M' on d 136 00 

M on a 112 30 

a ond 122 10 

1. Before the blow-pipe it fuses with a lively intumescence 
iflto a light spongy mass. It consists of 



0,18 Stromeytr. 




Potash and soda, 

Protoxide of iron, -.-.^«.v»w. 

It is oonstitdted atomically of 1 atom of silicate of iime+3 
atoms of silicate of alumina. 

2. Pyramidal Feldspar occurs in Bolton and Chester, Mass. 
At the latter place it occurs in veins in mica slate, associated 
with hornblende, pyroiene and garnet i but the o^stalisatioo 


122 ' SPAR. 

is generally confused and indistinct Fine specimens are 
found at Chelmsfordi Mass. and at Warwick, Orange co. 

Morthit G. Rose. Gilbert's Ann. der Fbysik, 1823. 

Colour white. Streak white. Lustre pearly upon 
cleavage planes; Transparent....translucent. Brittle* 
Hardness 6.0. Sp. gr. 2.76. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it appears like Feldspar. It is eor 
tirely decomposed by concentrated^muriatic acid. 

It consists of Silex, 44.49 

Alumina, 34.46 

Lime, 15.68 

Magnesia, 5.26 

Oxide of iron, 0.74 

2. It occurs only at Mount Vesuvius, associated with para- 
tomous Augite-spar. 

LatrobUe, Brooke. Ana* of Phil. xxix. p. 383. 

Colour pale pink-red. Hardness iS.O — 6.0. Sp. gr. 2.8. 
It cleaves in three directions, parallel to the planes of a 
doubly oblique prism, at angles of 98^ 3', 9P and 93^ SO'. 

1. Alone before the blow-pipe it^uses into a|Wbite enamel. 
With borax it yields a globule, pale^red in the oiidating flame, 
and colourless in the reducing one.' With salt of phosphorus 
it giveisl a silica skeleton. 

It consists of Silex, 44.65 

Alumine, 36.81 

Lime, ^ 8.29 
Oxide of manganese 

and magnesia, 3.78 

Potash, e.57 

Water, 2.04 

2. It occurs at Amitok islaiid, near the coast of Labrador. 




H=4.6— 7.0 


. Oblique-edged ^gite» Jam. 
^ugite. Pyroxene. Phil. C. 

Colour green,' often inclining to brown, and passing in« 
to gray and white, and also black. Streak white— gray, 
or corresponding to the colour- Faintly transparent... 
opake. Lustre vitreous, inclining to resinous. Brittle. 
Hardness 6.0 — 6.O. Sp. gr. of a light coloured specimen 
3.32. It yields to cleavage parallel to» the planes of an 
oblique rhombic prism, of 87° 5' and 92° 55'. 



M on M 87° 42' 
M on P 101 6 
M on r 133 61 
M on s 121 48 

Troost, Jour, NaU Scu vol. iii, p. 120. 

1. Under paratomous Augite*spar a great number of vari« 
eties are placed. The following are the important ones. 

Var, 1. Augiie^ comprehends those opake v^eties, the 
colours of which are green or blackish-creen ; it occurs foliat- 
ed and in grains. T^e former is distinguished by the name 
of aahUte, the latter by the name ofcoccoUte. The colours are 
however very numerouSf passing thi'ough a series of colours 
from very dark-green or black, red, gray and grayish-white* 

124 SPAR. 

2. Diopside. Colour greenish-white or greenish-graj. It 
occurs in aemi-trauBparent crystals. 

3. Baikaliie. Closely resembles sahUte^ and can hardly 
be distinguished from it 

4. FasaatU possesses a greenish-yellow colour and presents 
the same crystaline forms as dtopsiae, 

6. Omphazite is a compact leek-green variety with a splin- 
tery fracture. It often passes into a fibrous structure, forming 
one variety of asbestus. 

6. Jeffersanite, which is of a dark-brown colour arising firon^ 
the mechanical mixture of oxides of iron and manganese. 

2. Paratomous Augite-spar consists of 

Silex, 54.08 

Live, 23.19 

Magnesia, 11.49 

Protoxide of iron, 10.02 
Oxide of manganese, 0.61 

Leek-green variety analizied by Rose* 

The darker specimens contain a greater per cent of iron^ 
the lighter a less p^r centage. 

The atomic constitution of paratoipous Augite-spar may be 
expressed by 1 atom of bisilicate of lime+1 atom of bisilicate 
of magnesia. The bisilicate of magnesia is sometimes replao 
ed by bisilicate of protoxide of iron, as in the Euchysiderite 
and Jeffersonite. Its composition is greiktly influenced by the 
adjacent rock in which it occurs. 

This mineral, particularly Sahlite, is found in Munroe and 
Warwick., Sahlite and Coccolite of different colours are found 
near Roger's Rock, N. Y. also at Middlefield, Chester, Hins- 
dale, and in most of the mountain towns in New-England, in 
specimens more or less perfect. 


Strait edged AugUe, Green Diallage. Jam. 
Hornblende, Smaragdile, Asbe$ttu. Fhil. C. 

Colour various shades of green, often inclining to brown. 
The series of colours form an uninterrupted passage from 
perfectly white and green into black. Streak gray-brown* 
Lustre vitreous, often inclining to pearlj ; dull in the 
darker varieties. Slightly translucent...opake» Brittle. 



Hardness 5.0 — 6.0. Sp. gr, of a dark rariety S.16. It 
yields to cleavage parallel to the plane of a rhombic prism 
of 124^ SO' and 56^ 30'. Primary form an obUque rhorn^ 
bic prism of the following dimensions : 

' MonM' 

1240 ac 

MorM' onP 

103 1 


117 32 

Pong org' 

145 43 

M on g or g' 

68 42 


148 22 

Compound varieties. Composition granular, often form- 
ing an extremely cohesive mass, with a slaty and colum- 
nar composition. It often occurs forming mountain mass* 
es« Crystaline masses are usually composed of long and 
delicate fibres, of a silky lustre — they are straight, paral- 
lel and divergent, and often form fascicular and scopiform 

1. Before the blow-pipe this mineral fuses with intumes- 
cence without addition, into a glass more or less coloured, cor- 
responding much to the colour of the specimen. The elements 
entering into the composition of some of the varieties are as 
follows r 

A white 


A black 


























Protoxide of iron, 



7.^ ox. 



*' manganese. 



0.22 do 

copper, 1.50 

Fluoric acid. 



1.50 do chrome, 7 50 

Water and foreign 





The difierent varieties of hornblende are considered as bisili- 
cates of lime and magnesia. The variation in the chemical 
constitution depends much on the rock with which they are con- 

' I 

Under tht^ species are placed a number of minerals whidi 
were formerly, considered as distinct. Under the name horn" 
blende are comprehended the dark-green varieties^ having but 
little lustre, and a substance which is extremely tough in the 
mass, but separate crystals are brittle. ActynoUte is a bright 
green var. always crystali^ed, and usually in long slender 
iprisms. It is found imbedded in talcose rocks. Tremolite is 
a white variety, and is usually crystalized in what are termed 
hladed crystcds. It is found imbedded in dolomite. These 
varieties all pass into asbestus, forming each of them a variety. 
Hornblende forms mountain masses, and is abundant. Acty- 
nolite is found at Middlefield, Worthington and Cummingtpn, 
Mass. Newfane, Yt. Tremolite is found abundantly in Shef- 
field and several other towns in the county of Berkshire, Mass. 
and in Litchfield county, Gt. 

The finest specimens of all the varieties are found in War- 
wick, Orange county, N. Y. sometimes in detached boulders, 
and in other cases in carb. of lime. A beautiful reddish-brown 
hornblende occurs near the church at Amity, both in crystal- 
ized and in granular masses. 

Pritmatoidal ^ugite. Jam. EpidoU. FhU. C. 

Prevailing colours green and gray ; the green tints in- 
cline more to yellow than in pyroxine or hornblende, 
rarely white or flesh-red. Streak white. Semi-trans- 
parent... opake. Lustre vitreous. Brittle. Hardness 
6.0 — 7.0. Sp. gr. 3.26. Primary form a right oblique 
angled prism. M on T 115^ 40'. (For fig. see garnet 
in the order Gem, marked fig. 4, and referred back to this 

Compound varieties — Massive, structure granular, often 
friable and arenaceous* 

1. Before the blow-pipe it fuses with intumescence mto a 
transparent glass. It consists of 

Silex, 37.00 

Alumine, 27.00 

Lime, 14.00 

Oxide of iron, 3.00 
^' manganese, 1.50 Descot 

SPAR. 127 

2. Prismatoidal Augito-Spar occurs in priinitive rocksi more 
especially in Hornblende. 

' It is found at Franconia, N. H. in fine specimens ; Chester, 
Middlefield, Cummington, Worthington and Plainfield, Mass. 


Colour gray, or grayish-yellow. Translucent. .op^ke. 
Streak grayish white. Lustre vitreous. Hardness 6.0-^ 
7,0. Sp. gr. 3.26. Primary form a right rhombic prism. 
M on M' 1 16<^ 30', and apparently a cleavage transverse to 
the axis, but not sufficiently distinct for measurement, 
which indicates that the prism is oblique from an obtuse 
edge. Brooke. Crystals deeply striated longitudinally. 

Before the blow-pipe Zoisite behaves very much like pris;- 
matoidal Epidote. Some varieties intumesce and form a yel- 
lowish scoria. 

It is found at Brattleborough, Yt and Hawley, Chester- 
field, Mass. 


Prumaiic Jfugite, or TabtUar'Spar. Jam. 
Tabular- Spar, Pki!. C. Sehalstiin, Werner. 

Colour white, inclining to gray, yellow, red and brown. 
Streak white. Semi-traAsparent...opake. 'Lustre vitre- 
ous, inclining to pearly, particularly on the faces of cleav- 
age. Brittle. Hardness 4.0 — 5.0. Sp. gr. 2*80. It i^ 
divisible into prisms of ?5^ 2(f and 84^ 40', and also par- 
allel to both diagonals. Primary form a double oblique 
prism. M on T 95^ 20^. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it fuses with a strong heat into a 
colourless glass. 

It consists of Silex, 50 

Lime, 45 

Water, 5 

2. It occurs in the county of Essex, N. Y. and in Easton, 
Fenn. Some localities furnish specimens much resembling 

' tremolite. 


H.B=6.0— 6.0 


dzure Stone, or Lapit Lazulu Jam. Phil. C. 

Colour various shades of azure-blue, not uniform but 

appearing in spots. Streak blue, paler than the colour. 

Translucent on the edges. Lustre vitreous* Brittle. 

Hardness 5.6—6.0. Sp. gr. 2.96. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it melts whh difficulty into a glass 
gbbule, which is first of a bluish tingOt but soon becomes 
white. If previously burnt and reduced to powder, it loses its 
colour and forms a jelly with^acids. It consists of 
, Silex, 49. Silex, 46 

Magnesia, 2 Alumine, 14 

Alumina, 11 Garb, lime, 28 

Lime, 16 Sulphate of lime, 6.5 

Potash and soda, 8 Oxide of iron, 3 

Oxide of iron, 4 Water, 2 

Sulphuric acid, 2 Klaprolh, 


It occurs in primitive rocks, but its particular geological 
relations are unknown. It is valuable chiefly as affording a 
pigment, called ultra-marine^ which is not liable to change by 
time and exposure. The finest specimens come jQxon China 
and Persia. 


AzuHtt. Lasulite. Phil. 

Prumaiic Jisure-Spar, (first sub-9peoies.) Jam. 

Colour fine deep blue when viewed in the direction of 

the axis of the crystals, but various shades in other direc- 

tions« Streak white. Lustre vitreous Brittle. Hardness 

5.0 — 6.6. Cleavage indistiiict. Primary form a right . 

rhombic prism. M on M 121° 3(K* 

1. Before the blow-pipe it intumesces, but does not melt 
With borax it yields a clear colourless globule. Treated with 
boracic acid and iron wire, it gives a globule of phosphuret of 
iron. BerzeUu9* It consists of 

SPAR* 128 

Phosphoric acid| 41.81 
Alumina, 35.73 

Magnesia, 9.34 

Silex, 2.10 

Protoxide of iron, 2.64 
Water, 6.00 IStchs. 

It has heen found in Salzburg, in narrow veins, traversing 
clay slate, both massive and crystalized. 


Blue Feldspar, Phil. 

Pritmaioidal Azure'^par^ or Blue-Spar. Jam. 

Colour smalt-blue, inclining to white or green on the 
faces of cleavage. Lustre vitreous. Streak white. Trans- 
lucent on the edges ; often nearly opake. Brittle. Hard- 
ness 5.6^—6.0. Sp. gr. 3.02. Fracture splintery. 

Compound varieties present a granular composition, of- 
ten in large individuals. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it loses colour, but does not melt. 
It is slowly and difficultly dissolved in borax. It consists of 
nearly the same elements as the preceding species. 

Phosphoric acid, 43.^ 

Silex, 6.50 

Alumina, 34.50 

Magnesia, 13.56 

Lime, 00.48 

Protoxide of iron, 00.80 

Water, 00.50 

It occurs in the valley of Freschnitz, on the Miirz, in Up- 
per Stiria, associated with quartz and mica. 

The following species belong to the order Spar, but their 
properties have not been sufficiently investigated to give them 
a place in the system under appropriate names. 


Colour brownish-black. Streak pale yellowish-gray ; 
opake ; very thin edges are translucent, and show a 
fine yellowish-brown tint. Brittle. Hardness 6.Q — 6.5. 
Sp. gr. S.24. 

130 8PAB* 

1. It resembles paeatomous Augite-spar in regard to foitn 
and composition. It melts readily before the blow-pipe into a 
blackish globule* 

It consists of Silexy 55.25 

Oxide of faron, 31.25 

" ihanganese, 1.08 
Lime, 0.72 

Soda, 10.40 Berzelius. 

It is foifnd at Eger, in Norway, imbedded in granite. 

ArfvtdaimiU, Broo)ce. Ann. Phil. numb. xiix. p. 381. 

Colour black. Sp. gr. 3.44. Brooke. Cleavage par- 
allel to the places of a rhombic prism of 123° 56', with 
brilliant surfaces* 

' 1. It melts easily before the blow-pipe into a black globule. 
With borax it gives a glass coloured with iron. With salt of 
phosphorus it dissolves, leaving a dark-gray skeleton of bUqx. 

2. It occurs in Greenland, and accompanies the dodecahe- 
drai Eiouphone-spar. 

BalfingteniU. L^vy. Add. of Phil. xl. p. 275. 

Colour black, or greenish in thin splinters, which 
are faintly translucent. Opake in larg6 masses. Lustre 
vitreous. Hardness 5.5 — 6.0. 

1. It resembles the darker coloured varieties of paratomous 
Augite-spar. It consists of silica, oxide of iron, lime, manga- 
nese and a trace of titanium. 

2. It occurs in small crystals at Arendal, in Norway, ae- 
Bociated with albite. 


Colour greenish-white. Translucent. Scratches glass. 

Sp. gr. 2.74. Occurs in grains which have Ji cleavage in 

two directions, forming an angle of 95° 15(. Brooke. 

1. It is infusible before the blowrpipe. If digested in acids 
it becomes friable and gelatinous. It consists of 

Silex, 42.60 

Alumina, 37.50 

Lime, 15.00 

Oxide of iron, 3.00 

• BFAR. 131 

2: It occurs in the Candatic, imbedded in prismatic Feld- 
vpar, and accompanied by rhombohedral corundum. 

WUhamUe, Brewster. Ed. Jour, of Science, vol. li. p. 218. 

Colour carmine-red and pale straw-yellow. Streak 
white. Tiranslucent. Brittle. Hardness 6.0—6.6. Sp. 
gr. 3.13. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it intumesce's, but fuses with dif- 
ficulty into a dark gray scoria. Salt of phosphorus dissolves 
it with effervescence into a globule, which contains siliciiy and 
becomes opake on cooling, it shows nearly the same reaction 
as the Epidote from Arendali with which it agrees in most 
of its other properties. * 

2. It occurs at Glencoci in Scotland, in a reddish trap- 
rock. Haidinger, 

AmblygonUe. Jam. FhU. C. . 

Colour greenish-white, passing into light mountain- 
green, or sea-green. Streak white. Semi-transparent.,, 
translucent. * Hardness 6.0. Sp. gr. 3.00. It occurs in 
rhombic prisms, which are rough externally. Inclination 
of M on M'' 106^ 10'. It affords brilliant planes by 


1. Before this blow-pipe it intumesces and is fUsed with ease, 
and is converted into a white enamel. 

It consists of aluraine, phosphoric and fluoric acids and 
lithia, in greater quantities than any 6ther mineral, Berzelius. 

It has hitherto been found only at Chursdorfi near Fenig, in 
Saxony, in granite. 

Btrgmanitt, Jam. Phil. (Var. ofPyramidal Feldspar or Scapolite.) 

Colour gray s passing into white &nd brick-red. Opake. 
Massive. Not very brittle. Soft, passing into semi- 
h 9x^*Breiihaupt. Lustre pearly. Composition thin, 
columnar. Scratches glass, and even quartz. Bmy. 
Sp. gr. 2.3. 

,Ut ^ \ SPAR. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it becomes whiter and then melts 
witho&t efferveBcence into a colourless glass. It occurs near 
Stavem, in Norway. 

Bueklandite, L^vy. Ann. of Phtl. Feb. 1824, p. 134. 

Colour dark-browDi nearly black* Opake. Scratches 

paratomous Augite-spar. Cleavage unknown. 

It occurs near Arendal, in Norwa^r, and resembles parato^ 
mous Augite-spar. 


CoZot/e, or Mineral Turquoite. Jam. 
Turquoise. C. 

Colour blue, passing into green, rather bright. Streak 
uncoloured. Translucent on the edges. Opake. Lus- 
tre of polished specimens pearly. Fracture conchoidal. 
Hardness 6.0. * Sp. gr. 2.83— 3.00. Massive. Fisher. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it becomes brown in the reducing 
flame, and imparts to it a green colour. Infusible per se, but 
fuses easily with borax and salt of phosphorus. 
It consists, according to John^ of 

Alumine, 44.50 

Phosphoric acid, 30*90 

Oxide of copper, 3.75 

Water, 19. 

It occurs in alluvial soil, in globular and reniform masses, 
from the size of a nut to that of a goose-egg. It is found in 
Persia. It is cut and polished for ring-stones, and odier or- 
namental pieces. 


C9lour white, yellowish-white, gray and yellowish- 
gray. Lustre indistinctly vitreous, passing into resinous. 
Streak white. Fracture conchoidal and splintery ; cross- 
fracture exhibits a black cross. Hardness 5.0 — S.6. 
Sp. gr. 2.94. 

Before the blow-pipe the whitish part is infusible, but as- 

SPAR. . Itfe 

Buroes a whiter colour. With borax and salt of phosphorus it 
xneltB with difficulty. 

It is a compound of alumine and silex, but it is almost im- 
possible to determine the proportions of its elements. It oo 
curs imbedded in elay slate. 

24 It is found in Sterling, Mass., Gharlestown, N. H., 
Brunswick, Me, 

Diaspore, * Phil. C. 

Colour greenish-gray. Translucent on the edges. 
Lustre vitreous, inclining to pearly; Scratches glass. 
Sp. gr. 3.43. Primary form a doubly oblique prism of 
the following dimensions : M on T 64^ 54^ P on T 
lOP 20'. P on M 108° 30'. 

1. Before thd blow-pipe it decrepitates most violently and 
splits into many small scaly particles, which possess the pro- 
perty of changing ibe vegetable blues to green. According to 
Vrauquelin'saiiialy sis,. it consists of 

Alumina, 80« 

Protoxide of iron, 3.00 

Water, 17. 

Berzelius supposes that it contains an alkali. Locality un- 
known. Rare. 


•CJolour i«ed, or brownish-red. Tranducent. Lustre 
vitreous* Fracture uneven. Streak white. Hardness 
6.0 — 6.5. Sp. gr. 2.89. The cleavage gives a regular 
hexahedfal prism, affording by measurement angles of, 
120° of one lateral plane on the next, and 90^ of the 
summit, on each lateral plane. 

1. Befi>re the blow-pipe it melts into a leek-green scoria. 
If reduced to powder it gelatinizes with acids. It consists of, 

Silex, ^.00 

Zirconia, 10,89 

Lime, 10.14 

Soda, 13.92 

Oxide of iron, 6.85 



Oxide ofmangaBQsey 2.57 
' Muriatic acid, 1.03 Stromeyer. 

2. It is fi)und in Greenland, mixed with dodecabedral Kou- 
phone-spari and hemi-prismatic Augite-epar. 

Qikltnitt, Phil. Jam« C. 

Colour dark-gray, varying in kind, but never bright. 
Lustre resinous. Opake. Sometimes faintly translucent 
in thin fragments* Brittle. Hardness 5.5 — 6. Sp. gr. 
S.03« Crystalizes in rectangular prisms, differing but 
little from the cube. Sometimes they are tabular. 

1. It fuses with difficulty before the blow-pipe. It gelatin* 
izes in warm muriatic acid. It consists of 

Alumine, 24.90 

Silex, 29.64 

Lime, 35.30 

Oxide of iron, 6.56 

Water, 3.30 Fucks.} 

It is found in the valley of Fassa, in the Tyi^l, imbedded in 
calcareous spar. 

14. HAUYNE. 
HaUyne. Pbil. Jam. C. 

Colour, when opake, indigo-blue; when translucent, 
bluish-green; usually bright. Streak white. Translu- 
cent. Opake. Fracture uneven. Scratches ^ass. Sp. 
gr. S.68, Ginelin — 3.33, Gismondi. Crystalizes in the 
form of a rhombic dodecahedron. 

1. Before the blow«ptpe it loses its colour and melta into a 
vesicular glass. It effervesces with borax and melt9, and form* 
on cooling a yellow glass. 

It consists of SUex, 35.48 

Alumine, 18.87 

Lime, 12.00 

Sulphuric acidi 12.39 

Potash, 15.45 

Oxide iron and water, 2w36 

2. It occurs at AlbvK) and Frescati, nc^ Kome, among the 
products of VesuTiHS. 

SPAR. 1S5 


Colour high straw-yeHow, passing into wax-yellow. 
Opake. Lustre silky. Hardness lo\^. Sp. gr. 2.9S. 
Massive. Composition thin columnar, and forming scopi- 
form and stellular groups, which are rather incoherent. 

1. It intumesces before the blow-pipe, becomes white, and 
melts into a coherent mass. It consists of 

Silex, 37.53 

Alumine, 26.48 

Protoxide of manganese, ^ 17.09 
Do. iron, 5^ 

Water, 11.36 Steinmatm. 

2. It occurs in granite in Bohemia. 

The Cummingtonite is considered by some mineralogists as 
a variety of Earpholite. The conjecture needs stronger proofs 
than any which have been given. 

16. NEPHRITE. Jade. 

Colour green, particularly leek-green, passing into gray 
and white. Translucent; often only on the edges. 
Tough. Fracture splintery. Hardness 7.0. Sp. gr. 
2*93 — 3.02. Massive. Composition impalpable in the 

1. Alone before the blow-pipe it is infusible. It consists of 

Silex, 50.50 

Magnesia, 31.00 

Alumina, , 10.00 

Oxide of iron, 5.50 

Do chrome, 0.05 
Water, 2.75 Kostner. 

2. It is found at Sroithfield, R« I., and at Easton, Pa., im- 
bedded in limestone. Its extreme toughness renders it suita- 
ble for the handles of various instruments, and also for deline- 
ating delicate figures, without danger of fracture. 


Colour leek-green, passing into blue, white and ash* 
gray. Lustre pearly, inclining to vitreous on the faces of 
cleavage, resinous on a polished surface. Streak white. 

136 6PAR. 


Broken with difficulty. Hardness 5.5. Sp. gr. 3.25. 
Fracture uneven. Cleavage in two directions, affording 
an angle of 124°. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it melts with difficulty into a white 

It consists of Silex, 49. 

Alumine, 24. 
Lime, 10. 

Magnesia, 3J75 
Oxide of iron, 6.50 
Soda, 5.50 Sausmre. 

2, This mineral occurs in primitive mountains, and consti- 
tutes, with several species of Augite-spar, the rock called 
gabbro, and euphotide. It occurs at Monte Rosa, and its 

Somervillite. Brooke. Brand*8 Quar. Jour. 

Colour pale dull yellow* Hardness equals that of 


It decrepitates before the blow-pipe, and melts alone into a 
gray coloured globule, and with borax into a colourless glass. 
It occurs at Vesuvius. 

19. THULiTE. 
Thulite, Brooke's Crystalograpbjr. 

Colour rose-red. Streak grayish-white. Less hard 

than quartz, but yields to the knife with difficulty. It 

yields to cleavage parallel to the sides of a rhombic prism 

of 920 SC and 87° W. 

Occurs in Norway ; resembles and may be a variety of 

Siliciferout Oxide of Manganese. FhU. 

Colour rose*red* Translucent on the edges. Lustre 
intermediate between pearly and resinous. Hardness 
5.0 — 5.5. Sp. gr. 3.53. Berzelius. Massive. Com- 

SFAIU ' 187 

position fine granular, and strongly coherent. CleaTage 
apparent, in two directions, and forming an angle of 87^ y. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it becomes dark-brown, and melts 
into a reddirii-brown elobule. It imparts to glass of borax in 
the okidatinff flame a njraciiitb-red, but in the tftdueiog flame 
it remains white. 

It consists of Silex, 48.04 

Oxide of manganese, 54.00 
Oxide of iron, a trace. 

Lime and magnesia, 3.34 

2. It occurs at Longlansh/ttani in Sweden, in beds of iroft 
ore. ^ 

The minerals ciUied AUagHe^ ComeauB Man^aneHi PAotfj- 
»i<e and RhocbniUf are said to be compact TarietieB of flle pre- 
ceding species. 


BitiUeaic of Manganen, Thompson. Ann. of the Lyeeom of N. 

York, for April, 1838. 

Colour rose-red, which on expose to air beccmies dark 
and almost black on the surface* Surface often covered 
with a black crust, which is easily removed in scales. 
Sp. gr. 3«53* 

1. It consists of Silex, 40.58 

Protoxide of manganese, 38.1 
Protoxide of iron, 13.1 

Water, 3.00 

Carbonic acid, 3. 23 

The peculiarity furnished hy this variety is, that a jportioD of 
ike Protoxide of manganese is replaced by an equal quantity 
cf Protoxide of iron. This mmeral eflervesces slightly itt 
acids, from the presence of a small quantity of carl^nate of 

The Bisilicate of manganese does not differ essentially from 
MangafUHf^par^ the preceding mineral. It is introduced for 
the purpose of giving the results of the investigations of IVof. 

2. It occurs in loose boulders, in Cummington, Mass. It 
is geologically connected with the hornblende rock. 


t . 


* SPAA. 


8ilieai€ ofMang^tie. Thompson. Ann. Lycenm for April, 182^. 

Colour light brownish-red, pale straw-yellow. Trans- 
lucent on the edges* Streak light-red or yellow. . Liuk 
tre shining and vitreous. Hardness 6.0. Sp. gr. 4.0T. 
Thompson. Fracture foliated* Cleavage in two direc- 
tions, which gives a prism slightly oblique, affording by 
measoFement angles of 86^ and 94^, with the common 
goniometer. Another cleavage less distinct indicates a 
right oblique pristnj deviating 3^ or 4^ from right angles. 

1. When ignited it becomes brown and loses 3.7 per cent of 
its weight. . When digested in muriatic acid it gradually dla* 
solves without effervescence. It consists of 

8il(s, 29.64 

Protoxide of manganesoi 66. 60 
Peroxide of iron, 0.92 

Moisture, 2.70 

It hence consists of 1 atom of silicat 16+1 atom of protox- 
ide man^nese 36* It has been known aa the rhomboidal s9i- 
It is found at Franklin, N. Y. 



Colour brown, with a shade of red. Lustre dull, ex- 
ternally, but shining and splendent internally, and pre- 
senting tints of red and gray. Hardness 6.0. Sp. gr. 
3.44. Thompson. Cleavage three-fold, indicating a doubly 
oblique prism for its. primary form. 

PonM I80O 00- 
P on T 86 ao 
MonT 86 30 

1. When treated with muriatic acid much chlorine is 
evolved, becomes white, and its sp. gr. is increased to 3^48^. 

l%i8 mineral was conatitutecl. originally of 4 atoms of silicate 
of manganese, and 1 atom of per-silicate of iron* 

It has been known for sometime as crystalized siliceous 
oxide of manganese. 



Colour externally brown, with a slight shade of red. 

Streak flea-brown. Lustre externally glimmering, inter- 

nally shining and vitreous. Fracture foliated* Cleavage 

indistinct. Aspect of the crystals dodecahedrons, but their 

f6rms are too imperfect to admit of a correct designation 

and measurement ; but by conjecture the inclination of the 

contiguous planes are 124^. Hardness 2.0 — 2.5. Sp. 

gr. 3.01, 

1. It dissolves with effervescence in muriatic acid, giving out 
much chlorine, and leaving the silica undissolved. By analy- 
sis the following constituents were obtained : 

Silex, 30.65 

Protoxide of manganese, 46.31 
Peroxide of iron, 15.45 

Loss by heat, 7.30 

The atomic constitution, as stated by Thompson, is 3 at* 
oms of silicate of manganese-f-l atom sesqui-per-silicate of 
iron. V. 

This mineral was considered as a SiKcate of Zinc^ until 
the investigation of Prof. Thompson determined its true com- 

It occurs at Franklin and at Stirling, N. J. 


Colour iron-black. Streak brown. Lustre vitreous. 

Powder brown. Brittle, and easily reduced to powder. 

It is not scratched by the knife, but easily by quartz, and 

with some diflSculty by feldspar. Not magnetic. Sp. gr. 


1. Its constituents are, 

Silex, 38.38 

Protoxide of manganese, 51.66 

Peroxide of irooi 9.44 

140 GSM* 

Its atotnie eotu^tdent Is stated tobe l^mtom siUea^*! ai#^ 
om protoxide of mangsnese. 

It had received the designation of granular dyshiite. It is 
associated with massive yellow garnet and freoMimU. It 
seems to belong to the order Ore, in the natural sjrstem, but 
is placed now in connexion with the other manganesian mine* 


G.attd.0— 3.2 


Pritmatie Jindaiunte^ (first sab-speciet.) Jam. 
AndalvLtUt. Phil. C. 

Colour white, reddish-white^ flesh*red, and sometimes 
purplish-red. Streak white. Translucent. Lustre vit- 
reous. Brittle. Structure lamellar^ with natural joints 
parallel to the side of a rhombic prism, affcurding by meas- 
urement angles of 91^ %V and 88^ Aff. Hardness 7.5. 
Sp. gr. 8.10. Occurs massire with a composition indis- 

1. Before the blow-pipe it is infusible ; it dissolves with dif- 
ficulty in borax, and scarcely at all in salt of phosphorus. 

It consists of Alumine, 60.5 

Silex, 36.5 

Oxide of iron, 4.0 

2. Andalusite is found imbedded in mica slate and in gran- 
ite. This species was first discovered in Andalusia in Spain. 
In the United States it is found at Litchfield, Ct and at jLah- 
caster and Westford, Mass. in crystals of vicious shades of 
red, yellow and brown, associated with rhaetizite and a fibrous 
substance resembling BuchohiU, The andalusite of the last 
mentioned localities resembles that firom the 8ua^ in Carina 




H. =8.0—9.0 
G. =3.5—4.3 


Octahedral Corundum, (2d and 3d sab-species.) Jam. 
Pleonastt'Spinelle, Ruby, Pbil. 

Colour red, passing into blue and green, also yellow^ 
brown and black, sometimes nearly white. Streak white. 
Transparent... translucent only on the edges, if the colour 
is dark. Lustre vitreous. Fracture conchoidal. Clear« 
age difficult, parallel to the planes of an octahedron. 
Hardness 8.0. Sp. gr. 3.52. 

1. 2. 3. 

Fig. 1. The regular octahedron, which is the primary form. Fig. 
2« Edges of the octabedroa replaced. Fig. 3. Rhombic dodecabe* 

1. Before the blow-pipe with borax this mineral fuses with 
difficulty,' yielding a deep green enamel. 

Included in this species are three yarieties^ viz : Blue Spi- 
helky Red SpineUe and Pleonaste. They consist of the fol- 
lowing elements : 

Blue SpineUe, 

Alumina, 72.25 

Silica, 5.45 

. Magnesia, 14.63 

Oxide of iron, 4.26 


Yauquelin discovered 6.11 per cent of chromic acid in the 
red spinelle. 

2. Fine specimens of Pleonaste and Spinelle have been found 
at Warwick, N. Y. of extraordinary dimensions, varying from 
one to sixteen inches round the base. Colours black, grayish- 
bJack, bluish-black and reddish-brown and green. It is also 
found at Haddam, Ct. and Chelmsford, Mass. ; at the latter 

Red Spinelle, 












142 GEM., 

place of a beautifd aky^Uue* iTbe ^ptnelle of Orange and 
Sussex coontieSy thoagh at present not abundant, is found in 
irregular vieins in a coarse crjstaline limestone, associated with 
homblendei mica, bronzite and Brucite. 


0clahe4ral Corundum, (first tab-species.) Jam. 
JiutomalUe. Phil. C. 

Colour dirty green, inclining to black and blue. Streak 
^hite. Translucent on the edges«..opake. Lustre vitre- 
ous, inclining to resinous* Hardness 8.O. Sp. gr« 4.23. 
Cleavage parallel to the planes of a regular octahedron* 

1. Alone it is infusible, and nearly so with borax or salt of 
phosphorus. With soda it fuses into a dark scoria, which on 
oeing melted again with soda, deposits an areola of oxide of 
zinc. It consists of 

N Alumina, 60.00 

Oxide of zroc, 24.25 

Oxide of iron, 9.25 

Silica, 4.75 

2. Automalite is found at Franklin, N. J. and at several 
places in the neighborhood. It is now a rare mineral. 


Rhomboidai Corundum, Jam. 
Corundum, PbU. C. 

Colour blue, red, green, yellow, brown, gray and 
white. Streak white. Transparent.. .translucent. Lus* 
tre vitreous. It possesses double refraction. Several 
varieties, when cut round, exhibit a six-sided opalescent 
star in the direction of the axis. Hardness 9.0. Sp. gr. 
S.92 — 3.97. It yields to mechanical division easily in 
one direction with a perfect brilliant surface. Primary 
form a slightly acute rhomboid, affording angles of 86° i' 
and 93° 56'. 

The massive compound varieties aVe granular, general- 
ly fine and passing into impalpable^ 

GEM. 143 

1. Corundum is the name given to the common form of this 
mineral by the inhabitants of India. When erystalized and 
pure, it is called Sofj^e ; when the colour is red, it is call- 
ed Oriental Rvhy. The compound yariety is known as the 

2. Before the blow-pipe it suffers no change eyen in the 
form of powder. It dissolves slowly but perfectly in borax. 
Acids have no efi^t upon it. The following varieties furnish 
the following results by analysis : 


Corundum Slone, 


Alumina, 98.5Q 



Silica, 0.00 



Oxide of iroui 1.00 



Lime, 0.50 






3. Rhombohedral corundum is found in crystals imbedded 
in the massive varieties. The most perfect of the species, as 
the sapphire and' oriental ruby, are met with principally in 
secondary deposites, as the sand of rivers, &c. 

The finest varieties are from Pegu. In St. Gothard, red 
and blue varieties occur in dolomite. Emery is found in Saxo- 
ny and in the Island of Nazos, in the Grecian Archipela- 

4. There are a few localities of Sapphire in the United States, 
viz : Newton, in the county of Sussex, N. J. It is there found 
imbedded along with a lyhite feldspar in limestone, near the 
junction of the granitic syenite and the white granular lime- 
stone. It is blue and white, the central part of a bright ber- 
lin-blue, becoming pale towards the surface. It is associated 
wilk pleonasie^ red oxide of titaniumf jeWowlsh-'green idocrasef 
condrodiie and pyramidal feldspar. Other localities will pro- 
bably be discovered by tracin]^ the direction of the veins north 
and south, as the deposites of all those rare and interesting 
minerals in the counties of Orange and Sussex, have at least 
some degree of regularityi or are not to be found very far east 
or west of a given line. 

• d. The pure and transparent varieties of Octahedral corun- 
dum are highly esteemed as ornamental stones. The red are 
most highly valued} and go by the name of oriental Suby ; the 
violet bhie are called oriental Amethyst ^ the greeui oriental 
Emerald; the yellow^ orteiito/ Topaz^ and the blue oriental 

Corundum is much used for cutting and poUshiof; steel and 
gemsy and it is also said even the diamond. 




PritnuUie CorunduMf or Crysohtryl, Jam* 
Crytobtryl. FhiU C. 

Colour asparagus- green, passing into* greenish-white, 
olive-green and yellowish-gray. Streak white. Trans- 
parent;... translucent. Lustre vitreous. Occasionally 
there appears in the interior an opalescing bluish-white 
light, if viewed in the direction perpendicular to the 
shorter diagonal of the primary form. Fracture con- 
choidal. , Hardness 8.5. Sp. gr. 3.75. Primary fortn a 
right rectangular prism. It yields to cleavage parallel to 
the plane M- M on T 90^ 0(K. 



TMon i 90 
M OQ s 125 16' 
T on i 120 
T on 8 144 44 
Jour, Sciencef vol, iii. p. 294. 



1. Before the blow-pipe it remains unchanged. With bo- 
rax it fuses with diflficulty. It consists of 







2. Prismatic Corundum occurs at Haddam; Ct., and at 
Saxatoga, N. Y., in granite. 


Protoxide of iron, 
Oxide of titanium, 






0.40 Seyhert. 





G. 1=3.4.— 3.5 


Oekthedralj or fommon Diamond. Jam. 
Diamond, PhiU C 

Colour white, prevalent. Also various shades of blue, 
i«d, yellow, green, brown, gray, and even black : colours 
generally pale. Streak white. Transparent...tran|slu- 
cent. If cut and polished it exhibits a lively play, of 
light. Hardness 10.0. Sp. gr. 3.52. Cleavage per- 
fect, parallefl to the planes of the regular octahedron. 

12 3 4 6 

Pig. 1. The primary, the regular octahfidral. Fig. 2. Octahedron, 
^ith the solid anglesTej^laced. In Fig. 3, those planes are complete. 
Fig. 4. The edges of ihe octahedron replaced by six-sided planes. In 
Fig. 6| those planes are complete. 

1. Octahedral Diamond is perfectly combustible at the tem- 
perature of about 14° of Wedgewood's pyrometer, abd yields 
with oxygen, carbonic acid gas. Acids and alkalies have no 
effect upon it It consists of carbon in its purest form. 

2. The Diamond has been found in secondary deposits, ia 
a district which abounds with debris of sandstone rock, which 
are oflen aggregated or cemented together into a sort of coarse 
breccia. It occurs likewise in the loose sand of plains and 

3. The diamond was first discovered in the East Indies. It 
is likewise found in Brazil, in the district of Serro do Frio, 
and in the Ural chain of mountains, in the neighborhood of 
£ou8hra, and at Nigny-Toura, Russia. 

4. This mineral is the most valued of all gems / it is used 
as an ornamental stone, and obtains a preference above all 
others. For cutting glass, and for engraving, cutting ^i 
polishing other hard stones, it is indispensable. 


14ft OEl^ 




Prismaiic Tojpu, Jam. 
Topas, Phil. C. 

Colour various shades of yellow, green and blue; like- 
wise white ; colours generally pale. Streak white. 
Transparent...translucent. lais^e vitreous. Hardness^ 
8.0. Sp. gr*. 3.49. Cleavage distinct and perfect at' 
right angles to the axis,. and difficult parallel to the late- 
ral planes of a right rhombic prism, which is the primary 
form. M on M'- 124° 22'. P on M or M' 90^ OCy, 

1. Before the blow-pipe Topaz is infusible ; with borax it 
fuses slowly into a transparent glass. Berzelius considers 
the Topaz as a compouDd of 1 atom of sub-fluate of alumina+ 
3 atoms of silicate of alumina. This corresponds nearly to 
tBilex 24, alumina 57.45, fluovic acid 7.75. The Physalite and 
Fycnite vary but little in composition from the above. 

2. The Topaz belongs almost exclusively to primitive coun- 
tries, and even enteifs mto the composition of some granitic 
rocks. The Pycniie is a compound variety, consisting of in- 
dividuals closely joined in composition, and deeply streaked 
longitudinally. It never possesses bright colours, or a high de- 
gree of transparency. Physalite is a still more imperfect va- 
riety of Topaz. It occurs usually in large massive individu- 
als, whose colours are usually pale greenish-gray. 

3. The most perfect crystals of topaz come from Siberia. 
They are usually green, blue or white. They are associated 
with rhombohedral Emerald. Those from Brazil are met 
with in loose pebhles of high yellow colours. The Mexican 
Topaz is white or limpid. 

Frismatic Topaz, when its colours are bright, is used as an 
ornamental stone, but is less valued than the sapphire. It is 
found in Munroe, Ct., of a very great size, though not perfect in 
form ; also on the Amonoosuck, near the falls, in the White 
Mountains, N. H. The former locality is probably exhaust- 
ed ; the latter has furnished but few specimens, but deserves 
farther examination. 

amm 147 


H.==7.5— 8.0 
G.=2.6— 3A 


Prismatic Emerald, or Eiulase, Jam. 
EucloMe, Phil. C. 

Colour green, passing into blue and white, and always 
pale. Streak white. Transparent*. .translucent* Lus- 
tre vifreous. Very brittle and fragile, from which pro- 
' perty the name Euclase has been derived* Mohs. Hard- 
ness 7.5. Sp* gr* 3.09. Cleavage perfect, parallel to P, 
less so in the direction H and Z, of a right oblique angled 
prism, which is considered as the primary form. 

1. Before the b}ow-pipe it intumesces in a strong heat, and 
becomes white» and finally melts into a white enameL 

It consists of Silica, 43.22 

Alumina, 30.56 

Glucjna, 21.78 

Oxide of iron/ 2.22 
Oxide of tin, 0.70 Berzdius. 

2. It is yet a scarce mineral. It was first brought tp Eu- 
rope from Peru. It occurs in a cbloritic, slate, resting, it is 
said, on sandstone. 


Shomboidal Emerald. Jam. 

BtryL Aquamarine Emerald* Phil. C. 


Colour green, passing into blue, yellow and white; 
the brightest green is termed emerald-green ; the colours 
iare generally pale, and unequally diffused through the 
specimens. Streak white* Lustre vitreous. Hardness 
7.5—8.0. Sp. gr. 2.67—2.73* 


1. In a strong heat before the blow-pipe the edges of the 
fitigments are rounded ; in borax it dissolves slowly* 

The two varieties included in this species. Emerald and 
Beryl, differ only in colour: in tlra Emtrald it is a bright and 

148 G£lf. 

peculiar green ; ike Berjrl is yellow or duM yellowish-green, 
with surmces more or less rough, and striated transversely. 
They consist of Silex» 68.35 

Alumina, 17.60 
Giucina, 13.13 
Oxide of iron, 0.72 
2. The finest specimens of Emerald are brought fromPeru. 
They are in druses in a limestone rock, and likewise in Aom- 
hkndej day^late and granite. The beryls in this country oc- 
cur in granite or mica slate, and most of our primitive sec- 
tions of countiy furnish them. In Ackworth, N. H., th^j 
are very large, but not of fine colours. 


G. =1.9*— 2.7 


lolite. Jam. JolUe. JHehroUe. Phil. 

Colour various shades of blue, generally inclining to 
black. Streak white. Transparent.. .translucent* Lus- 
tre vitreous. When viewed in the direction of the axis 
the crystal appears blue, and yellowish-gray perpendicu- 
lar to it. Hardness 7.0 — 7.5. * Sp. gr. 2.68. It is said 
to possess natural joints, parallel to. the planes of a six- 
sided prism. Occurs crystalized in six and twelve-sided 

Compound varieties are fnassive^ and hard to be distin- 
guished. Composition granular, and strongly adherent. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it melts with a high heat on the 
edffes only, into a glass near the colour of the mineral. 

lolite and Peliom scarcely differ sufficiently to form varie- 
ties. The former was discovered at Cabo de Gata, in Spain* 
the latter at Bodenmais, in Bavaria, both massive and crys- 
talized, associated widi rhombohedral quartz, garnet, &c. It 
furnishes by analysis, 

Silica, 48.53 

Alumina, 31.73 

Magnesia, 11.30 

Oxide of iron, 5.68 



Oxide of manganese, 0.70 
Water and Iobs, 1.64 

It ia said to occur at Groshen, Mass., in granite* 


Rhomboidal QuoWf, (excepting Porcelain Jasper.) Jam. Qiuartgf 
(exc. Hyalite.) Colt-eye Flint. Chalcedony, (exc. Cacholong.) 
Jtftper, (exc. Porcelain Jasper.) * Homttone, Phil. 

Prevailing colour of the species white; other distin* 
guishing colours are vioIet-blue, rose-red, clove-brown, 
and apple-green, each of which form a variety. Dark- 
brown and green colours are owing generally to foreign 
admixtures. Streak white. Transparent. .translucent. 
Opake when impure. Cleavage very difficult and indis- 
tinct. Primary form a rhomboid of 94^ 15' and 85^ 45'. 
Hardness 7.0. Sp. gr. 2.69, 




P on r 1410 40' 

Zorir 141 40 

F & Z on o 128 20 
r on r 120 

Fig. 1. Primary form. Fig. 2. Qjnartz annulairey formed by the 
decrement of one row of molecales parallel to the summit of the 

Compound varieties numerous. Thus it occurs in 
globular, reniform and stalactitic shapes. Also in colum- 
nar, of ft usually coarse structure, and in lanunftted and 


1^0 GEM. 

granular massesH-the latter pa/ssiqg into impalpable* 
Sometimes it occurs in pseudo-morphpus crystals, which 
are hexahedrons and octahedrons. It sometimes, though 
rarely, occurs in ovoidal &t globular masses, somewhat 
resembling fused globules of glass. The forms mentioned 
in this paragraph usually constitute varieties which re- 
ceive particular descriptions in books on Mineralogy. ^ 
The most important sub-species are the following : 1. 
Amethyst y which is of a violet-blue colour, and of a coarse 
fibrous structure. 2. Rock Crystal^ which is limpid and 
transparent, or semi-transparent, together with the white 
massive varieties. 3. Rose Quartz ^ which is massive, 
and of a rose-red colour. 4. Prase^ which is a dark leek- 
green; and, 5. Common Quartz, which includes the 
massive, laminatied and granular varieties. 

1. The Common Quartz passes insensibly into the other 
varieties, such as. Homstone^ which is translucent, and ex- 
hibits a dull, splintery fracture. Homstone seems very near- 
ly allied to Flinty 8late, Lydian Stone^ Jasper and Helio- 
trope* Flinty Slate is divided into many angular masses by 
seam^y but as a whole it is slaty. Lydian stone forms masses 
in flinty slate, free from seaips, and presents a large conchoidal 
fracture, and a perfectly compact structure. Jasper has a 
composition which is impalpable, with a large conchoidal fhic- 
ture, but generally coloured red by the peroxide of iron ; it 
occurs, however, of all colours, and the darker ones resemble 
Lydian stone. Heliotrope is a variety of cotnmon quartz, 
coloured by green earth, but containing blood-red spots of 
Jasper. The coarser kinds are found in masses in Flinty 
Slate. Those stal&ptitic and botryoidal forms of common 
quartz which are deposited in layers, with surfaces rough or 
drusy, constitute Chalcedony. Colours usually milk-white^ 
when they are red or reddish, are distinguish^ as Came* 
lian. Ohrysoprase is also a variety of chalcedony, coloured 
green by the oxide of nickel. Plasma^ another variety of 
chalcedony, is coloured leek-green^ and sometimes grass- 
green, by some substance not yet well determined. CcUseyt 
is a variety of fibrous quartz,, of a greenish^gray, and which 

eshibits a peculiar opal^soonoe wb^a cut into a convei^ sur« 

OEM. 161 

face and polished. Bgccmth from Con^OMUUaf is produced 
by a large admixture of o^cide of iroa The indivicuials are 
opake, but present the regular hexabedral prism, terminated 
by pyramids at each extremity, and very rarely modiiSed by 
replacement. The intermixture of oxide of iron produces a 
passa^ of quartz into iron flint, otjUnty iron ort. 

% Quartz is infusible before the blow-pipe. The most 
perfect varieties are nearly pure silex. Bucholz obtained 
99.37 parts of silex from rock crystal. 

3. Silex is one of the most common substances in nature. 
It enters into the composition of rocks, and is very widely 
distributed. It is spread all over the ^lobe. 


Indivisible Quarlg. Jam. 

Hyalite. Opal. Bydrophane, Menilite, Caeholong, 8Uieeout 

ainUr. Phil. C. 

Colour white, yellow, red, brown, green, gray« The 
lively colours are the red and green ones ; the others are 
pale. The dark colours are owing to foreign admixture* 
Streak white. Lustre vitreous, inclining to resinous. 
Fracture conchbidal* Transparent... translucent; some* 
times only on the edges. Occasionally some specimens 
eschibit a lively play of light in the interior ; others show 
different colours by reflected and refracted light. Hard* 
ness 5.6 — 6.5. Sp. gr. 2.9. 

Compound varieiies.-^SmM reniform, bolxyoidal and 
stalactitic shapes, and large tuberose concretions* In the 
former the surface is smooth, in the latter rough* Com-* 
position impalpable. Ftacture conchoidal, even. 

1. The following varieties under uncleavable quartz com- 
prehend the most important : 1. Opal, It is subdivided into 
jpreciottSf common, semi'Opal and wood opal. Precious opcdf 
when cut and polished into a convex surface, exhibits in the 
interior a play of light which oflen preserves constant direc- 
tionsr within single parts of the mass. This play of light is 
supposed to be connected with a regular structure. Common 
and semi-opal diffeif from the precious by having an inferior 
degnee of lustre and transparency. Wood opal appears in the 

lit Gfi]|« 

form oftrunks, roots and branches of trees. 2. Hydropkane 
18 a variefy of opal which is naturally opake, but becomes 
translucent by inunersion in water. 3. Hyalite occurs in 
small reniform, botryoidal and sometimes stalactitic shapes, 
with generally a considerable degree of transparency. It 1^ 
Bwnbies in colour and lustre gum arabie, 4. MeniUte oc- 
curs in tuberose forms, but is opake. It is subdivided into 
hroten and gray Menilite. 5. Siliceous sinter is a deposit of 
silex from hot springs. 

2. Uncleavable quartz consists of 

Preeioui Opal, Hyalite. Menilite, 

Silex, 92.00 90.00 85.50 

Water, 6.33 10.00 11.00 

3. It usually forms short irregular veins, strongly connected 
with the matrix, in porphyry ai^d amygdaloid. It occurs more 
abundantly in Hungary than any other country. 

Precious opal is considered as a gem, and is generally cut 
with a convex surface. If the specimens are large and pure, 
and possess vivid colours, they are of considerable value. 



Pearlstone, Pitchstone. Pumice. Obtidian. PhiL C. 

Colours black, brown, red, yellow, green, gray, white, 
dull. Streak white. Faintly transparent.. .translucent 
on the edges. Lustre vitreous, and resinous. Cleavage 
none. Fracture conchoidal, perfect, uneven. Hardness 
6.0—7.0. Sp. gr. 2.39—2.21. 

1. The following varieties are included in empyrodox 
quartz: 1. O&szWian, usually opake, and sometimes transpa-; 
rent. Fracture large~ conchoidaL Lustre purely vitreous, 
in perfect forms. When the conchoidal fracture- is lost, and 
the lustre becomes resinous, it passes into Pitchstorte* 2* 
J^earlstone is formed of concretions, more or less rounded, 
and which may be separated from the mass^ and likewise in 
thin films, which are partially concentric: they sometimes 
contain a grain of Obsidian. 3. Pu»Mcc,occurs infihroiis^ vesic" 
ular piasses, oHen extremely light and pQrous, and of a gray 
colour^ These varieties are often connected in the same spe-> 
cimen. • 

2. They consist as follows : ^ 

# Prom ernpuTQSf belonging^ to fire, and doxa, the opioioo. 

(Mdian. Mdkitone/ PtarUUnt. Fumiee, 

SitoE, 73.00 73.00 75.25 27^ 

Alumina, 12.50 14.56 12.00 17iiO 

Potash, and 7 Minn 0.00 4.50 ^^^ 

soda, 5 ^"•"" 1.75 0.00 ^'^ 

^^^Ja^'^H 2.00 1.10 1.60 1.75 

Lime, 0.00 1.00 0.50 0.00 

Water, 0.09 8^ 4.50 0.00 

3.V The ^bove vnfietiee belong exclnsivel/ to voloanic nxmn- 

Obsidian is sometimes used for mrrors^ vases^ snuf-hoxest 
&c. Pumice is a well known material, and is useflil for grind-- 
ing and polishing. 


, H.=6.5— 7.0 . 

Pritmatie JixinUe. Jam. JUxinite. Ph9. Cr 

Colour usually clove-brown, sometimes passes into 
plum-blue or pearl gray, and when mixed with chlorite, 
green. Streak white. Transparent...translucent. Hard- 
ness 6.5—7.0. Sp. gr. 3.27. Primary form undeter- 
mined. Cleavage irregular. General form of the crys- 
tals a doubly oblique prism. P on M 134^ 40^, P on T 
115° ir. 'm on T 135^ 10'. 

Compound varieties. Composition lamellar, passing 
into granular, and even impalpable. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it fuses easily inio a dark-^reen 
glass. It consists of 

Silex, 50.50 

Lime, 17.00 

Alumine, 16.00 

Oxide of iron, 9.50 

'f manganese, 5.25 

Potash, 0.25 KlaproiL 

154 OEM^ 

2. Pdaoatie axkiite^ofcoim in vans ib primitive rocks. It 
» fiMind at Thtun in Saxofiy, hence the name Thvmeritam or 


H.=6.5— 7:0 
G.=2.8— 3.0 


PritmtUie ChrysolUo, Jam. 
Chrysolite, . Olivine, Pbil. C. 

Colour various shades of green, as pistachio-olive, as- 
paragus-green and grass-green, and sometimes passing 
into brown. Streak white. Transparent...translucent. 
Lustre vitreous. Fracture conchoidal. Hardness 6.6 — 
7,0. Sp. gr. 3.44. Primary form a right rectangular 
prism, which may be obtained by cleavage, parallel to all 
its planes. 

Compound varieties. They are principally irregular 
spheroidal masses, imbedded in rocks. Composition granu- 
lar individuals easily separated. 

1. Before the blow-pipe chrysolite becomes dadker, but does 
not melt. Olivine loses its colour in heated nitric acid. Pris- 
matic chrysolite and olivine, though they differ somewhat in 
chemical coonposition, yet they by no means differ in their es- 
sential characters. Chrysolite is crystalized and possesses 
bright colours, while Olivine is a compound variety and t>os- 
sesses inferior colours and less transparency, l^ir constitu- 
ent elements are as follows : 

Chrysolite, Olivine, 

Silex, 39.00 , 60.00 

Magnesia, 43.50 38.60 

Oxide of iron, 19.00 12.00 

Lime, 0.00 0.25 

2. The ori^nal repository of chrysolite is unknown. Im- 
perfect varieties are found imhedded in lava, and come from 
the neighborhood of volcanoes. 


G.s=2.8— 3.0 


Hexahedral Boracitt, Jam. 

BoracUt. Borate o/Magnaia, Phil. C. 

Colour white or grayish-white, sometimes inclining to 
green or yellow. Streak white. Semi-tranqparent... 
translucent. Lustre vitreous, inclining to adamantine. 
Hardness 7.0. Sp. gr. 2.97. Fracture conchoidal, un- 
even. Primary form a cube. The general form of the 
crjrstals cubical. 

1. Before the blow-pipe upon charcoal it intumesces and 
melts into a classy slobule, which becomes opake and white 
on cooling. It consists of 

Boracic acid, 54.55 

Magnesia, 30.68 

Oxide of iron, 9.57 

Silex, 2.27 
It is a bi-borate of magnesia. 

2. Tetrahedral Boracite is found only at Luneburg in Bruns* 
wick and Segeberg in Holstein, imbedded in prismatic 6yp- 



G.=3.0— 3.2 


Rhomboidal Tourmaline* Jam. 
Tourmaline, Phil. C. 

, Colour brown, green, blue, red, white and black, gen- 
erally dark, but rarely bright. Lighter colours transpar- 
ent...translucent ; dark, opake. Transparency less, if 
viewed in the direction of the axis than perpendicular to 
it, and generally the colour also varies. Lustre vitreous. 
Streak white. Fracture imperfectly conchoidal, uneven. 
Brittle. Hardness 7.0—7.5. Sp. gr. 3.07. Cleavage 

Ut QEH. 

very difficult Primaiy form a rhomWd <tf 133° 50' and 
46° Iff. ElMtrk by heat. 

Compound earted'e*.— Rarely granular, generally co- 
lumnar, parallel or divergent. Crystals oflea deeply fur- 
rowed longitudiDally and traversed by seams transversely, 
wbich are often filled with quartz. 


1330 BO' 

F or r on n 

IM 60 

P or P' OQ t 

141 10 


f lonfa 

120 00 

1S6 2S 
147 ^ 
13« 15 
hoae 90 00 

Bona 103 SO 


1. Tourmaline is (be name a|^ropriated to all those varie- 
ties of this spedes which are not black. The term Schorl de- 
notes the common black variety. Other varieties are deaig- 
nsted by psTticular names. Thus rubeUtie ie a red variety end 
iitdicoliU is an indigo-blue variely, poflsessing however tints 
of various hues. Besides these there are green, leitU and 
bfoten towrmalinM. 

2. Before the blow-pipe Schorl melts easily with intumes- 
cence, the green and blue varieties do not melt so easily as 

black. The red IB infusible. They couaiBt of 


GrMn, Bhefy Blatlc I^unRsfine. 

Silex, 42.00 

40.00 40.30 


Almniie, 4«.00 

39.00 40.a) 


Sod., 10.00 

0.00 0.00 


Lilbia, 0,00 

0.00 4.30 


Potuh, 0.00 

0.00 0.00 


Lime, 0.00 

3.84 0.110 


Oiideofiron, 0.00 

1250 4.55 


do manganese, 7.00 

2.0O 1.50 


Boraciffacid, 0.00 

. 0.00 1.10 


Waler, 0.00 

O.OO 3.60 



VauqiifSn. Arfeedton 

. KiaprolA. 

a Tourmaline belonga 

to primitive rocks or 

granite and 

mica elate. The brown or vellowiah brown tourmaline la found 

in dolomite. 

GSM* 157 

4/ The green, Ted and blue varieties are found in Chester-^ 
iSdd, Mass, and ^e blue in very large crystals ia Gheaterf in 
« coarse grained granite. 

5. Tourmaline when free from flaws and of a good colour, 
is used as a gem. 

45ENUS XL garnet/ 

H=6.0— 7.5 
G=3.1— 4,3 


Tyramidal Gamely (excepting Gehleoite.) Janu 
Idocroie. PhiU C. 

Colour various shades of brown, passing into leek- 
jgreen, pistachio-green, olive and oil-green. Streak white. 
Semi-tran^aren t. . .faintly translucent on the edges: When 
viewed in the direction of the axis the colours incline to 
yellow ; perpendicular to it, to green. Lustre vitreous* 
Fracture imperfectly concboidal, uneven. Hardness 6.5. 
Sp. gr. 3.39. Primary form a right rectangular prism. 
Cleavage parallel to all its planes. The general form of 
the crystals quadrangular ; one or more of the solid lateral 
edges often replaced. Faces often furrowed or streaked 

Compound varieties. — Composition granular, and some- 
times columnar* 

I. Before the blow-pipe on charcoal, pyramidal Garnet 
melts easily into a globule of a dark colour. Some varietiesy 
as Egerane, furnish a green globule. 

It consists of tSilex, 35.50 

Ahxmina, 33.00 

Lime, 22.25 

Oxide of iron, 7.50 
do manfranese, 0.25 
2l Idocrase was first discovered among the ejected miner- 
mis of Vesuvius, hence it received the name of Vesuvian. A 
variety has been found near Egra in Bohemia, which was thfsn 
ittuned Egerane; the only difference which exists betwomi 

1S9 OBM» 

llMm 18, that Egeniiie oceora ill longer ciystehywlikh are de^ 
If a^r^ed and leaa perfecilj formed ; the other aopeara m 
ahort prisms and is boanded by a greater number of brilliant 
^ucea. All the colours form a continuous series to which no 
constant limits can l>e fixed. A varietj resembling Egerane 
has been called hoboite and Frugardite ; another from Telle* 
marken in Norway, of a blue colour, and containing copper, 
has beep termed Cyprine. 

3. Pyramidal Garnet has been found at Newton, Sussex 
county, N. J. associated with rhombohedral and dodecahedral 
corundum ; colour yellowish-green. Also at Salisbury, Ct. 
crystalizidd in rhomboidal dodecahedrons; colour reddish- 
brown with brilliant planes. The same variety has been found 
at Chester^ Mass. 

Tetrahedral Garnet, or HeUitu, Jam. 
Uelvine. Phil. C. 

Colour wax-yellow, inclining to honey-yellow and yel- 
lowish-brown, or also to siskin-green. Streak white* 
Translucent on the edges. Lustre vitreous, inclining to 
resinous. Fracture uneven. Hardness 6.0 — 6.5. Sp. 
gr. S.10» It occurs in crystals whose general form is that 
of a tetrahedron, but it yields to mechanical division par- 
allel to all the planes of the regular octahedron. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it melts on charcoal in the reducing 
flame, into a globule of the same colour as the mineral ; it be- 
comes dark in the oxidating flame, and the fusion is more diffi- 
cult. It consists of 

Silex, 39.50 

Alumina^ , 15.65 

Oxide of iron, 37.75 

do. magnesia, 3.75 

Lime, 0.50 

2. It has been found only at Schwarzenberg in Saxony, in 
beds in gneiss. 


Garnet, Phil. G. 

Colour red, brown, yellow, green, blacV and white, the 
only bright ones are the red colours. Streak white* 



Tnmsldemti.opilie*^ Liistre ^toeoixis, iaefefiag to te»> 
inous, in some specimens more of the latter than the former. 
Hardness 6.5*-7.5. Sp« gr* S.61 Grossular. 3.70 
Melanite. 3.76 Common brown garnet. 3.78 Pyrope. 
4.09 precious Garnet. 4.20 precious Ghirnet of Haddam. 
Cleavage imperfect and difficult. Primary fbrm dodeca- 
hedron with rhombic faces. 

P or P' Ota P" IflOo. 

Pone ld0^54' 
Pvom 14» 60 
aon e 169 6 

Fig. 1. Primary form. Fig. 2. Trtpesoedron. Fig. 3. Tridmar- 
gio^ of Hauy, 

. 1. Before the blow-pipe garnet mdts prettjr unifoitnly widi* 
out eflbrvescence into a black globulet did! externally but pr»- 
sentinff a vitreous fracture. 

2. The numerous colours and forms 'which dodecahedral 
garnet presents, has led to the designation of 9everal varieties ; 
me most important of which are as follows. 1. Ctrossular^ 
it occurs only in imbedded crystals of tiie forms of icositetn^ 
hedrons, and combines with the dodecahedron. Its colourt 
are confined to asparagus-green and mountain-green. 2. i^- 
reiuUt occurs in imbedded crystals in limestone, colour gray* 
ish-black and srayish-wbite, semi-transparent. 3« Mdanitef 
colour velvet-black, opake. 4. P^rope occurs in grains, trans- 
lucenti of a remarkable blood-red colour. 5. Precious gapMt 
is always red and usually crystalized in the primary form* 6. 
Common fortut is brown and dull. ?• Colophonitc presents a 
combination of colours which gives a peculiar irridescenoe 
very pleasing to the eye, it occurs mostly in grains which co- 
here but feebly. 

3. The diflbrent yarielies of .dcijecabedcal Garnet conuif 

as follows : 

Grottu* Mdanr Precious CQlopho- Fyrt" p 
/«r. He, geimeU. niit. neUe, ^V^^^^ 

Silex, 44. 35.50 35.75 37. 43. 40. 

Alumine, 8.50 6. 27.25 13.50 16. 28.50 

Lime, 3350 32.50 0. 29. 20. 3,50 

Oxide of iron, 12. 2^.25 36. 7.50 16. 16.50 

do manganese, a trace. 0.40 0.25 4.75 0. 0.25 

Magnesia, 0. 0. 0. 6.50 0. 10. 

The Pyrope contains besides flie above elements, 2J1 per 
cent of chromic acid. 

The atomic constitution may be expressed generally thus — 
1 atom of bisilicate of protoxide of iron+2 atoms of silicate of 
protoxide of manganese+2 atoms of silicate of alumina. Those 
^rnets which are called aluminiferous, are double silicates of 
alumina and one or two of the four bases, j^oioiides vfiron^ 
manganese, magnesia and Utne, If the protoxide of iron pre- 
dommates, the globule after fusion is coated with a pelicle of 
reduced iron, but the pelicle becomes thinner as the other ele> 
ments increase, and the globule is more vitreous. 

4. A few less distinct varieties have been noticed by di%p> 
ent mineralogists thus : TopazoUte^ which possesses a topaz 
yellow colour, and Succinite an amber-yellow, and Alhchroite 
which is a mixed variety, has a yellowish, greenish or brown- 
ish-gray colour. Manganesian Garnet contains a large pro^ 
portion of oxide of manganese, and gives before the blowpipe 
with borax and nitre, a violet coloured globule. 

5. Dodecahedral Garnet is extremely abundant in the primi- 
tive rocks, especially gneiss and mica slate. 

Precious Garnet is found abundantly at Hanover, in gneiss. 
At Franconiai fine crystals of the variety termed by Haliy, iri- 
fmarginS, represented by fig. 3. See Shepard's Min. journey, 
in the Journal of Science, No. 37, p. 132. Colophonite, at 
Willsborough, N. Y. Allobhroite near Baltimore, Md. Me- 
lanite at Chester, Mass. and at Franklin, N. J. Man^nesian 
Garnet near Philadelphia, Pa. Pyrope, Chester co. fa. 
* Remarkably large brown garnets occur at Franklin, N. J. 

ThO/fwo following species, the Aplome and Cinnamon stone^ 
have not as yet been determined to be distinct species, hence 
they are placed in connexion with dodecahedral Garnet. 

I moioi. 

Colour browii) sometimes yellowisli. Streak white* 
Tta&slucent on the edges... opake. Liidtte yitreons, hi- 
dining to resinous. Brittle. Hardness 7,0— 7.5. Sp. 
gr« 3.44. The primary form is supposed to be a cube. 
Cleavage imperfect* Fracture dneren* 

PoiiP 9(^ 

e on • 120 
P on e 135 

L It appeilHi like garnet before the blow-pipe. It is found 
to consist of 

Silexy 40. 

Aluminey 20. 

liime, 15.6 
Ox. manganese, 2. 
Ferriferous silex, 2. 

2. It occurs on the banks of the Lina in Siberia, and in Saxo- 
ny and Bohemia. Rare, 


Colour intermediate between hyacinth-red and orange- 
yellow. Streak white. Lustre vitreous, iiiclining to 
resinous. Transparent...translucent. . Hardness 7.0— 
7.6. Sp. gr. 3.63. Usually massive, with traces of 
cleavage parallel to a prism of 102^ 40'. Fracture un- 

1. Before the blow-pipe it melts easily into a brownish- 
black globule. ' 

It consists of Silex, 38.80 

Alumina, 21.20 

Lime, 31.25 

Oxide of iron, 6.50 Klaproik. 

2. Hie dnnttiiMHi Atone, camuil be conridered distioct from 
the garnet, unlets its crystaline form belongs to the prismatic 
•ytfteni, and the optieiBd rese^dies of Brewster and Biot ren- 
der it probable at Wat, that it is identical with the dodecaho^ 
dral tiarnet. 


Prtsmatic Garnet ^am. StaurQiide, C. 
8tawrolUt. GrenaiUe, Phil. 

Colour dark reddish-brown. Streak white. Lustre 
resinous externally, and inclining to vitreous on a recent 
fracture. Translucent only on the edges... opake. Frac- 
ture uneven. Hardness 7.0 — ^7.5. Sp. gr. 3.72. Pri- 
mary form a right rhombic prism ^of 129° 20' and 50^ 
40'. The crystals are usually modified by a replacement 
of its acute lateral edges. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it is infusible* It consists of 

Silex, 33. 

Alumine, 44. 

liime, 3.84 

Oxide of iron, 13.00 

Oxide of manganese, 1.00 Vauquelin, 

2. It belongs exclusively to primitive rocks, and is usually 
found in single, or double crystals, in the form of a cross, in 
mica slate. It is associated with garnet and cyanite. It is 
abundant in most places where mica slate is the prevailing, 
rock. . 


G=:4.5— 4.7 


Pyramidal Zircon. Jam. 
Zircon. Phil. C. 

Colour red, brown, yellow, gray, green and white; 
usually dull, unless when red. Streak white. Transpa- 
rent...epake. Lustre more or less adamsiQtine. Hardness 



7«5. Sp* gr. 440* Tfnaoifj fi>rm an ooU^Mdron with a 
[Square base, affording ajDgles on the natural planes of 8^ 
SC and 95^ 40/. 

F on u 

ifiao 8' 


150 5 

1 on u 

169 17 

1 on X 

142 65 

Ion 8 


Troost. Jour, Nat, Sci, vqL ii, p, 68, 

1. Iiifiisible before the blow-pipe. It consists of 

Zirconia, 69.00 70.00 

Silex, 26.50 25.00 

Oxide of iron,* 0.50 5.00 KhproA. 

2. There are three varieties, which are usually distinguished 
by particular names. The Hyacinth, Jargoon and Zirconite. 
The Hyacinth is of various shades of red, passing into orange- 
red. I^ransparent...tran8lucent. Colours bright Structure 
perfectly lamellar, and yields to cleavage parallel to the faces 
of the primary octahedron. It is esteemed as a genu The 
Jargoon occurs in prismatic crystals of a grayish, brownish or 
reddish colour. Structure irregular. Opake. Zirconite is 
reddish-brown and nearly opake. 

3. Zircon occurs near Philadelphia, on the York road, exr 
hibiting the modifications of fig., 2, termed by Haiiy Zircon 
bisunitaine. The variety Zirconite is found in Buncombe, 
N. C. Also at Warwick, at the ^ase of the mountain Eve, 
in {^ sienitic grsmitel - . 

> r 



Hjes6.5— 7.0 


frUm^He OadoKnUe. Jtm. 
QadoUmU. Pbil C. 

Colour greenish-black) dark. Streak greenish-gray. 
Lustre vitreousi inclining to resinous. Translucent on 
the edges.. .opake* Hardness 6.6—7.0. Sp. gr. 4*23. 
Primary form an oblique rhombic prism* 

Compound varieties. Massive. Composition impal-* 
pftble. Fracture conchoidal. 

1. Before the bIow-pii>e it decrepitates, but does not melt. 
If heated upon charcoal, it incandesces at once, and becomes 
pale. In nitric acid it forms a jeUy. It consists of 

Tttria, ^ 45.00 

Protoxide of iron, 11.43 

Protoiide of cerium, 17.93 

SUica, 25.60 

2. Gadolinite occurs in ffneiss and granite, along with feld^ 
spar, i^te and quartz. It is found at Ttterby, Finbo, and 
firodelbo in Sweden. 

The following minerals are placed in connection with the 
order Gem, but the precise relation of some of tbm is not ac- 
curately determined. 


Chondrodiie. Haily. 

Chondrodiie, Brueiie* Maclureite, Fhil. 

Colour yellow, reddish-yellow, pale straw-yellow, brown, 
reddish-brown, and brick-red. Colours dull, excepting the 
bright-red. Translucent., .opake. Lustre vitreous, inclin- 
ing to resinous. Brittle. Hardness 6.5. Sp. gr. 3.19. 
Fracture foliated, with ^ cleavage which indicates the 

00» wt 

doubly oblique priam* as the prknary fornix M on T 76<^, 
P on S 650, by approximation* Thompson. 

1. It fbses widi difficulty, but soon loses its coIouTi and be- 
comes opake. 

It consists of Silexy S^.66 

Magnesia, 54.00 

Peroxide of iron, 2.3^ 
Fluoric acid,* 4.08 

Potash, 2.10 

Water, 1.00 8eybert. 

2. The atomic constitution is expressed by 1 atom fluate of 
magne8ia+6 atoms of silicate of magnesia. Thompson. 

3. It occurs in Sussex county, New-Jersey, and in Orange 
county, New- York, in various places, also sparingly in the 
county of Worcester, Mass. Chondrodite is found imbedded 
in granular limestone of ft highly crystaline structure. 

Fosterite* Ano. of Phil, xxxvii. p. 61. 

Colourless. Surfaces brilliant. Translucent* Scratches 
quartz. It occurs in prismatic crystals having nearly the 
same dimensions as corundum. Cleavage distinct per- 
pendicular to the axis. 

1. It consists of silica and magnesia. It is found near 
Vesuvius associated with spinelle and green pyroxene. 

Hyaloiideriie, Walchner. Edin. Joar. of Science, vol i. p. 184. 

. Colour reddish or yellowish-broven. Streak a cinna- 
mon colour. Translucent on the edges, transmitting a 
hyacinth-red and wine-yellow colour. Lustre vitreous, 
on a recent fracture, but metallic on an exposed surface, 
from a tarnish which it acquires, which is a brass-yellow 
or a gold-yellow. Fracture small conchoidal. Hardness 
5«5. Sp. gr. 2«85. Cleavage at right angles to the axis 
of an octahedron. 

* Th« g[eneral fbrm of lome of the most distinct crjstals which htT« been 
observtd, is that of a very low octahtdron, with a rectao^lar basa. 

L Befiire the Uow*pipe It melte nAo a btaek gtobole, which 
is maffnotic. With borax it becomes black, but with salt -of 
phosphorus, greenish. It consists of 

8tlex, 31.63 

Protoxide of iron, 29.71 

Magnesia, 32.40 

Potash, 2.78 

Oxide of manganese, 0.48 

Chrome, a trace. 

2. It occurs in amygdaloid, near the village of Sasbach io 
Brisgaw. It resembles the chrysolite. 


Colour gray, spotted with dirty-white, brownish-red, 
brown and green. Opake. Lustre glistening* Hard. 
Brittle, «nd diflScultly frangible. Fracture imperfect 
conchoidal. Sp* gr. 3.7 L Massive. Surface uneyen 
and cellular. 

It consists of Silex, 32.5 , 

Protoxide of iron, 32. 

Protoxide of manganese, 35. 


Ligurit Leonhard. LiguriU. Phil. 

Colour apple-green. Streak grayish-white. Trans- 
parent...translucent. Lustre of a recent fracture interme- 
diate between vitreous and resioous. Fracture uneven* 
Hardness above 6.0. Sp. gr. 8.49. It is said to occur 
in oblique rhombic prisms of 140^ and 4Xf. 

1. It consists of Silex, 57.45 

Alumina, 7.36 

Lime, 25.30 

Magnesia, 2.66 

Oxide erf- iron, 3.00 

Oxide of manganese, 0.50 Vtviani. 

2. It has been found only on the banks of the Stura, in the 
Appenines, in a talcose rock. It is considered a gem, and is 
Buperior in hardness to the chrysolite. / 

aim* M7 

' [6. MELLILITE. , 
MdlUe. Jam. FhU. C. 

Colour yellow, inclining to red or green. Opake. 
Gives iqparkft with steel* Crystalizes in square priims. 
PonMorM"90^. MonM'90^. 

1. It has been found only at Oapo di Bove and Tivoli, near 
Borne, in lava* ^ 


Colour various shades of brown and gray. Translu- 
cent on the edges... opake. Brittle. Hard. Scratches 
quartz. Sp. gr. 2.52. Cleavage none. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it is almost infusible ; the edges 
only becoming coated with enamel* It occurs in small round* 
ish masses, sometimes aggregated in the botryoidal form, with 
a fibrous structure. 

2. It occurs in Pitchstone and Pearlstone, in Iceland, Sax« 
ony and Scotland. It is nearly related to Obsidian in respect 
to composition. 

Spinellane, H. I^osin. LeoDbard. 

Colour grayish-black, passing into ash-gray and brown. 
Lustre vitreous, inclining to resinous. Sometimes, a 
whitish play of light parallel to the faces of the hexa- 
hedron. Hardness 5.5— ^&.0. Sp. gr. 2.28. Primary 
form a rhombic dodecahedron, the lateral planes of which 
are unduly lengthened so as to give the general form of 
six-sided prisms, with triedral terminations. P or P' ou 
P" 120°. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it is infusible, whether alone or 
with additions. It consists of 

Silex, 43. 

Alumine, 29.50 
Lime, 1.50 

Soda, 19. 

168 OES. 

Oxide of iron, 2. 

Sulphur, !• 

Water, 2.50 Elaproth. 

2. It IS found on the shores of Lake Laach. It resembles 

Fitcfastone, according to Dr. Brewster, when examined in thin 

splinters under a powerful microscope. 


jSbrasUe, Zeagonite, Gitmondine, Phil. 

Colour pale smalt-blue, milk-white, rose-red. Trans- 
lucent in small crystals* Lustre adamantine. Fracture 
concboidal. Hardness 7.0 — 7.5, It crystalizes in oc- 
tahedrons with a sqtiare base, which are sometimes 
modified by replacements of the edges of the base. P on 
F 122° 54'. P' on P" 85° 2'. Brooke. 

1. It phosphoresces before the blow-pipe, but does not fuse. 
It gelatinizes in acids, without effervescence. 

ft consists of Silex, 41.4 

Lime, 48.6 

Alum, 2.5 

Magnesia, 1.5 

Oxide of iron, 2.5 Carpi. 

2. It is found in the cavities of volcanic rocks, at Capo di 
Bove, near Rome. 

Zeagonite differs but little from pyramidal Zircon, and has 
often t^n considered a variety of it 


H«=5.0— 6.5 
G:==3.4— 4.4 


Pritmaiie TtVatiwm-of e, or Sphene* Jam. 
Sphene, Phil. 

Colour brown, yellow, gray, green; generally dull, 
excepting the' pistachio-green Ones. . Streak white. Lus- 
tre resinousi inclining to admantine. Transparent. . . trani^ 


lucent on the e4gei» .Har^imi B^0^6J^ Sp. gr. 3.46^ 
of a massive yellow variety from Norway. Primary form 
an* oblique rhombic prism. M on M' 133^ SO'. P on M 
or ftf 1210 6(y. 

1. Before the blow-pipe the yellow varieties do riot change 
their colour. All the rest become yellow. They iotumesce a 
little, ^nd melt on the edges into a dark-coloured enamel. 
They dissolve in hot nitric acid, ai^d leave a silicious residue. 

^' It consists of Lime, 33. 

0;ude of titanium, 33. 
Silex, ; 35. Klaproth. 

2. It occurs in primitive rocks, chiefly associated with py- 
roxene ; more particularly with the variety 8ahUte. 

3. It is found at various places in the counties of Orange, N. 
Y., and Sussex, N. J. Also at Munroe in the Highlands. It 
is found of a straw-yellow in Chester and MiddleHeld, Mass., 
in hornblende rocks. 


Pritmata'Pyramidal Titanium'Ore, Jam. 
TUanite, Nigrint. Phil. 

^ Colour reddish-brown, passing into red, sometimes yel- 
lowish. Streak very pale brown. Translucent...opake. 
Lustre metallic, adamantine. Hardness 6.0 — 6.5. Sp. 
gr. 4.24. It is mechanically divisible, parallel to the lat- 
eral planes of a right prism with square bases. Natural 
crystals generally striated longitudinally, and frequently 
geniculated. P on M or M' 90^.' M on M' 9Qo, 

1. Before the bipw-pipe it is infusible by itself, but with biO 
Tax it gives a yellow glass in the reducing flame. When &r« 
ther acted upon it assumes an amethyst colour. 

Jt consists of Titanium 32, one p. 

Oxygisa 8, one p. 

2. It occurs in primitive rocks generally, in quartz in long 
striated prisms, which are exceedingly brittle. It is never 
abundant at one place, but in most places where primitive 
rocks, especially hornblende, occur, we may expect to find ti« 


170 QU« 


Pyramidal 9Vtofiiii«i- Ore, or Octahedrite, Jam. 
Jinatoit. OdahtdrUt^ Phil. 

Colour various shades of brown, more or less dark ; 
also iudigo-blue. Streak white* Lustre metallic ada- 
mantine. Semi-transparent.. .translucent. Hardness 5.5— - 
6.0. Sp. gr. 3.82^. Structure lamellar. Primary form 
aji acute octahedron with a square base* It yields to 
mechanical division parallel to the faces of the octahedron 
and the common baSe of the two pyramids. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it appears like the precedmg, but 
the Comte de Bournon observes that some crystals acquire by 
heat the property of acting on the magnetic needle. It is con-> 
sidered as a pure oxide of titanium. 

2. It is found in Dauphinji Switzerland, CoroWally Eng. 
Norway, Sp^in and Brazil. 


H.=4.0— 4.6 

G*=:5.4— 6.6 •' 

1. PRISMATIC zinc-ore'. 
Red Oxide of Zinc. Phil. C. 

Colour red, inclining to yellow. Streak orange-yel- 
low. Translucent on the edges. Xustre adamantine. 
Brittle. Hardness 4.0 — 4.5. Sp, gr. 5.43. 

Compound varieties, — Massive. Composition granu- 


1. On exposure to air it becomes dull. Alone it is infusi- 
ble, but with borax it yields a yellow transparent glass. It is 
soluble with effervescence in nitric acid. It consists of 

Oxide of zinc, 92. 

Oxide of manganese and iron, 8. 

2. It is found massive in large quantities in Sussex county, 
N. X., associated with Franklinite. 




H.=r2.5— 4.0 
G.=5.6— a.o 


Colour between cochineal-red and lead-gray; also 
pure cochineal-red, and when in capillary crystals almost 
carmine-red and crimson-^red. Surfaces occasionally irri- 
descent, sometimes black. Lustre adamantine, and some- 
times metallic adamantine, or imperfect metallic* Streak 
several shades of brownish-red, shining. Semi-transpa- 
rent«..translucent on the edges. . Brittle. Hardness 3.5 
— 4.0. Sp. gr. 5.99. Structure lamellar. Primary 
form a regular octahedron, under which form it often ap- 

[Figures 6 and 7 omitted.] 

Fig. 1. Primary crystal. Fig. 2. Octahedron, with the solid angles 
replaced by quadrangular planes. Fig. 3. The planes complete, 
forming the cube. Fig. 4. Octahedron, with the edges replaced by 
six-sided planes. Fig. 6. Those planes complete, forming the rhom- 
bic dodecahedron. Fig. 6. The octahedrpn, whose edges are bev- 
elled. Ffg. 7. Octahedron whose solid angles are replaced by four 
triangalar planes. 

Compound varieties* — Massive. Composition grtou- 
lar. Individuals of various sizes, sometimes impalpable. 

1. Before the blow-pipe on charcoal in the reducing flame, 
metallic copper is obtained. It dissolves with e&rvescence 
in nitric acid. 

It consists of Copper 64, erne p. 

Oxygen 8, one p. ' 

2. The oxide of copper sometimes contains oxide of iron. 
The colour is then brown or dark-brown, with resinous lustre. 

ITS 0R& 

It is denomhtlted 1%-ortt (tf whkh there we two varieties— 
eariky and indurated Tile^re. Of the red copper ore thera 
are three sub-apeciety ihefoUaied^ camUary and compact 

Octahedral copper-ore occurs in beds and veins ia several 
rocks. It is highly valued as an ore of copper. 


H.=6.0— 7.0 


1. PTRAlVflDAL TINoiRE. , 

Fytamidal TYn-Ord. Jam. 
Oxide of Tin. Pbil. C* 

Colour rarious shades of white, gray, yellolv, red, 
brown and black* Streak pale gray; in varieties pale 
brown. Semi-transparent.. ..opake. Lustre adamantine* 
Brittle. Hardness 6.0 — ^7.0. Sp. gr. 6.96 of crystalized 
variety — 6.61 thin columnar composition. Primary form 
an obtuse octahedron. P on P, 133° SO". P on P or F 
on P' 112^ icy, over the summits. 

Compound varieties. — Massive. Composition thin co- 
lumnar ; rarely reniform or- botryoidal. Granular, al- 
most impalpable, and strongly connected. Fracture un- 
even. Tin-stone or Wood-tin is found among the com- 
pound varieties. 

1. Before the blow-pipe the oxide of tin in the oxidating 
flame takes fire and burns like tinder, and is converted into 
the peroxide. This does not fuse, but in the inner flame, if 
wdl regulated, may be reduced to the metallic state. With 
soda on charcoal it is readily reduced ; but those specimens 
which contain columbium are Hot so easily reduced without the 
addition of a small quantity of borax. 

It consists iji Tin 68, 6ne p. 

Oxygen 16, two p. 

2. Oxide of tin belongs to the oldest primitive rocks, or th6 
oldest granite. It occurs in Cornwall, Eng., also in Spain, 
and Saxonvi A single specimen in crystals has been found ia 
<Sosheni Mass. 

3^ Tin 18 one of the moet Tahiable metals. It resists fbr 
a great length of time the action of the atmosphere and moiait- 
ure. It forms alloys with lead and uoo« producing compounds 
whtdi combine properties more extensively useful tjian can be 
obtained in their separate states. Hie oxide of tin also forms 
an essential part of the celebrated scarlet dye. The tin of 
commerce is principally obtained from the pyramidal Tin-ore. 


H.=6.0— 5.6 ' 
G^7. 1—7.4 


Prismatic Wolfram, Jam. ^ 

Wplfram. Tungttaie of Iron. Phil. C. 

Colour dark grayish-black, or brownish-black, or brown. 
Streak dark reddish-brown. Lustre metallic adamantine* 
Opake. Not very brittle. Ilardness 5.0 — 6.5. Sp. gr» 
7.15. Structure lamellar. It yields to mechanical di- 
vision parallel to the planes of a right oblique angled prism, 
which is the primary form. 

M on T 1170 22'. 

1. Before the blow-pipe on charcoal it may be fused into 
a globule whose surface presents a collection of tolerably large 
lamellar, iron^gray crystals, having a metallic Iqstre. With te- 
rax it fuses readily. With salt of phosphorus, it also fuses 
easily, and in the reducing flame the glass becomes dark-red. 
Sometimes it decrepitates strongly. Prismatic Scheelium-ore 
consists of 

Tungstic acid, 78.77 

frotox. manganese, 6.22 

Protox. iron, 18 32 

Silex, 1.25 

l1i . " ORK- 

2L It is most frequoatly met .with in primitive rocks along 
with pyramidal Tin-ore, both in veins and beds. 

It is found in Hqntiugton, Ct^ where it occurs, both massive 
and cry^tatis^ed, in octahedrons. 


G.=6.0— 6.3 


Pritmatie Tatitalum'Ore, J^m. Columbile. Phil. 

Colour grayish and brownish-black. Streak dark 
brownish-black. Opake* Lustre imperfect metallic* 
Brittle. Hardness 6.0. Sp. gr. 6.0. Primary form a 
right rectangular prism. General form of the crystals 
quadrangular prisms, which are generally striated lon- 
gitudinally and variously modified. 
* -Compound varieties, — Massive. Composition granu- 

1. Before the blow-pipe alone it suffers no change. With 
borax it dissolves slowly but perfectly. The glass presents 
the tint of iron only at a certain point of saturation, but it takes 
by flaming a grayish-white colour, and when still further satu- 
rated, it spontaneously becomes opake on cooling. As long 
as it remains transparent its colour is pale bottle-green. 

Prismatic Tantalum-ore consists of 

Oxide of tantalum^ 75. 
Oxide of tin, 1, 

Oxide of iron, 17. 

Oxide of manganese, 5. VogeL 

2. This scarce and interesting mineral was first found in 
Haddam, Ct. It has since been found in Chesterfield. 


G.=6, 4— 6.6 


Indivisible Uranium, or Fiich-Ore. Jam. 
Uran- Ochre, Pitch-blende, Phil. 

Colour grayish-black, inclining sometimes to iron- 

black, also to greenish and brownish-bkck. Lustre im- 
perfectly metallic and sometimes dull, but usually resin- 
ous. Streak black and a little shining. Opake* Frac- 
ture uneven or small conchoidal. Cleavage none. 

Compound varieties, — Massive. Reniform, globular. 
Composition columnar, impalpable. Sometimes there is. 
a combination of carved laminae with smooth and shining 

1. Alone before the blow-pipe it does not fuse ; with borax it 
fuses into a dark yellow glass which becomes dirty green in 
the oxidating flame. If reduced to powder it is slowly so- 
luble in nitric acid. It consists of 

Protoxide of Uranium, 86.50 

Protoxide of iron, 2.50 

Silex, 5. 

Sulphuret of lead, 6. Klaproth* 

• 2. XJncleavable Uranium-ore is found in Cornwall, Eng. 
accompanied with various ores of silver and led. It is used in 
painting upon porcelain, and yields a fine orange colour in the 
enamelling fire and a black one in that in which the porcelain 
itself is baked. 


G.=4.9— 5.0 


Colour intermediate between cloVe-brown and cherry- 
red, passing into gray. Lustre adamantine. Streak 
white. Translucent on the, edges. Brittle. Hardness 
5.5. Sp. gr. 4.91. Regular forms and cleavage un- 

Compound varieties, — Massive. Composition granu- 
lar, nearly compact. Fracture uneven, splintejry. 

1. Alone it is infusible, but with borax, it forms an orange-* 
yellow globule which becomes paler on cooling. 

176 OA& 

1. ItcoBsistsof Oiideofoenum, 68.59 

Silex, la 

Oxide of iron, 2. 

Lime, ' 1.25 

Water and carb« acid, 9.60 

2* This rare mineral occurs in a bed of gneiss, at the cop- 
per iioine of Nya Bastnaes, Sweden. AocompaQyibff this ore 
IS another naoied CeriJte, by Berzdius, but too little known to 
'allow its b^ing received into the system. Colour brownish- 
black. Streak yellowish-gray, inclining to brown. Hardness 
5.5—6.0. 4.17. 

Before the blow-pipe it froths and melts easily into an opake 
shining black globule, which acts upon the magnetic needje. 
Also with borax it melts easily, and forms a reddish or yellow- 
ish-brown bead. It consists of 

Silex, 30.17 

Alumine, 11.31 

Lime, 9.12 

Oxide of barium, 28.19 
do. iron, 20.72 

It agrees very nearly in several of its properties with Alla- 


G.=4.4— 4.6 


Colour iron-black and brownish-black. Streak brown, 
Opake. Lustre imperfect metallic. Brittle. Hardness 
5.5. Sp. gr. 4.49. Fracture uneven, imperfect cpn- 

Compound varieties. — ^Massive. Composition granular; 
individuals of various sizes and generall/ firmly connect- 

1. Alone it is infusible, but acts upon the magnetic needle 
afler having been acted upon in the reducing flamOr It is di^ 
ficultly soluble in borax, jTurnishing a beautiful grass-green glo- 
bule. It consists of 

Oscideofchrom^ 49* 

Protoxide of iroo, 34.7Q 

Alumine, 20.30 

Silex, 2. 

The varieties of the present species most frequeDtly occar 
in a compoQDd state. But crystals in the form of octahedrons 
are said to occur at Hohoken, N. J. and at the Bare Hills* 
1M09X Baltimore, Aid. It is Ibond in Serpentine and Taloose 

2. The octahedral chrome-ore is a valnable mineral, from 
which is extracted the oxide of chrome, which furnishes with 
lead a fine durable yellow pigment. With other metals, as 
cobalt and mercury, it yields green and red pigments which 
are used for painting on porcelain and for painting in oil, 


Titaniiic Jr^on,( 

Colour dark iron-black* Streak black. Lustre im* 


perfect metallic. Opake. Fracture conchoidal. Brittle. 
Hardness 5.0 — 5.6. Sp. gr. 4\66# Primary form an 
acute rhombohedron, whose plane angle at the apex is 
18^. Boumon* 

It consists of the oxide of iron and the oxide of titanium. 
Its only locality is the department of the Is^e in France. 


Octahedral Iron-Ort, Jam. 
Oxidulated Iron, Phil. 

Colour iron-black. Lustre metallic^ in some rarietie^ 
imperfect metallic. Streak black. Opake. Brittle. 
Hardness 5.5—6.5. Sp. gr. 5.09. Cleavage parallel 
to the planes of the regular octahedron. Generally obedi- 
ent tp the magnet* 

178 ORB. / 

1. s. d. 

- * 

iTig. 1. The prhnaryi the regalar octahedron. Fig. iti The MMNr 
With the edges replaced, and by an enlargement of these planes the 
Hiombic dodecahedron is formed, as in Fig. 3. 


Compound raWertW.— -Massive. Composition graiiu- 
lar, coherence of the individuals variable. Sometimes it 
is in the form of loose sand. 

1. Before the bloW-pipe it is infusible, but when exposed ta 
a great heat it assumes a brown colour and loses its magnetic 
properties. It dissolves in heated muriatic acid, but not in 
nitric. It consists of 

Protoxide of iron, 31. 

Peroxide of iron, 69. BerzeHus. 

2« Octahedral iron-ore occurs principally in talcose slate ; 
occasionally in other rocks, as mica slate, hornblende, chlorite 
slate ; also in serpentine it is considerably abundant. 

It is found in Hawley and Middlefield, Mass. Somerset, Yt. 
and in the counties of Essex and Orange, N. Y. Also at 
Baltimore, Md. 

FranklinUe, Phil. C. 

Colour iron-black. Lustre metallic^ Streak dark-brown. 
Opake. Brittle. Magnetic, but does not possess polsuri- 
ty. Hardness 6.0 — 6.5. Sp. gr. '5.09^ Cleavage im- 
perfect, parallel to the planes of the octahedron. Fracture 
conchoidal. Surfaces always smooth. 

Compound varieties. ^Massive. Composition fine 

granular ; individuals strongly connected. 

1. It consist? of Peroxide of iron, 66. 

Oxide of zinc, 17. 

Oxide of ^anganes6| 16. 

ORE. l*7d 

a * 

It dissolves without effervescence in heated muriatic acid* 
% It is found at Franklin, N. J. associated with the red 
oxide of zinc. The crystalized variety is rare. 

Rhomboidal Iron- Ore. Jam J 
Specular* Irou, Red Iron-Ore, Phil. 

Colour dark steel-gray, iron-black. Lustre metallic. 
Streak cherry-red, reddish-brown. Surface often tarnish-* 
ed or irridescent. Opake ; very thin laminae faintly trans* 
lucent, and s^iow a deep blood-red colour. Brittle. Frac- 
ture uneven, conchoidal. Sometimes shows a feeble ac- 
tion upon the magnetic needle. Hardness 6.5 — 6.5. Sp. 
gr. 6.25. It is crystalized in many forms, which are de- 
rived from a slightly acute rhomboid of 86^ W and 93^ 

Compound varieties* — Globular, reniform, botryoidal 
and stalactitic shapes. Composition more or less colum- 
nar, sometimes impalpable. Massive. Compositioti 
granular, p§issing into impalpable. When the cohesion 
among the particles is diminished, the varieties become 
scaly and glimmering, the granular ones earthy and dull. 

It occurs in primitive and transition rocks, both in beds and 
veins, and is associated with oxidulated iron. 

Tl^ mines of this substance in the Island of Elba are of 
great extent, and have been worked it is said upwards of 3000 


Prismatic Iron- Ore, Jam. 
Hydrous Oxide of Iron, Phil. 

Colour various shades of brown. ; of which hair-brown, 
4jlove-brown and blackish-brown, are the most common, 
Streak yellowish-brown* Lustre adamantine* Crystals 

* Sptcylar, from its brUliancj, 

often semi-traMparent, and showing ft Hood-red tint. 
Oth^ varieties opake. Brittle. |pj|}iibit8 no action on 
the magnet. JIardness 5.0 — S.5« ^^. gr. S.92. Sur- 
faces of. the crystals are deeply streaked in a longitudinal 
direction. Tlie primary form is a right rectangular prism, 
the only cleavage being parallel to the plane M. P on M 
arT90^. TonMSQo. 

Compound mrieties^-^-Globularj reniforin, stalactitic 
and fruticose shapes. Surface often drusy, smooth, gran- 
ulated* Composition columnar. Individuals delicate^ 
and often impalpable* Composition often repeated. 
Massive. Composition columnar or impalpable. Parti- 
cles often slightly cohei^ent, earthy|dull. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it becomes black and magnetic. It 
melts with borax into a green or yellow glass, and is soluble 
in heated nitro-muriatic acid. It consists of 

Peroxide of iron, 82. 

Water, 14. 

Oxide of manganese, 2. 

8ilex, 1. 

2. Prismatic Iron-ore occurs in veins and beds, associated 
with brachytypous Parachrose-baryte, prismatic Hal-baryte, 
i&c, but more generally connected in this country with granu- 
lar quartz and granular limestone. Several varieties are in- 
cluded in this species. The fibrous brown Iron-ore, or brown 
Hematite, are crystali^ed, but are compound varieties under 
imitative shapes. Compact brown Iron-ore is a massive vari- 
ety in which the composition is not discernable. The ochery 
brown Iron-ore is an earthy vari^ty^ with texture loose and 
friable. The mixed and impure varieties of this species are 
the clay Iron-ores ; as the granular, common, pisiform and the 
reniform clay Iron-ore. It is an important ore, and is used ex- 
tensively in the manufacture of wrought and cast-iron. The 
pig-iron obtained from the purer varieties with charcoal in par- 
ticular, may be easily converted into steel. 

3. It is found at Salisbury, Ct., Bicbmond and LenoK» 
Mass. and Benningtoni Vl, and at numerous other places ui 
the United States. . 

^ *«lt. 181 



Luit^te, Jam. 

^^|||. Yenite. Phil. C. 

Colour fntermediite between iron-black and dark-gray- 
ish-black, passing into greenish-black. Lustre imper- 
>fect metallic* Streak black, sometimes inclining to green 
or brown. Opak^. Brittle. Hardness 5.5—6.0. Sp. 
gr. 3.99. Primary form a riglit rhombio prism. M on 
M' 110^ 3(y. P on M or M' 90^. It admits of cleavage 
j>arallel to the long diagonal of the prism. 

Compound varieties. — Massive. Composition colum- 
nar, thin and straight. Sometimes fine granular, 

1. Before the blow-pipe it melts easily without effervescence 
into an opake ^lass, which is magnetic. Glass of borax is 
coloured yellowish-green. It is soluble in muriatic acid. It 
consists of 

Oxide of iron, 55. 

Silex, , 28. 

Lime, 12. 

Oxide of manganese, 3. DescoUh* 

2. Di-prismatic Iron-ore is found at Cumberland, R. I., 
along with Ferro-silicate of Manganese. 


H:8t=2.5— 6.0 
G.=4.0— 4.8 


Foliated Blaek Manganete- Ore, Jam> 
Manganese. PhU. 

Colour black, or brownish-black. Lustre imperfect 

metallic. Streak dark reddish or chesnut-brown. Opake. 

tiardnes* 5.0 — 6.5. Sp. gr. 4.72. Primary form an 

octahedron with a square base. Cleavage parallel Ho all 

its planei. 


las oRfiv * 

P on F' OP P^ 6n P"' 117° 30'. 
P oq P' or P" on F" lOS 15. 

• Braoke, 

Compound varieties. — Massive. Composition granu* 
lar. Particles firmly connected. 

1. It consists of 

Per and protoxides of manganese, 75.80 
Silex, 15.17 

Alumine, ^80 

Oxide of iron, 4.14 

2. On charcoal, in a strong heat, it fuses on the edges and 
preserves its gray-black. With borax it fuses readily. 


Compact and Fibrous Manganese- OrCf or Biack ^ematiie. Jam. 
Black Iron- OrCf (in part.) Compact Gray Oxide of Manganese. Phil. 

Colour bluish-black and grayish-black, passing into 
dark steeKgray. Streak brownish-black, shining. Lus- 
tre imperfectly metallic, Opake. Brittle. Hardness 5.0 
— 6.0. Sp. gr. 4.14. Regular form and cleavage un- 
known. Fracture not observable. 

Compound varieties, — Reniform, botryoidal and fruti- 
cose shapes. Composition columnar, impalpable. Frac- 
ture flat conchoidal, even. Massive. Composition fine 
granular. Particles strongly connected. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it colours the glass of borax violet- 
blue. It is supposed to be a mixture of oxide of manganese 
and iron. 

2. It is associated with the ores of manganese, and even the 
ores of iron. It is found in Saxony, many places in the HartZi 
and in Cornwall, £ng. 


Gray dvMt of Manganese. -Phtl. 

Colour dark steel*gray, iron-black. Lustre metallio. 
Streak brownish-black. Opake. Brittle. Hardness 2.6 — 
3.0. Sp, gr. 4,62. Fracture uneven. Its primary form 
is a rhombic prism. P on M or M' 90*^. M on M' 
100°. It yields to mechanical division with perfect and 
brilliant faces parallel to the latieral planes and both, di- 
agonals of the primary form. 

Compound mrieties. — iReniform and imitative shapes. 
Surfaces generally rough and drusy. Massive, Compo- 
sition granular. Particles of various sizes. Fracture 
uneven, and i^ometimes earthy, 

1. Before the blow-pipe it is infusible. With borax it forms 
a violet-blue glass. It is insoluble in nitric acid. In heated 
sulphuric acid it disengagea oxygen gas. Also alone with a 
strong heat. It consists of ( 

Black oxide of manganese, 90.50 
Oxygen, 2.25 

Water, 7.00 

2. Prismatoidal Manganese-ore frequently accompanies the 
prismatic 'and rhombohedral Iron-ores; sometimes the earthy * 
variety forms a bed by itself! 

3. It occurs in Cornwall, Eng., and in the Hartz, Benning- 
ton, Vt., Richrpond, Mass., both earthy and compact. It is a 
useful mineral, and is employed in the manufacture of glass 
and painting in enamel. Also valuable in chemical operations, 
as bleaching,* for which it is indispensable in furnishing chlo- 
rine at a moderate expense. 

4. The earthy incoherent variety is called Black Wad. It 
occurs as a coating on the other ores of manganese and the 
ores of iron. Colour brown. Structure compact. Lustre 
rarely imperfect metallic, generally earthy imd dull. Sp. gr. 
3.76, and hardness about 0.5. Sectile, soils and writes. It 
Absorbs water rapidly. It consists of 

Oxide of manganese, 68. 
Oxide of irouy 6.50 * 

Wat»r, 17,50 

164 ORE. 

Carbon, 1. 

Baryta and silica, 9. 

Black Wad and Brown Iron-froth are very similar in their 
mode of formation, and occur under the same imitative shapes;^ 
5. It is found at Cornwall, £ng., and in the Hartz. 


The following species belong to the order Ore, but are not 
sufficiently known to be arranged in the system. 


Colour brownish or greenish-black. Streak greenish- 
gray. Lustre imperfect metallic* Opake, or cmly faintly 
translucent in thin splinters, transmitting a brownish 
light. Brittle. Hardness 6.0. Sp. gr. 4.00. 

1. Alanite fVoths before the blow-pipe and melts imperfeatly 
into a black scoria. It gelatinizes in nitric acid. 

It consists of Oxide of cerium, 3390 

Oxide of iron, 25.40 
Silex, 35.40 

Lime, 9.20 

Alumine, 4.10 

2. It was discovered at Allecki in East Greenland, by Sir 
Charles Giesecke. 

Brookite. Levy. Ann. of Phil. Feb. 1826. 

Colour hair-brown, passing into a deep orange-yellow, 
and some reddish tints. Lustre metallic adamantine. 
Streak yellowish-white. Translucent.. .opake. The co- 
lours are brighter by transmitted light. Brittle.. Hard- 
ness 5.5 — 6. 

1. It contains titanium, but has not been analyzed. 

2. It is found in Dauphiny^ and at Suowden in Wales,, assoi* 
ciated with pyramidal Titanium-ore. 

Ferguteniie. Haidinger. Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin. 
^//ani/e, (in part.) Pbll. 

Colour dark brownish-black| in thin splinters, pale. 
Streak rerj pale brown, like, peritootious Titanium-ore« 

ORE. 18S 

Lustre imperfect metallic, inclining to resinons. Opake ; 
in thin splinters translucent. Brittle* Hardness 5.5 — 
6.0. Sp. gr. 6.83 Allan. 6.80 Turner. Not mag- 

1. It loses its colour before the blow-pipe and becomes pale 
greenish-yellow, but alone is infusible. It is entirely dissolved 
with salt of phosphorus, but some particles remain a long 
time unaltered. The pale greenish globule becomes opake by 
flaming, when very much sabirated, or on cooling. Before 
the whole portion is dissolved it assumes a pale rose colour 
in the reducing flame. It is described by Phillips, and Mobs 
in the German original of his work, under the name of Yttro- 

2. It is imbedded in Quartz, near Cape Farewell, Greenland^ 

Orthit. BereeliiM. OrthUt. Phil. 

Colour ash-gray, passing into brown by decomposition. 
Streak brownish-gray. Opake.^ Lustre vitreous.. Form 
long and straight acicular masses. Massive. Composi- 
tion impalpable. Fracture concboidal. Scratches glass, 
though with difficulty. Sp. gr.^.28« 

1. Before the blow-pipe it froms^ becomes yellowish-brown 
and melts with effervescence into a black vesicular globule, 
and with borax into a transparent one. It gelatinizes m heat- 
ed acids. 1ft consists of 

Silex, ^ 32. 

Lime, .... ' 7.84 

Alumine, ^ 14.80 

Oxide of cerium, 19.44 

Protoxide of iron, 12.44 

Oxide of manganese, 3.40 

Yttria, . 3.44 

Water, 6.36 

2. It occurs at Finbo, near Fahlun, in Sweden, along witk 
albite, quartz and feldspar, in veins traversing gneiss. 

Phosphat ofMangantH, Jam. Phil. C. 

Colour blackish-browQ. Streak yellowish-gray. L«i- 


18t OftK. 


tre reainoas, incliniiag to adamantine. Translucent on 
the edge8.*.opake. Brittle. Hardness 5.0-^5.5. Sp. 
CT. 3.43. 

1. Before the hlow-pipe it melts easily into a hlack scoria, 
and is readily dissolved in nitric acid without efifervescence. , 

It consists of Oxide of iron^ 31. 

Oxide of manganese, 42. 

Phosphoric acid, 27. 

2. It has been found near Limoges, in France, in granite. 

SUlpnotiderite* Jam. Phil. C. 

. Colour brownish-black, blackish-brown. Streak yel- 
lowish-brown. Lustre resinous. Feebly translucent on 
the edges...Opake. Brittle. Hardness 4.5. 3.6 1* 

1. Before the blow-pipe it becomes black, but is infusible. 
Witbborax it yields a dark olive-green glass, but is not melted 

It consists of Oxide of iron, 80.25 

Silex, 3.75 

Water, 15. 

2. It is supposed to contain phosphoric acid. It occurs in 
Saxony and Thuringia, and in the Hartz. It is smelted as an 
ore of iron, and has been considered as a variety of prismatic 

YUrO'Tantalite. Jam. Ytlro-ColumbiU, Phil. 


Colour black. /Streak gray. Imperfect metallic lus- 
tre. Opake. Brittle. Scratches glass. Sp. gr. 5.39. 
Fracture lamellar in one direction, coarse granular in an- 
other. Indistinct traces of crystalization. 


Colour yellowish-brown, accidentally spotted or striped 
with green* Lustre resinous on the surface, vitreous in 

tlie fracture^ Opake. Streak wlute. Scratches glaMP 
with difficulty, but is very distinctly scratched by it. 
Sp. gr. 5.88. 


Colour black, inclining to brown. Streak white, tiUS4 
tre intermediate between vitreous and resinbusV Verj^ 
thin fragments translucent. Almost colourless; some- 
times a little yellowish. Hardness equals Ihe yellow va- 

1. These varieties consist of 


Oxide of tantalum, 57.00 

Yttria, 20.25 

Lime,^ 6.25 

Oxide of uranium, 0.50 

Tungstic acid with tin, 8.25 

Oxide of iron, 3.50 


G.=5.7— 6^ 


J^Cativt Mnenic. Jam. Pbil. C. 

Colour tin-white, a little inclining to lead-gray, very 
soon tarnishes and becomes dark-gray on being exposed 
to air. Lustre metallic. Streak unchanged, rather shin- 
ing. Brittle. Hardness 3,5. Sp. gr. 5.76, but accord- 
ing to Bergmann that of melted arsenic is 8.30. Regular 
forms and cleavage unknown. 

Compound varieties. — Generally ifa reticulated, reni- 
form and stalactitic shapes. Composition fine granular 
and often compact. 















188 METAL. 

1. Before Ike blow^pipe it exhales the odor of garlic and 
copious white fumes are formed, and at last it disappears. 

It co^nsists of Arsenic, 96. 

Antimony, 3. 

Oxide of iron and water, 1. 
It is generally found in veins, accompanied by sevend spe- 
cies of me orders Metal^ Pyrites and Glance. 

2. It occurs rather abundantly in the mines of Minaberg, 
Schneeberg and Mareenberg, in Saxony. 



G.r=:6.1— 6.2 


* Hexahedral Tellurium. Jam. 

Jfaiive Tellurium. Phil. 

Colour tin- white. Lustre metallic. Streak unchang- 
ed. Rather brjittle. Hardness 2.0. Sp. gr. 6.11. Kla- 

Compound varieties* — Massive. Composition granu- 
lar and sometimes foliated. Individuals small. 

1. Before the blow-pipe on charcoal it melts easily and 
burns wi Ji a reddish-green flame, and is volatilized. 

Native Tellurium consists of 

Tellurium, 92.55 
Iron, 7.20 

Gold, 0.25 

2. It has been found in Transylvania, but is at present rare« 


H.=3.0— 3.5 
G.=6.6— 10.0 

Bodecahedral Antimony. Jam. 
Kaiive Antimony. Fbil. 

Colour tin-white. Lustre metallic. Streak unchang* 
ed. Rather brittle. Hardne&s 3.0 — 3.5. Sp. gr. 6.64. 

Compound varieties, — Reniform. Composition flatten- 
ed grains, collected into curved lamellae. 

1* Before the blow-pipe it tne\i$ quickly into a globule and 
burns when heated to redness, even if the blast is discontinu- 
ed. It emits copious white vapours which are deposited round 
the globule, and when collected form prismatic crystals of 
oxide of Antimony. 

2. The present species was found at Sahlberg, near Sahla» 
in Sweden. 


Octahedral Antimony. Jam. 
JifUimonial Silver, Fbil. 

Colour silver-white, inclining to tin-white. Lustre me- 
tallic. Streak unchanged. Hardness 3.5. Sp. gr. 9.44 
Hatiy. 9.82 Klgproth. 

Compound varieties. — Massive. Composition granu- 
lar, individuals of various sizes and easily separated. 

1. Before the blow-pipe the fine varieties yield a globule of 
silver, while the antimony is driven off. Antimonial silver con- 
sists of from 

16 — 24: Antimony. 
76—84 Silver. 

2. It is found in the Hartz, but is a rare mineral, and is high-^ 
ly valued for the silver it contains^ 


H.=2X)— 2.6 

G.=9.6— 9.8 


Octahedral Bitmuth. Jam. 
J^ative Bitmuth, Phil. 

Colour silver-white, inclining to reddish^yellow. . Sub*- 
iect to tarnish* Lustre metallic;. Streak unchanged. 
6ectile and almost malleable. . Hardness 2.0*— 2.S. Sp. 
gr. 9.73 — ^9.61 the melted metal. 

190 UETAU 

Compound varieties. — ^Imbedded, plumose and arboreal' 
cent shapes. Massive. Composition in the mass foliated* 

1. Before the blow-pipe it melts^easily, even fusible in the 
flame of a candle. On charcoal it depositea a yellow coating; 
It is soluble in nitric acid from which it is precipitated white 
by water. 

Octahedral Bismuth occurs in veins in granite and clay* 

2. It is found at Huntington, Ct. and a single specimen in 
the county of Essex, N. Y. It enters into the composition of 
eeveral alloys used in the arts. 


H.=00.0 3.0 

G.=10.6— 15.0 

Dodecahedral Mercury, or JfcUive Amalgam, Jam. 
Ifatice wtfma/gam. Phil. 

Colour silver-white. Lustre metallic. Streak un- 
changed. Brittle. It emits a grating noise when cut with 
a knife. Hardness 3.0 — 3.5. Sp. gr. 13.75. Cleavage 
indistinct, parallel to the planes of a dodecahedron. Frac- 
ture conchoidal, uneven. Surface smooth and shining. 

1. There are two kinds of Native amalgam, distinguished in 
reference to the soUd or fluid state in which it is found. The 
fluid varieties are solutions of the solid or pure Mercury. 

Dodecahedral Mercury consists of 

Silver, 36.00 27.00 

Mercury, 64.00 72.60 

Klaproth, Cordier. 

2. It is always found in repositories of peritomous Ruby- 
blende. Before the blow-pipe the mercury is driven off, and 
a globule of pure silver is obtained. 


Ftuid J{alwe Mtrcury, Jam. 
KaHt^ quieknlver. Phil. 

Amorphous. Liquid. Lustre metallic* Colour tin* 
white. Hardne|ss 0.0. Sp. gr. 13.58. HaUy. 

1. Fluid Mercury is tha pure metal as produced by nature^ 
It is entirely volatile before the blowopipe, and easily soluble ia 
nitric acid. 

2. It occurs at Idria in Carniola, and Almaden in Spain. 
The quantity of Fluid Native Mercury is small ; the metal iS; 

employed for making thermometers and barometers, also in 
various chemical preparations, in the amalgamation of gold 
and silver ores ; in the production of artificial amalgam for 
silverin§| nurrors, and for gilding, &c. 


Hw=02.5— -3.0 

G.=10.0— 10.6 




Hexahedral Silver. Jam. 
Jiaiive Silver. Phil. 

Colour silver-white, more or less subject to tarnish. 
Streak shining. Lustre metallic. Ductile and malleable- 
Hardness 2.5 — 3.0- Sp. gr. 10.47. Primary form a 
cube. Cleavage none. Fracture hackly. 

Compound varieiies.-^DeutiPonn^ filiform and capilla- 
ry shapes. Massive. Plates formed in fissures and su- 
perficial coatings. 

1. Native silver has been divided into common and aurifer" 
0U8 native silver. . The specific gravity and yellow colour are 
the distinct marks between them, but it is not determined 
whether the latter is a species or variety^ as the gold may be 
only in juxta position. The auriferous native silver was (bund 
to consist of Silver, 36. 72. 

Gold, 64. 28. , 

2. Native silver occurs principally in veins traverising 
gneiss, clay-slate, and other primitive and transition rocks. 
The mining districts of Saxony and Bohemia, but more par- 
ticularly those of Peru and Mexico, furnish it in the greatest 
abundance. Native silver is said to occur in Michigan, near 
Point aux Barques, on Lake Huron, in' gneiss. 

3. Silver, as it is employed in coinage and plate, is well 
known. It is also useful in the construction of chemical and 

thilosophical apparatus, for which it must be perfectly pure, 
t is also used in pharmacy. 


H.s= 2.5—3.0 
G.=12.0— 20.0 


Hexahidral Gold. Jam. 
J^ative Gold. Phil. 

Colour various shades of gold-yellow. Streak shining. 
Xustre metallic. Ductile and malleable. Hardjaess 2.5 — 
5.0. Sp. gr. 14.85 a rolled mass, 19.25 melted. HaUy. 
Primary form a cube. Cleavage none. Fracture hackly. 

Compound varieties. -^Filiform j capillary and abores-^ 
^ent shapes. Also plates, superficial coatings and rolled 

1. Hexahedral Gold has been distinguished \nio gM-yel- 
hwy hrass-yeUow and grayish-yeUoto native gold. The first 
is the purest gold, the second contains silver, and the last pla- 
tina. A variety of the brass-yellow native gold yielded Lam- 
padius, Gold, 9660 

*^ Silver, a 

Iron, 1.10 

Hexahedral gold melts pretty easily, and is soluble only in 
chlorine or nitro-muriatic acid. 

2. The greatest quantity of gold has been found in the allu- 
vial soil in Brazil, Mexico and Peru. It is also found in 
North-Carolina, and various other places ' in the southern 
states, and recently in Somerset, Vt. These deposits of gold 
are connected with the Talcose slate-rock, and may be found 
usually wherever the protoxide of iron forms an extensive de* 
posit in that formation. 


H.= 4.0—4.6 
G.=16.0— 20.0 

, Kaiive Plaiina. Jam. Phil. C. 

Colour perfect steel-gray. Streak unchanged, shining. 
JLijustre metallic. Dnictile. Hardness 4.0 — 4.6. Sp. gr., 

METAL. 193 

I7.33y rolled masses- irregular formiS, grains. Surface 
uneven, or worn and polished by attrition. Cleavage 
none. Frabture hackly. 

1. Native Platina is soluble only in nitro-knuriatic acid. It 
generally contains a little iron. It is also accompanied by 
iridiunii osmium, rhodium, palladium, copper, chrome and ti- 

2. Native Platina is found principally in South America, 
in the provinces of Choco and Barbacoas. Also at Matto 
Grosso, in Brazil. Also in St. Domingo. Recently it has 
been found in Russia, in the Ural mountains. 

^ '3. The refractory property of this metal and its resistance 
to almost every chemical re-agent, render it extremely valua- 
ble in the construction of philosophical and chemical appara- 
tus. It is also used for covering other metals ; for paintmg on 
porcelain, and like gold and silver for various other purposes. 
in Russia it is used in coinage. 



G,=7.4— 7.8 


Octahedral Iron, Jam. 
ffaiive Iron, Phil. 

Colour pale steel-gray. Streak unchanged, shining. 
Lustre metallic. It exhibits strong action on the magnet. 
Ductile. Hardness 4.5. Sp. gr. 7.76 of a meteoric va- 
riety from Elbogen. Primary form an octahedron. 
Cleavage none. Fracture hackly. 

1. Octahedral Iron consists of 

^gram, Sibtria, Mexico. 

Iron, 96.50 98.50 96.75 

Nickel, 3.50 1.50 3.25 klaprotJi. 

It resembles pure iron in most of its chemicaland physical 
properties, but is not so liable to rust. 

2. Masses of native meteoric iron are scattered over the 
. cdntinefit of North America. The most remarkable was that 

discovered m Louisiana, and which may be seen in the cabinet 


194 METAL. 

of (he Lyceum of Natural History in New-Yoak. Native 
Terrestrial Iron is found in Guilford county, North Carolina, 
both massive and under the primary form of the species. Also 
in Pennsylvania. 


H=2.6— 30 
G.=a4— 8.9 


Octahedral Copper. Jam. 
Kaiive Copper, Phil. C. 

Colour copper-red. Streak unchanged, shining. Lus- 
tre metallic. Ductile and malleable. Hardness 2.5 — 
3.0. Sp. gr. 8.58. Primary form a cube. Cleavage none. 
Fracture hackly. Surface rough. It is liable to tarnish. 

Compound vane^ie^.-r— Plates, dendritic and arbores- 
cent forms, generally superficial. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it melts pretty easily, but is cover- 
ed on cooling with an oxidised coat. Dissolves easily in ni- 
tric acid, and yields a blue solution with ammonia. 

2. It is found in beds and veins, and is associated with the 
ores of copper and sometimes with those of iron. It is not un- 
common in the native state. It is considerably abundant near 
Lake Superior and sometimes in extraordinary large masses. 
It is often connected with serpentine rock. Single specimens 
have' been found in various places in the soil. • 

3. Copper is extensively applied in the arts and manufac- 
tures, as in roofing houses, coppering ship bottoms, coining, 
and in the fabrication of various utensils. 

Iridium, Jam. 
Moy of Iridium and Osmium. Phil. 

Colour pale steel-gray. Lustre metallic. Opal^. 
Brittle. Harder than native Platina. Sp. gr. 19.5. 
Structure lamellar. When crystalized there is a cleav- 
age parallel to the terminal planes. Occurs in flattened 


1. If melted with nitre it becomes black, but again acquires 
its lustre and colour. It is not soluble in nitro-muriatic acid. 
It is an alloy df iridium and osmium, and is found in South 
America with native Platina. 


Colour pure lead-gray. vStreak shining. Lustre me- 
tallic. Malleable. Fracture hackly. Hardness 1.5. 
Sp. gr. 11.35. Disagreeable odour by friction. 

1. It melts easily before the blow-pipe, and covers the char- 
coal with a yellow oxide. 

2. Metallic lead, when it occurs in nature, is mostly found 
in circumstances which indicate its having been iti a state of 
fusion* / 


Palladium. Jam. 
Jfaiive Palladiumi Phil. 

Colour steel-gray, inclining to silver-white. Lustre 
metallic. Hardness superior to wrought iron. Sp. gr. 
11.8 Wollaston. 12.14 Lowry. Occurs in grains and 
octahedrons with a square base. 

1. With ijitric acid it yields a red solution. By itself it i« 
, infusible, but melts with sulphur. The pure metal is ductile 
.and malleable, and flexible in thin slips but not very elastic. 

2. It occurs with native Platina in Brazil. 


H.=6.0— 5.6 
G.=7.6— 7.7 


Prismalic Jfickel' Pyrites. Jam. 
Copper Mckel, Anenical KicktU Phil. 

•Colour copper-red. Streak pale brownish-black. Lui- 
tre metallic. Brittle. Hardness 6.0 — 5.5. Sp. gr. 


ICBS. It is said to occur in six-sided prisms. Fractpre 
imperfect, conchoidal. 

Compound varieties. — Massive. Composition fine gra3>- 
ular, and istrongly connected. Fracture uneven. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it melts on charcoal and emits an 
arsenical smell. The metallic lead is white and brittle. In 
nitric acid it soon becomes covered with a green coating. It 
is soluble in nitro-muriatic acid. 

It consists of Arsenic, 54.72 

Nickel, 44.20 

Iron, 33 

Lead, 0.32 

Sulphur, 0.40 

The Arseniate of Nickel which i^ found investing the pris- 
matic Nickel pyrites, is produced by the decomposition of the 
present species, and consists of 37.35 oxide of nickel and 
a little cobalt, 36.97 arsenic acid and 24.32 of water. 

2. The present species is found in veins at Schneeberg^ 
Annaberg, and other mining districts of Saxony. 


H.=5.C(— 6.0 
G.=§.7— 7.0 


Prismatic Arsenical' FyriUs, Jam. 


Colour between silver-white and steeFgray. Streak 
grayish-black. Lustre metallic. Brittle. Hardness 
6.0 — 5.5. Sp. gr. 7.22. Fracture uneven. Surface 

Compound varieties, Massive. Composition fine 

granular, often impalpable, and the individuals are strong- 
ly connected. 

Axotomous Arsenical-pyrites has been found only in beds 
along with carbonate of iron and primitive Iron ore in Serpen- 
ti^fi} pear t}ifttenberg in Carinthiai also ^t SehMfiaing, ia 



Di'prUmatie Arsenical- Pyrilet. Jam. 
Arsenical Iron. MispickeL PbjI. 

Colour silver- white, inclining and passing into steel- 
gray. Streak dark grayish-black. Lustre metallic. Brit- 
tle. Hardness 5.5 — 6.0. Sp. gr. 6.12. Primary form 
a right rhombic prism, parallel to its planes ; it admits of 
mechanical division. Dimensions IIP 12' and 68^ 48^. 

1. Before the blow-pipe on charcoal it gives out copious ar- 
senical vapours, without destroying the form of the crystal. 
If the heat is continued it melts into a globule which is nearly 
pure sulphuret of iron. It is soluble in nitric acid, with the 
exception of a whitish residue. 

It consists of Iron, 36.04 

Arsenic, 42.88 
Sulphur, 21.68 
Prismatic Arsenical-pyrites occurs in beds and veins. It it 
often accompanied by the ores of silver and lead. 

2. This mineral is plentiful in the mining districts of Saxo- 
ny. It occurs abundantly in tlie town of Warwick, Orange 
county, N. y. and in Franconia, Ct. 

The accidental admixture of silver renders some varieties 
useful ae an ore of that jnetal^ It isometim^^ ftlso contains ^ 
proportion of gold. 



Octahedral Coball- Pyrites. Janv 
Bright White Cobalt, Phil. 

Colour tin-white, inclining to steel-gray. Streak grayr 

ish-black. Lustre metallic. Brittle. Hardness 5.5. 

Sp. gr. 6.46. Fracture uneven. Primary form a cube» 







Fig. 1. The primary; a cube. Fig. 2. Cube of which the solid 
angles are replaced by triangular planes. Fig. 3. These planes are so 
increased as to reduce the primary planes to snlall cubes or squares. 
In Fig. 4. the primary planes entirely disappear, producing the regu- 
lar octahedron. Fig. 6. Is a pentagonal dodecahedron formed by a 
replacement of the edges of the cube, by irregular six-sided planes, 
alternately in difterent directions. 

Compound varieties. — Imitative shapes of various kinds. 
Massive. Composition granular, individuals generally 
small and strongly connected. Fracture uneven. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it emits copious arsenical fumes 
and melts into a white metallic globule. To borax and other 
fluxes it imparts a blue colour. It affor'ds a pink solution with 
nitric acid, leaving a white residue, which is itself dissolved 
on farther digestion. 

It consists of Cobalt, 20.31 

Arisenic, . 94.2i 

Iron, 3.42 

Copper, 0.15 

Sulphur, 0.88 

2. Octahedral Cobalt-Pyrites is principally within veins, io 
rocks of various ages. It is a<}companied by the ores of silver 
and cbpper. It is a valuable mineral for the preparation of the 
blue enamel colours, but particularly smalt. 

The Gray Cobalt-ore and the Radiated White Cobalt-ore, 
are considered by Haliy as varieties of the present species, but 
the examination of some individuals indicate that they belong 
to the prismatic system, but they are too imperfectly known to 
be placed in the order Pyrites. Both varieties are brittle. 
Hardness 6.5. Sp. gr. 7.28. The radiated white variety con* 
sists of Cobalt, 28.00 

Arsenic, 65 75 

Iron and manganese, 6.25 
^ The radiated variety occurs at Schneeberg, in Saxony* 





Hcxahedral Cobalt- Pyrites. Jam. 
Bright WhUe Cobalt. Phil. 

Colour silver-white, inclining to red. Streak grayish- 
white. Lustre metallic. Brittle. Hardness 6.6. Sp. 
gr. 6.29. Fracture imperfect conchoidal, uneven. Cleav- 
age parallel to the planes of a hexahedron. 

Compound varieties,— -Massive, Composition granu- 
lar : individuals generally small, but easily discernible. 


1. Before the blow-pipe it gives upon charcoal a large quan- 
tity of arsenical fumes, and melts only after having been roast- 
ed. It imparts a blue colour to borax and other fluxes, and is 
acted upon by nitric acid in a manner similar to the preceding 

2. It occurs at Tunaberg in Sildermanland, in Sweden, and 
in Cornwall, Eng. 

It is highly valued as an ore of Cobalt for painting on por* 
celain, and manufacturing smalt. 


H. =3. 5— 6.5 
.G.=4.4— 5.6 

Hexahcdral Iron-Pyritesj or Common Iron-Pyrites, Jam. 
Iron-PyriieSf (in part.) Phil. 

Colour bronze-yellow in different shades, sometimes 
steel-gray. Streak brownish-black. Lustre metallic 
Brittle. Hardness 6.03. Sp. gr. 4.6 — 4.8. Primary 
form a cube. It yields to cleavage parallel to the planes 
both of the cube and octahedron, but the cubical planes' 
are more brilliant than those of the octahedron. Fracture 








[*For Fig. 3, see No. 3, under Cobalt-Pyrites in the preceding page.] 


Tie. 1. Cabe. Fig. 2. Cube with the 9olid angles replaced by Iri- 
anguTar planes. In Fig. 3. these planes are so increased that the pri- 
mary planes have nearly disappeared. Fig. 4. Is the octahedron 
completed. Fig. 6. Is a pentagonal dodecahedron, produced by the 
replacement of the edges of the primary by irregiilar six-sided planes, 
alternately in different directions. 

Compound varieties. — Globular, capillary, stalactitical 
and pseudomorphous shapes. Massive. Composition 
fine granular. Strongly coherent. Fracture uneven. 

1. Before the blow-pipe on charcoal in the oxidating flame 
it becomes red, the sulphur is driven offand the iron remains. 
At a high temperature it melts into a globule which is magnet- 
ic. Some varieties are subject to decomposition on exposure 
to the atmosphere. It consists of 

Iron, 47.30 

Sulphur, 52.15 

Hexahedral Iron-pyrites constitutes beds by itself in primi« 
tive slate. It is frequently mixed with coal seams and the 
beds of clay which occur along with them. It sometimes con- 
tains gold mechanically mixed with it, it is then t,ermed aurif- 
erous Pyrites, 

The present species is a very common mineral, occuring in 
almost every rock formation. 

It is often roasted for extracting sulphur ; after having been 
exposed to the oxidating influence of the atmosphere it yields 
sulphate of iron and sulphuric acid, 

Prismatic Iron-Pyrites, Jam. 
Iron-Pyrites, (In part) White Jron-Pyrites. Phil. 

Colour pale bronze-yellow, sometimes inclining to 
green or gray. Streak grayish or brownish-black. Lus- 
tre metallic. Brittle. Hardness 6.0 — 6.5. Sp. gr. 
4.67 — 4.84. Primary form a right rhombic prism. M 
on M' 106° 2'. P on M or M' 90o. Cleavage rather 
perfect, parallel to the planes of the preceding prism. It 
occurs in Very flat crystals, having at first sight the ap- 
pearance of dodecahedrons with triangular planes, but 
which however are macles consisting of similar portions 
of five crystals. 


Compound varieties.^-— Glohnl^Xy reniform, botryoidal 
and other imitative shapes. Massive. Composition fine 
granular. Fracture even, flat conchoidal. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it appears like hexahedral Iroa'py* 
rites. Some of its varieties are particularly subject to decom- 
position. It consists of 

Iron, 45.07 

Sulphur, 53.35 

Manganese, 0.70 
Silex, ' 0.80 Berzelius. 

2. The varieties included in the present species are the 
Madiated-Pyrites, Spear- Pyrites, Cockscomb- Pyrites, Hepa- 
tic-Pyrites, and some varieties of the Cellular-Pyrites. The 
distinction among the varieties depends on composition and 
sh^pe, and several accidental circumstances. The crystals of 
Radiated-Pyrites are generally simple. Spear-Pyrites is found 
in compound crystals, consisting of two, three or more individu- 
als, regularly grouped. Cockscomb-Pyrites occur both in 
simple and compound crystals of a particular form, with inden- 
tations along their edges, and a colour much inclining to green 
or gray. Hepatic-Pyrites occurs sometimes in pseudomor<^ 
phoses of six-sided prisms. It decomposes easily. 

The varieties of this species are very useful in manufactur- 
ing Bulpbur, SMlphato of iron and sulphuric acid. 


Rhomboidal Jron-Pyrit^s^ or Magnetic' Pyrites, Jam. 
Magnetic Iron- Pyrites. Pfaii. C. 


Colour intermediate between bronaje-yellow and cop- 
per-red. Streak dark grayish-black. Lustre metallic. 
Slight action on the magnet. Brittle. Hardness 3.5 — 
4.5. According to the Count de Bournon, it occurs in 
irregular six-sided prisms, variously modified. Cleavage 
parallel to the terminal planes of the prism. M on M 
120^. P on M or M' 90°. 

Compound varieties.-^Mamve. Composition granu« 
lar ; individuals of various sizes, or /Oven impalpable^ 
Fracture uneven. 

202 ^ PYRITES. 

1. It consists of Iron, 59.85 56.37 

Sulphur, 40.15 43.63 Stromeyer. 
It occurs in beds along wi|h other minerals containing iron* 

2. It is found in the Hartz, Siberia, and other European 


H.=53.0— 4.0 
G=4.1— 6.1 


Variegated Copper, Jam. 
Purple Copper. Pbil. 

Colour intermediate between copper-red and pinchbeck- 
brown. Streak pale grayish-black, a little shining. 
Bather sectile. Hardness 3.0. Sp. gr. 6.0. Primary- 
form a regular octahedron. General form of some crystals 
a cube, of which the solid angles are replaced. It yields 
to mechanical division parallel to all the planes of the re- 
gular octahedron. 

Compound varieties, — Massive. Composition granu- 
lar. Individuals strongly connected. Fracture conchoid- 
al and uneven. , 

1. Before the blow-pipe it is fusible into a globule which is 
8trongly magnetic. 

It consists of Copper, 61.07 

Sulphur, 23.75 
Iron, 14. 

Silex, 0.50 R, PkUUps. 

2. It occurs in beds and veins ; the crystalized only in 
veins. The crystalized variety is found only at Cornwall, 
Eng. in the vicinity of Redruth. 

o. It is a valuable mineral for extracting copper* . 


Octahedral Copper- Pyritet, Jam. 
Copper-Pyrites. Yellow Copper-Ore. PhiK 

Colour brass-yellow, often irridescent externally* 

■■ PYRITES. 203 

Streak greenish-black, a little shining. Lustre metallic. 
Bather sectile. Hardness 3.5 — 4.0. Sp. gr. 4.16. Pri- 
mary form an octahedron with a square base. The gene- 
ral form of the crystals is that of a tetrahedron having 
the solid angles always replaced. Structure perfectly 

Compound varieties. — Globular, reniform, botryoidal, 
stalactitic and other imitative shapes. Surface generally 
rough. Composition impalpable. Massive. Composi- 
tion granular. Individuals of various sizes, often impal- 
pable and strongly coherent. Fracture uneven or flat 

1. Upon charcoal it becomes black before the blow-pipe ; 
red on cooling. It melts into a globule which becomes mag- 
netic if kept in the blast for sometime. With borax it yields 
a globule of copper. It is partly soluble in dilute nitric acid ; 
the solution is green, and the undissolved part consists of sul- 
phur. Pyramidal Copper- Pyrites consists of 

Copper, 34.40 33.12 

Iron, 30.47 30. 

Sulphur, 38.87 36.52 

Silex, 0.27 0.39 H.Rose. 

2. It is frequently found in beds and veins. In beds it is 
accompanied with the ores of iron and copper. The black 
friable substance called Copper-black, is the product from the 
decomposition of pyramidal Copper-pyrites, and also from 
that of several other species. If pure it is the peroxide of 

3. It is found in most of the mining districts of Europe. In 
the United States at the Perkiomen lead mines, Pa., at Sing- 
sing, and various places on the Hudson, Cheshire, Simsbury, 
Ct., Southampton, Mass. 

It is a valuable ore for the extraction of copper. 


Pyrites f 
Cobalt- Kits. Jam. 
Sulphuret of Cobalt. Phil. 

Colour pda] steel-gray, often tarnished copper- red. 



^4 nraiTE*. 

Lustre metallic. Semi-hard. Massive* Composition 
granular, impalpable. Individuals indistinctly cleavable* 
Fracture conchoidal, uneven. ' 

Compound varieties. — Botryoidal. Brilliant exter- 


1. It emits a sulphureous odour before the blow-pipe, and 
after having been roasted it communicates a blue coloiur to 
glass of borax. 

It consists of Cobalt, 43.20 

Copper, 14.40 

Iron, 3,53 

Sulphur, 38.50 

2. It is found at Riddarhyttan in Sweden, associated with 
pyramidal Copper-pyrites, and hemi-prismatic Augite-spar. 


Mckeliferout Gray Ardimony, Jam. 

Colour steel-gray, inclining to silver-white. Lustre 
metallic. Brittle. Hardness 6.0 — 5.6. Sp. gr. 6.45. 
Primary form a cube, to the planes of which it yields a 
perfect cleavage. Massive. Composition granular. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it is partly volatilized, and the 
charcoal is covered with a white coating. It at last melts into 
a metallic globule, which communicates to glass of borax a 
blue colour. It consists of 

Nickel, 36.60 


Antin^ony, 43 80 


Arsenic, 0.00 


Sulphur, 17.71 


Iron and manganese, 1.89 




2. It IS met with in several mines in the principality of 
Nassau, along witli hexahedral Lead-glance, and p)^amidal 

GLANCE. 205 




H.=2.5— 4.0 
G.=4.4— 6.8 



Tetrahedral Copper' Pyrites, Jam. 
Fahlerz, Gray Copper, Phil. C, 

Colour steel-gray, passing into iron-black. Streak un- 
changed, sometimes inclining to brown. Lustre metallic. 
Rather brittle. Hardness 3.0 — 4.0. Sp. gr. 5.10. 
Fracture conchoidal, of. different degrees of perfection. 
Cleavage indistinct, parallel to the planes of the octahe- 
dron. Some mineralogists'consider the tetrahedron to be 
the primary form. P on P' 70^ 31'. 

1. There are several varieties comprised within the species 
tetrahedral Copper-glance, which differ much from each other 
both in their external characters and chemical constitution. 
But hitherto it has not been possible to fix oH those distinctive 
characters which are required to limit particular species. 
Hereafler, it is probaUe that some of tiie included yarieties 
will constitute separate species in the Natural Historical Sys- 

2. At present there are three principal varieties, viz : the 
^trsenical Gray Copper ^ Antimonial Gray Copper , and Pfe- 
Hmferous Gray Copper, These varieties differ much in their 
reaction before the blow-pipe. Some yield arsenic and others 
antimony when roasted, and the residue melts in different 
ways. Afler roasting they yield a globule of copper. There 
are varieties, however^ which contain zinc, mercury, lead, sil- 
ver and gold. 

3. The present species occurs in mo^t of the mining dis- 
tricts of Europe. 

Prinnatie Aniimony'dlance. Jam. 

Colour blackish lead-^y. Streak tmchanged* Lus- 





206 GLANCfi* ^ 

tre metallic. Brittle. Hardness 3.0. 8p. gr. S.7S. 
Fracture conchoidal, imperfect. Surface rough. 

1. Frismatoidal Copper-glance is nearly allied to the follow* 
ing species.' It contains sulphur, antimony, lead and copper, 
and it yields a little silver. It gives about the sam6 results 
before the blow-pipe. 

2. It is found at St. Gertraud, near Wolfsberg, in Carintbia. 


AxifrangihU Antimony- Glanet J Of Bournonilt. Jam. 
BoumoniU, Triple Sulphuret, Pt^il. 

Colour steel-*gray, inclining to blackish lead-gray or iron- 
black* Streak unchanged. Lustre metallic. Brittle. 
Hardness 2.5 — 3.0. Sp. gr. 6.76. Primary form a 
right rectangular prism of 93^ 30' and 86^ 30'. It yields 
readily to mechanical division, and furnishes brilliant* 
planes on a recent face of cleavage. Structure perfectly- 

1. Before the blow-pipe on charcoal it melts, smokes, and 
afterwards yields a black globule. In a strong heat the char- 
coal becomes covered with oxide of lead. It is easily soluble 
in heated nitric acid. 

2. Di-prisma,tic Copper-glance has befen found in Cornwall, 
associated with hexahedral Lead-glance, and prismatoidal An- 


Bhomboidal Copper- Glance, or Vitreous Copper, Jam. 
Vitreoui Copper, Sulphuret of Copper. Phil. 

Colour blackish lead- gray, occasionally irridescent* 

Streak unchanged, sometimes shining* Lustre metallic. 

Very sectile. Hardness 2.6 — 3.0., 5.69^ of a 

compact variety. It is found crystalized in six-sided 

prisms variously modified. 

, 1. In tlie oxidating flame of the blow-pipe it melts and 
emits with a noise glowing drops. In tho reducing flame it 
becomes covered with a coat, but does not melt. If the su)- 


OLANC» 207 

phur is driven off a globule of copper remains. In heated 
nitric acid the copper is dissolved^ and the solution assumes a 
green colour, and the sulphur remains. By decomposition it 
is converted into black copper. 

It consists of Copper, 76.50 

Sulphur, 22. 
Iron, 0.50 

2. It is one of the most common of the ores of copper, and 
is rich and valuable. 


H.=2.0— 2.6 
G.=6.9— 7.2 


Hexahedral Silver- Glance, Jam. 
' Sulphuret of Silver, Phil. C. 

Colour blackish lead-gray. Streak shining. Lustre 
metallic. Subject to tarnish. Fracture small conchoidal, 
uneven. Surface generally rough, uneven and possessing 
but little lustre. Malleable. Hardness 2.0 — 2.5. Sp. 
gr. 7. 19, Traces of cleavage parallel to the planes of a 

Compound varieties. — Reticulated, arborescent, denti- 
form, filiform and capillary shapes. Individuals not al- 
ways distinguishable. Some of the imitative forms lon- 
gitudinally streaked. 

1. It intumesces and fuses easily before the blow-pipe, and 
gives a globule of silver. It is soluble in dilute nitric acid. 

It consists of Silver, 85. 

Sulphur, 15. Klaproth 

2. It is found in veins accompanied with a great variety of 
the ores of silver, lead, antimony and zinc. It is found in 
Mexico and Peru. 

3. It is a valuable ore of silver, and is the one principally 
employed for the extraction of that metal. 

208 GtAKCE. 





Htxahtdral Galena, or Lead-Glance. Jam. 
Galena, Sulphuret of Lead. Phil. C. 

Colour pure lead-gray; by decomposition black or 
blackish-gray. Streak unchanged. Lustre metallic. 
Rather sectile. Hardness 2.5. Sp. gr. 7.56. Primary 
form a cube, which is easily obtained by mechanical di- 

1. 2. 

Fig. 1. Primary. Fig. 2. Cube passing into the octahedron. Fig. 
3. The octahedron complete. Fig. 4. Octahedron with its edges re- 
placed. J 

Compound varieties. — Reticulated, tabular and other 
itnitative shapes. Massive. Composition fine granular, 
passing into impalpable ; the colour is then pale lead- 
gray ; the fracture even or flat conchoidal, and the streak 
shining. ' 

1. Before the blow-pipe, if heated cautiously, it melts and 
yields globules of metallic lead, ader the sulphur is driven oE 
It is partly soluble in nitric acid, and leaves a whitish residue. 

It consists of Lead 104, one p. 

Sulphur 16, one p. 

2. Hexahedral Lead-glance is commonly divided into. the 
following varieties, viz: Granular^ Compact^ Specular or 
Slickensides, Antimoniated and Argentiferous Galena, The 
Blue Lead is only the common galena, in the form of rhom* 
bohedral Lead-baryte. The Super-Sulphuret of Lead is an 
earthy variety of a bluish-gray colour, and so highly inflamma- 
ble that it takes fire and burns on being held in the flame of a 

OLANC£!. S09 

3. The present species is a very abundant mineral, and fuN 
jiishes all the lead of commerce. Remarkable beds of it ar^ 
found in Missouri. It also occurs in Southampton, Mass. 
and several other places in the neighborhood of Southampton. 

This mineral sometimes contains a sufficient quantity of sil- 
ver to make it profitable to work for that metaL It sometimes 
also contains gold. 


H=l. 0—1.5 

G.=7.0— 7.1 


Prismatic Black Tellurium. Jam. > 

Black Tellurium. Phil. 

Colour blackish lead-gray. Streak unchanged. Lustre 
metallic. Thin laminae highly flexible. Very sectile* 
Hardness 1.0 — 1.5. Sp. gr. 7.08. Crystalizes in small 
and nearly tabular crystals. Primary form a right square 



1. Before the blow-pipe it melts easily upon charcoal, 
emits white fumes, which are deposited upon the charcoal and 
gives a malleable metallic globule. With borax it mves a 
bead of gold containing a little silver. It is easily somble in 
nitric acid. It consists of 

Tellurium, S2.20 

Lead, 54.00 

Gold, 9.00 

Silver, 0.50 

Copper, 1.30 

Sulphur, 3.00 Klaproth. 

2. Its chief locality is Nagyag, in Transylvania. 


H.=l .0—1.6 


Rhomboidal Molybdena. Jam. 
Sulphuret of Molybdena. Phil. C. 

Colour pure lead-gray. Streak unchanged. Lustre 

■ 18* 

212 QlMncf^ 

2. It occurs in the Hartz, Cornwall, Eng. and in Scotland, 
associated with species of the orders Glance, Blende and Hal- 
oide. It is used for extracting the crude antimony, or the 
metal itself, which is employed in the manufacture of severed 
metallic alloys, and in medicine. 

Prismatoidal Antimony^ OlancCf or Grai/ Antimony (in part.) Jam. 

Colour steel-gray. Streak unchanged. Lustre metal- 
lic. Opake. Sectile. Hardness 2.0-^2.5. Sp. gr. 

Compound varieties. — Massive. Composition colum- 
nar ; individuals generally very delicate, straight and par^ 
allel, or divergent. 

1. Nothing is as yet known of the proportions among the 
elements of the present species, k contains sulphur, antimo- 
ny and lead. 

2. The axotomous antimony-glance is a rare mineral. It 
occurs however iu Cornwall, in masses of considerable dimen^ 


H.=2.0— 2.5 
G.==5.9— 6.4 


Jihomhoidal Silver- Glance, or Brittle Silver-Glance. Jam. 
BrUtle Sulphuret of Silver. Phil. 

Colour iron-black, dark-lead or bluish-gray. Streak 
unchanged. Lustre metallic. Opake. Sectile. Hard- 
ness 2.0 — 2.5. 6.26. Fracture conchoidal. Oc* 
curs crystalized in low six-sided prisms, of which the ter- 
minal edges are sometimes replaced. 

1. Before the blow-pipe on charcoal it yields a dark colour- 
ed metallic globule, which may be reduced by the addition of 
nitre, or soda and silex. It is soluble in nitric acid. 

It consists of Silver, 66.50 

Antimony, 10. * 

* From melaSi black. 

OLANCE* 219 

Iron, 5. 

Sulphur, 12. 

Copper and Arsenic, 0.60 Klaproih. 

2. It is found chiefly in Saxony, along \frith other silver 

The two following minerals require to he noticed here, as- 
they seem to be nearly allied to the preceding species. 

i. Flexible sulphdret of silver. PhiL 

Ck)lour dark externally, nearly black. Streak shining, 
but less so than hexahedral Silver-glance. Lustre metaT- 
lic. Thin laminae flexible, yields .readily to the knife. 
Cleavage perfect parallel to P. Primary form a right 
,oblique angled prism, of which the lateral planes incline ^ 
to each other alternately at angles of 125° and 55^. Crys- 
tals minute, shining and flexible. 

It consists of silvet, sulphur and a little iron. The locality 
of the mineral is supposed to be Hungary. 


Colour approaching silver-white. Lustre metallic; 
Yields easily to the knife. Sp. gr. 5.5. Primary form 
a right rhombic prism of 100° and 80^. Cleavage per- 

Before the blow-pipe it gives off copious white fumes and a 
slight sulphureous odor, leaving behind a white metallic glo^ 
bule. It consists chiefly of antimony, sulphur and silver. 


Argentiferous Copper- Glance, Jam. 
Sulphuret of Silver and Copper, Phil. 

Colour blackish lead-gray. Streak shining. Lustre 
metallic. Perfectly sectile. Soft. Sp. gr. 6.25. Frac- 
ture flat conchoidal, even. Massive. Composition im-. 


It consists of Silver, 





15.78 i 




Bismuihic Silver, 

Jam. Phil. 


Colour light lead-gray, liable to tamisL LustriB me- 
tallic. Opake. Sectile. Soft. Occur3 in acicular and 
capillary crystals. Fracture uneven. 

1. It melts readily before the blow-pipe, covers the charcoal 
with an areola of the oxides of lead and bismuth, and finally 
yields a silver button. It is dissolved in dilute nitric acid, and 
yields by analysis 

Lead, 33. 

Bismuth, 27. 

, Silver, 15. 
Iron, 4. 30 

Copper, 0.90 

Sulphur, 16.30 Klaproth. 

2. It has been found at Schapback, in Baden. It is used as 
an ore of silver. 


Colour lead-gray, inclining to blue. Lustre metallic, 
splendent. Opake. Soft. Sectile. Soils a little. Very 
small, moss-like grouped crystals. Massive. Composi- 
tion granular. Individuals cleavable. Sp. gr. 8.44. 

To borax before the blow-pipe it communicates a smalt-blue 
colour. It consists of 

Lead, 62.89 

Arsenic, 22.47 

Sulphur, 0.47 

Iron, 2.11 

Cobalt, 0.94 

Arsenical pyrites, 1.44 

Glance t 
Cupriferous Sulpkuret of Biimuth. Phil. Jam. 

Colour pale lead-gray, passing into steel-gray and tin- 
-white, subject to tarnish. Lustre metallic. Streak black* 
Opake. Soft. Sectile. Massive. Composition colum- 
nar, impalpable. Fracture uneven. 

1. It is partly soluble in nitric acid, leaving the sulphur un« 
dissolved. It consists of 

Bismuth, 47.24 
Copper, 34.66 

Sulphur, 12.58 

2. It occurs in the principality of Furstenberg^ in cobalt 


Seleniuret of Silver and Copper, Phil. 

Colour lead-gray. Streak 'shining. Lustre metallic. 
Opake. Massive. Composition granular. Cleavable. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it melts easily and emits the odor 
of selenium. It is soluble in boiling nitric acid« 

It consists of Silver, 38.93 

Copper, 23.05 

Selenium, 26.00 

Foreign substances, 8.90 

2. It is found in^Smaland in Sweden, in a talcose or serpen- 
tine-like rock. 

Molybdena- Silver, Jam.^ Molybdic- Silver, Phil. 

Colour pale steel-gray. Lustre metallic. Not particu* 
larly sectile. Soft. Elastic. Sp, gr. 8.0. Cleavage 
perfect parallel to the planes of a rhombohedron. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it melts easily into a globule, that 
can be entirely volatilized, during which the supporting char- 
coal is covered with a yellow oxide. If dissolved in a state of 
powder in nitric acid, a precipitate of sulphur is formed* 



It consists of Bismuth, 95. * 

Sulphur, 5. 

2. It has heen found in Hungary, associated with species of 
the genus Lime-haloide, Iron-pyrites, &c. 


J^ative MckeL Jam. Phil. 

Colour brass-yellow, inclimng to bronze-yellow and 
steel-gray. Lustre metallic. 6ccurs in delicate capil-^ 
lary crystals. 

1. It consists of Nickel, 64.35 

Sulphur, 34.26 

Before the melts into a brittle metallic glob- 
ule. It colours the glass of borax blue. In nitric acid it is 
dissolved without leaving a residue, and forms a pale green 

2. It occurs in Saxony and Bohemia along with several 
species of Iron-pyrites and Lime-haloide. 


J^eedU'Ore. Jam. 

Plumbo-eupriferous Sulphuret of Bismuth, PhiL 

Colour blackish lead-gray. Lustre metallic. Fracture 
uneven. Hardness 2.0-^2.5. Sp. gr. 6.12. Cleavage 
unknown, imperfect. Prismatic 

1. Before the blow-pipe its sulphur is driven off, and it 
melts and emits numerous sparkling and metallic globules. 
A button of lead containing copper remains, which communi- 
cates a greenish-blue colour to borax. It is soluble in nitric 
acid, and consists of Bismuth, 43.20 

Lead, 24.32 

Copper, 12.10 
Nickel, 1.58 • 

Tellurium, 1.32 

Sulphur, 11.55 
Gold, 0.79 John. 

2. It occurs at Caiharineburg, in Siberia, imbedded in; 
Quartz, and associated with Gold and several.specieeof th9 
orders Malachite, Glance and Pyrites. 

GLANCE. 217 


Seleniuret of Copper. Phil. 

Colour silver-white. Str^k ^shining. Lustre metal- 
Uc. Soft Malleable. Massive* Also superficial upon 
fissures in rhombohedral Lime-baloide. 

1. It acquires negative electricity by friction. It melts 
easily upon charcoal into a gray malleable globule, giving out 
a strong smell of selenium, and consists of selenium and cop«- 

2. It has hitherto been found exclusively in a copper mine 
at Smaland, in 8wieden. 


Tennantite, Jam. Phil. 

Colour blackish lead-gray. Streak reddish-gray. Lus- 
tre metallic. Opake. Brittle. Scratches prismatic and 
tetrahedral copper-glance. Sp. gr. 4.37, Cleavage pa- 
rallel to the planes of a dodecahedron, but imperfect. 
Sometimes massive, with a granular composition, which 
passes into iippalpable. Fracture even. 

1. Before the blow-pipe tennantite decrepitates a little, and 
burns with a blue fiame, emitting copious arsenical vapors, 
and melting at last into a black scoria, which is magnetic. 

It consists of Copper, 45.32 

Arsenic, 11.84 

Iron, 9.26 

Sulphur, 28.74 

Silex, 5. 

2. It occurs in several of the Cornish copper mines, in veins 
traversing granite and clay-slate. 


Colour steel-gray, inclining to yellow. Lustre metal- 
lic. Streak black. Opake. Brittle. Hardness 4.0. 
Sp. gr. 4,35. Massive. Fracture uneven, imperfect 
conchoidal. Composition granular. Strongly coherent. 


218 BLENDE* 

1. Before the blow-pipe the sulphur is driven off, and the 
mineral melts into a blackish scoria, without yielding a mett^l* 
lie button. It is soluble in nitro-muriatic acid, during which 
the sulphur is precipitated. 

It consists of Tin, , 34. 

Copper, 36. 
Iron, 2. 

Sulphur, 25. Klaproth. 

2. It is found at St. Agnes, in Cornwall, with pyramidal 


Ytllow Gold-Glanctf ot Ytllov) Ttllurium* Jam. 
FeWow Tellurium. Phil. 

Colour silver-white, much inclining to brass-yellow. 
Opake. Lustre metallic. Imbedded 'crystaline laminse. 
Fracture uneven. Only traces of cleavage. Rather brit- 
tle. Soft. Sp. gr. 10.67. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it melts into a metallic globule and 
emits a pungent odor. It is soluble in nitric acid. 

It consists of Tellurium, 44.76 

Gold, 26.75 

Lead, 19.50 

Silver, 8.50 

Sulphur, 0.50 

2. The only locality is Nagyag in Transylvania, where it 
occurs with prismatic Tellurium-glance and hexahedral 
Glance-blende, &c. 


H.==3.5— 4.0 


Priimatie Manganese'Blende, Jam. 
Sulphuret of Manganete, Phil. . 

Colour iron-black ; on a recent fracture dark steel-gray. 
Streak ^rk-green. Lustre imperfect metallic. Opake* 



Bather sectile. Hardness 3.5—4.0. Sp. gr. 4.01. 
Fracture uneven, imperfect cbnchoidaL Surface rough. 
Primary form a cube. Cleavage perfect ; traces of cleav- 
age parallel to the .planes of a dodecahedron. 

1. Be&re the blow-pipe it is melted only on the thinnest 
edges. It emits sulphuretted hydrogen if pulverised and 
thrown into nitric acid, and is dissolved. It consists of 

Protoxide of manganese, 82. 
Sulphur, 11. 

Carbonic acid, '5. 

2. It is a rare mineral. It occurs chiefly in veins, with pris- 
matic Telhirium-glance, at Nagyag, in Transylvania. 


G. =4.0— 4.2 


Dodeehhedral Zine-Blende, Jam. 
Blende, Sulphuret of Zine, PhU. 

Colour green, yellow, red, brown, black ; none of them 
bright. Streak white, or corresponding to the colour. 
Xiustre adainantine. Transparent...translucent. Brittle. 
Hardness 3.5 — 4.5. Sp. gr. 4.07. of a cleavable varie- 
ty ; 4.02 of a compound variety. Primary form! a dode- 
cahedron. Cleavage perfect. Fracture conchoidaL 

1. 2. 3. 4. 6. 

Fig. 1. PrimarV) a rhombic dodecahedron. Fig. 2. The same, of 
which eight of the soUd angles are replaced by as many triangular 
planes, forming a paiBsage into the regalar octahedron. Fig. 3. The 
octahedron complete. Fig. 4. The octahedron, with the solid angles 
replaced by quadrangular planes. Fig. 6. Those planes complete, 
forming the cube.. 

Compound varieties^-^tLemfofm^ and other imitative 
shapes. Surface rough. Composition columnar, often 
almost . impalpable. Massive. Composition gr^ular^ 
columnar, an^ sometimes impalpable. Fracture uneven, 
or even. 

1. When strongly heated in the oxidating flame of the blow- 
pipe it gives off vapours of zinc, which form a coating on the 
charcoal, but it does not melt. It is soluble in nitric acid, 
during which process sulphuretted hydrogen is disengaged. 

It consists of Zinc 34, one p. 

Sulphur 16, one p. 
It contains, however, from one to twelve per cent of iron. 

2. Dodecahedral Garnet-blende is met with in veins and 
beds, accompanied chiefly with hexahedral Lead-glance, Iron-- 
pyrites, species of the orders Haloide and Baryte. 

3. It is found at Southampton and Leverett, Mass., Per- 
kiomen lead mines, Pa., Hamburgh, N. J., in the Shawan- 
gunk Mountains, the Highlands, N. Y., and in Berlin, Ct. 


H.=l 0—1.5 
G.=4.5— 4.6 


prismatic Antimony^Blende, or Red Antimony. Jam. 
Red jiniimojiy. PUU. 

Colour cherry-red. Streak cherry*red or brownish- 
red. Lustre common or metallic adamantine. Feebly trans- 
lucent. Sectile.. Thin laminae are slightly flexible. 
Hardness 1.0 — 1.5. Sp. gr. 4.6 — 4.6. Primary form 
is supposed to be a right square prism. 

Compound varieties. — Tufts of capillary crystals. Mas- 
sive. Composition thin columnar, straight and divergent 
from common centers. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it melts easily Upon charcoal by 
which it is ah3orbed, and at last entirely volatilised. Immers- 
ed in nitric acid, it is covered with a white coating. 



It consitU of Anttmony, 67.80 

Oxygen, 10.80 

Sulphur, 19.70 

2. It is Always accompanied with prismatoidal Antimony- 
glance. It occurs in veins. It is (bund in Saxony, Hungary, 
and Dauphiny in France. 


H.=2.0— 2.5 


Rhomboidal Ruby-Blende^ or Red Silver. Jam. 
Red Silver. Ruby Silver. Phil. 

Colour iron-black, sometimes passing into cochineal- 
red. Streak several shades of cochineal-red, or corres- 
. ponding to the colour ; in some varieties it is aurora-red. 
Lustre adamantine : metallic adamantine in tlie dark 
coloured varieties. Semi-transparent... opake. Sectile. 
Hardness 2.0 — ^2.3. Sp, gr. 6,84. Brittle. Primary 
form an obtuse rhomboid of 108o SC and il^ 30'. Struc- 
tdre perfectly lamellar. 

Compound varieties. — ^Dendritic and scaly forms. Mas- 
sive. Composition granular, of various sizes of individu- 
als, strongly connected. 

1. It decrepitates before the blow-pipe upon charcoal, melts 
and emits fumes of sulphur and antimony, after which it yields 
a globule of silver. It is soluble in dilute nitric acid. 
It consists of Silver, 58.94 

Antimony, 22.84 
Sulphur, 16.60 

3. Rhombohedral Ruby-blende has been found at only a 
few localities, but in some of these it is said to occur in con- 
siderable quantities. It is found in the mining districts of 
Saxony, also in Mexico and Peru. 

It is a valuable mineral for the extraction of silver^ The 
dark-red varieties yield a greater quantity than die light 


222 BLENDE^ 

Dark'R9d aUver, 

Colour iron-black. Streak dark cherry-red. Lustre 
intermediate between metallic and metallic-adamantine. 
Opake, except in thin splinters, when it transmits a deep 
blood-red colour. Very sectile. Hardness 2.0 — ^2.5. Sp. 
gr. 5.22. Fracture imperfect conchoidal. 

It agrees nearly in its results before the blow-pipe with the 
proceding species. It contains only about 30...40 per cent of 
Bilver, besides sulphur and antimony. Very rare. 


Prismato-rhomboidal Ruby-Blende, or Cinnabar, Jam- 
Cinnabar. Sulphur et of Mercury, Phil. 

Colour several shaded of cochineal red, the darker va- 
rieties inclining to lead-gray. Lustre adamantine, inclin- 
ing to metallic in dark coloured varieties. Streak scarlet- 
sedl Semi-transparent.. .translucent on the edges. Sec- 
tile. Hardness 2.0 — 2.5. Sp» gr. 8.0$. Primary form 
au acute rhomboid of 71° 48' and 108° 12'. Structure 

Compound varieties. — ^Rarely in imitative shapes. Mas- 
^iv^. Composition fine granular, passing into impalpable 
in some varieties. Fracture uneven or even. 

1 . Before the blow-pipe the pure varieties are entirely vola- 
tilized. It is soluble in nitric acid. 

These two varieties, which are usually known under distinct 
names, are the Hepatic Cinnabar and the Bituminous Cinna- 
bar^ It consists of 

Mercury, 84.50 
Sulphur, 14.75 

2. It occurs at Idria in Carniola, in*beds of bituminous slate. 
Also at Almaden in Spain. 

,It is used for, the extraction of mercury ; when very pure it 
may be employed as a pigment in its natural state. 





H.=1.6— 2.5 
G.r=1.9— 3.6 


Yellow Orpiment, or Prismatindal Sulphur, Jam. 
Orpiment. Phil. 

Colour several shades of lemon-yellow. Streak lemon- 
yellow, generally a little paler th^n the colour. Lustre 
metallic. Pearly upon the perfect faces of cleavage, fpr 
the rest, resinous. Sectile. Transparent... translucent on 
the edges. Thin larpinae flexible.. Hardness L6 — 2.0. 
Sp. gr. 3'.48. Primary form a right rhombic prism of 
100^ and 80<^. It yields to mechanical division parallel 
only to the longer diagonal of the prism. 

Compound varieties.^ — Reniform, botryoidal and other 
imitative shapes. Massive. Composition granular, of 
Various sizes of individuals. 

1. Before the blow-pipe upon charcoal it burns with a blue 
flame, and emits fumes of sulphur and arsenic'i It is soluble 
in nitric, muriatic and sulphuric acids. 

It occurs in nodules or in imbedded crystals in blue clay. 

2. It is found in Hungary, near Vienna, and at Kaprick in 


Red Orpiment f or Rubi/ Sulphur, or Hemi-Prismatic Sulphur. Jam. 

Orpiment. Phil. 

Colour aurora-red in several shades, but which differ but 
little from each other. Streak orange-yellow, someti^nes 
passing into aurora-red. ' Lustre iresinous. Sectile. Hard- 
ness 1.5— 2.0. Sp. gr. 3.55. It cleaves parallel to the 
planes of a rhombic prism of 105^ 45' and 74° 15'. The 
terminal plane on the lateral being about 104^ 6'. 


Compound varieties* — ^Maafihre« Compositicm granu- 
lar. Cross fracture ccmchoidal, with a splendent lustre. ' 

It appears before the blow-pipe like the preceding sp^ies. 
It consists of Sulphur, 31.00 

Arsenicy 69.00 


Prismatic Sulphur. Jam. Sulphur, Phil. 

Colour several shades of sulphur-yellow, inclining some- 
times to red or green. Streak sulphur-yellow, passing 
into white. Lustre resinous. Transparent... translucent 
on the edges. Sectilei Hardness 1.5 — 2.6. 
2*07. Primary form an octahedron with a rhombic base. 

Compound rdrtc^ic*.— Imbedded globules. Massive^ 
Composition granular, often impalpable, strongly coher- 
ent ; sometimes pulverulent. 

1. Sulphur bums with a bluish flame. B^ friction it ac- 
quires resinous electricity. It is insoluble in water, but unites 
readily with soda or potash. 

2. It is found principally in volcanic districts, and often oc- 
curs in splendid crystals. Sometimes it is produced by the 
decomposition of pyrites. 

3. Prismatic Sulphur requires to be purified, either by melt-^ 
ing or sublimation, before it is fit to be an object of commerce. 
It is used in the manufacture of gun-powder, sulphuric acid, 
and various other articles. 

CLASS III. Resin Coal. 



H.=2.0— 2.5 
G.=1.4— 1.6 

Pyramidal Honeystone. Jam. Mellite. Phil. 

Colour honey-yellow, inclining often to red or brown. 

* From the Greek, signifying the colour of honey. 

RESIN. 225 

t 1 

Streak white. Lustre resinous. Transparent. ..translu- 
cent. Sectile. Hardness 2.0 — ^2.5. Sp. gr. 1.89. Crys- 
talizes in the form of obtuse octahedrons, of which the- 
cominon base is a square. It yields to mechanical divis- 
ion parallel to all its planes, but not with brilliant faces. 

It loses its colour and transparency in the flame of a candle^ 
and is soluble in nitric acid. Only one authenticated locahty, 
viz. Arten in Thuringia. 



y G.==0.8— 1.2 * • 


Yellow MinercU'Resin, or Amhet, Jam. 
Amber. Phil. C. 

Prevailing colour yellow, passing into red, brown and 
white. Streak white. Lustre resinous. Transparent- 
translucent. Not very brittle. Hardness 2.4 — ^2.5. Sp. 
gr. 1.08. Resinous electricity produces friction. Cleav- 
age none. Fracture conchoidal. Surface uneven and 

1. It bums with a yellow flame, giving out an agreeable 
odour, and leaves a carbonaceous residue. It is soluble in al- 

2. It is found in the greatest quantity on the Prussian coast 
on the Baltic. Also on the coasts below Araboy, N. J. 

3. It is cut into various ornaments and works of art. Con- 
siderable value is attached to large transparent specimens. 


Black Mineral Resin. Jam. 

Mineral Oil, Bitumen, Mineral Pitch, Phil. 

Prevailing colour black, but passes into various brown 
and red tints. Aggregation solid or fluid, and all the in- 
termediate stages. Fluid varieties are sometimes per- 
fectly colourless. Streak commonly unchanged. Frac- 

226 RESIN. 

ture conchoidal, more or less perfect^ uneven. Translcr* 
cent on the edges..«opake. Some fluid varieties transpa* 
rent. Sectile. Malleable. Elastic. Bituminous odour. 
/Hardness 0.0 — 2.0. Sp. gr. 0.82, brown malleable va- 
riety ; 1.07 black and slaggy variety ; 1.16 hyacinth*red, 
slaggy variety. No regular form or cleavage. Massive. 

1. The present species has been divided into two distinct 
speciesy viz : Mineral Oil and Mineral Pitch. They differ, 
however, only in their state of aggregation, and there is a per- 
fect transition from the most perfect fluid to the scjid varieties. 
Mineral Pitch has been divided into doiixc earthy and slag- 
gy. Those varieties are also joined by transitions. The 
fluid variety, called Naptha, consists of 

. Catrbon, 82.20 87.60 
Hydrogen, 14.80 12.78 

2. All the varieties are highly inflammable, and burn with 
a white flame and much smoke. 

3. The fluid varieties ooze out of several rocks, as sand- 
stone, clay-slate and the bituminous carbonate of lime rock. 
The slaggy varieties are met with in the form of nodules in 
limestone, in agate balls, in veins with hexahedral Lead- 
glance. Also on the shores of the Dead Sea. 

Elastic Bitumen, or Elastic Mineral Pitch, has been found 
. only in Castleton, Derbyshire, though I have observed indica- 
tions of it in a flbrous limestone from the vicinity of Munroe, 

4 The diflerent varieties allow of considerable application 
for illumination, for fuel, in ifire-works, in the manufacture oi 
varnish, of black sealing wax, and other purposes. 


Rttinite, Jam. 
Retinasphalt. Phil. 

Colour green, yellow, red, brown, sometimes in striped 
delineation. Lustre resinous. Semi-transparent...opake. 
Hardness 1.5 — 2.0. Sp. gr. 1.13, 

1. It takes ffre in the flame of a candle, melts and burns 
with a particular odor. It is partly soluble in alcohol, leav- 
ing behmd an unctuous residue. 



It consists of Vegetable resin, 55* 

Bitumen or Asphalt, 42. 

Earthy matter, , 3. 

2. It has been found in the beds of earthy-brown coal, 
near Halle, on the Saale, 


H^l.O— 2.5 


£rown Coal, (excepting Alum-Eartb.) Black Coal. Jam. 

Black Coal. Common Coal, Cannel Coal, Jet-Browii Coal. Pbil« 

Colour black or brown, passing on earthy varieties inta 
grayish tints. Streak unchanged, except that it some- 
times becomes shining. Opake. Lustre resinous, more 
or less distinct. Sectile in different degrees. Hardness 
1.0 — 2.5. 1.22, moor coal; 1.27, common brown 
coal; 1.27, black coal from Newcastle ; 1.32, common 
brown coal from Stiria ; 1.43, cannel coal from Wigan, 

Compound varieties. — Massive* Composition lamel- 
lar; faces of composition smooth and even. Texture 
granular, often impalpable, and then the fracture is un- 
even or flat conchoidal. There are some varieties which 
have a loose friable texture. 


1. Several varieties are included in the present species, as 
skUe coaly foUated codl^ eoars/t coaly cannel coaly pitch coalf 
and earthj^ coal. All these varieties are joined by almost im- 
perceptible gi^dations. Thev all are more or less eaisilv in- 
flammable« and burn with name and a bituminous oaour. 
Some of the varieties become soft and coke when kindled. 
They leave a more or less earthy residue. 

2. Bituminous Mineral-coal is very generally distributedy 

228 COAL. 

and the importimt uses to which it is applied are well known. 
Deposits ofit are found in Virginia, Ohio and Pennsylvania. 

3. Coal is probably always produced from vegetables. The 
Opinion is rendered at least plausible, from the fact that in 
the vicinity of most coal-beds vegetables are preserved in die 
rocks, sometimes in immense quantities. 


Glance Coal. Jam. 

Mineral Carbon, Mineral CharcoaU Anthracite, Blind Coal. Fh\h 

Colour black or iron-blacjc, sometimes inclining to 
grayish-black. Streak unchanged. Opake. Lustre im- 
perfect metallic. Fracture conchoidal. No regular form 
or structure. Not very brittle. Hardness 2.0 — 2.5. 
Sp. gr. 1.40—1.48. 

Compound varieties. — ^Massive. Composition lamel- 
lar, impalpable. Some varieties are vesicular, others are 
divided into columnar masses, meeting in rough faces. 

1. The present species contains the following varietfes, 
viz : Conchoidal and Slaty Glance-coal, both oLwhich are de- 
signated by' the name of Anthracite. 

2. The varieties do not contain any bitumen, but consist al- 
most wholly of carbon, occasionally mixed with variable pro- 
portions of oxide of iron, silex and alumine. It is frequently 
disseminated in quartz crystals. 

3. The most interesting deposits of Anthracite are those of 
Wilkesbarre and Carbondale, Pa. The coal region of Penn- 
sylvania is quite extensive, and numerous beds of coal have 
been discovered on the Lehigh, Susquehannah and Schuylkill 
rivers. The deposits of An^racite at Worcester, Mass., and 
Portsmouth, R. I., differ much in their characters from the 
Lehigh and Wilkesbarre anthracite. The coal of the two for- 
riaer localities is much less combustible, and of course less va- 


The following minerals comprise those which are rare. 
The greater part are proposed species, which are not 
fully established. . • 


Colour brownish-yellow. " Hardness between apa- 
tite and feldspar. 5.14. Resembles gadolinite. 
It is found in Siberia. 

ALLOPHANE. Jam. Phil. 

Colour blue, green, brown. Transparent... translucent 

on the edges. Lustre vitreous, inclining to resinous. 

Hardness 3.0. Sp. gr. 1*85— -1.88. 

\. Infusible before the blow-pipe. With borax it melts into 
a transparent, colourless glass. It consists of 

Alumine, 32.20 

SUex, 21.92 

Lime, 0.72 

Sulphate of lime, 0.51 

Carbonate of copper, 3.05 
Hydrate of iron, 2.27 

Water, 41.30 

2, It is found at Saalfeld, in Thuringia. 


PerUomout ^SugUe-Spar, Fartsch. 

Hardness 6.0 — 6.0. Sp. gr. 3.3—3.4. Inclination of 
M on M 1230 55'. 


Colour bluish-gray. Lustre metallic. Sectile. Tex- 
ture fine granular* Soft* Sp. gr. 6.13. Massive. 

It is not altered by exposure to air. Before the blow- 
pipe it fuses, sublimes in white smoke, having a strong ar- 
senical smell ; leaving scarcely any residue. 


It consists of Antimony, 4^.61 

Ars^c, 3S^ 

Lo809 14.86 


Colour tin-white. Lustre metallic. Hardness 3.( 
3.0. Sp. gr. 6.2. 


Colour dark hair-brown. Lustre resinous. Soft. 


Colour lead-gray. Structure (compact. Hardness 2.O. 6.2 — 5.5. 


Jixotomotu JiugUt-Spar, 

Inclination of M on M' 156° 26'. 


Sulphwtt of Antimony and Iron. 

Colour dark steel-gray, inclining to pinchbeck'^brown. 
Lustre metallic. 

1. It consists of 4 atoms of sulphuret of. Antimony, and 
3 proto-sulphuret of Iron. 

2. It occurs at Chazellesy in Auvergne. 


Colour black. Lustre somewhat resinous ; thin frag- 
ments translucent. Primitive form an obtuse rhomboid 
of 92° 30'. 

Composed of oxide of Lead and Iron* Occurs on the 
banks of the Rhine. ' 


. Colour gray. 

It consists of Selenium, 49. 

Zinc, e4. 

Mercury, 19. 

Saipkur, (1.5 


Jt it iherefixe a bi-tdeniuret of Ziiie and proUHndpiuvet of 
Mercury* and is represented by the folloving fbrauila : zb.' 
Se. *4"Hgs. 


Colour reddish-brown. Semi-transparent....opake. 
Hardness 5. 'Sp. gr. 6.9. Primary form a rhombic dode- 

It is found in the vicinity of Schneeburgh, along with 
duartZy the oxide of and native Bismuth. 


Colour intermediate between lead and steel-gray. Lus- 
tre metallic, and glistening or glimmering. Texture in 
some parts radiated, in others partly stelldlar and partly 
parallel. Scratches fluor-spar, but this degree of hardness 
may be owing to an intermixture of fine particles of 
quartz. Streak dull, unchanged. 

1. Before the blow-pipe on charcoal it gives out white, va- 
pors of arsenious acid, at the same time it deposits on the 
«oal a yellow crust. When well roasted before Uie blow-pipe, 
and then mixed with glass of borax and melted, it communi- 
cates a smah-blue colour. 

U is composed of Arsenic, 77*96 

Cobalt, 9.88 

Iron, 4.76 

Bismuth, 3.88 
Coppe^r, Nickel and 

. Sulphur, 3.41 

2. It occurs at Schneeberg. 


Colour blueish and brownish-black, blackish-brown. 
Streak shining, even in friable varieties, with a somewhat 
resinous lustre. Opake. Sectile. Soft; sometimes 
passing into very soft. Sp. gr* 2.20. Forms botryoidal, 
stalactitio. Massive* Composition impalpable. Frac* 
ture conchoidaLfVery fine earthy. 


Before the blow-^ipett gives out an arsenical smelt and 
colours borax smalt-blue. It consists of the oxides of Cobalt 
. and Manganese. 


Bi'Silicate ofMagnetia, 

Hardness 6.0 — 6.0. Sp. gr. 2.8 — 2.9. Vitreous. 
Colour grayish-white and yellowish-gray. Str'eak white. 
Composition granular. 


Colour hyacinth-red. Hardness 2.0. Sp. gr. 2.03. 
Primary form a right rhombic prism. Inclination of M on 
M' 120<=>. 


Braunitt, Haidinger. ^ 

Primary form octahedron with a square base. Hard- 
ness 6.0 — 6.5. Sp. gr. 4.8. 


Colour reddish or chestnut-brown. 

1. Before the blow-pipe with salt of phosphorus ^ green 
globule is obtained in the oxidating flaine, but red in' tte re- 
ducing flame. 

2. It occurs in delicate capillary crystals, bent and grouped 
like wool, on the surface of cavities in lava, at Yesuvms and 

BUSTAMITE. BrongniarL 

Colour light gray, greenish or reddish. Hardness 
6.0 — ^6.5. Sp. gr. 3.1 — 3.3. Occurs in reniform 


Sp. gr. 4.0 — 4.2.' Effloresces. 


Colour gray and brown. Earthy. Sp. gr. 4.3. 


CHAikOIfflfTfi. mHhUt. 

Colour dark greenish-gray. Earthy. Sp# gr. S.4. Ah 
impure magneiie Iroia-ore ? 


Colour pktachlo-grfeen. Opake, or orily translucent 
on the edges. Massive. Composition impalpable, earthy. 
Fracture cohcholdai, passing into earthy. Hardness 3.0 
.0. Sp. gr. 2.0. Fragile. 

1. It consists of Silex, 46. 

Oxide of iron, 35.30 
Manganese, 2. 
Alumina, 1. 

Water, 18. 

2. It is remaricable for a very singular ma^etic property. 
When taken from its original repositories, it breaks pretty 
readily into parallelepipeds, the upper end and two adjoining 
lateral edges having me opposite magnetic poles from the 
other two edges and the lower end. 

3. It occurs in Hungary, and is often called Green Iron- 
Sarth. Mohi. 


Colour dark-^een or pistachio-green, bat changing to 
black or brown on exposure. Brittle. Hard. Scratch- 
ed by a quill. 2.02. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it remains unchanged, either in 
<k>lour or transparency. It contains silex, iron and alumina. 

2. It occurs in trap rocks. 


Massive. Composition granular, passing into itapkh 
pable. Lustre slightly resinous. 

It. melts easily before the blow-pipe into a translucent 
globule. It dissolves entirely and with effervescence in 


Colour browmshrblack^ Streak dark lead-gray, pow* 



der-black* Brittle* Hardness 5.0? Composition im- 

COTTUNITE. (CfUoride of Uad.) 
COUZEitANITE. Charpentier, 

Colour black. Lustre vitreous, passing into resinous* 
Opake. Scratches glass, but not quartz* Structure fo- 
liated. Primary form a rigbt rhombic prism. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it fuses into a white enamel. 
It consists of Silex, 52.37 

Alumine, 34.02 

Lime, 1L85 

Magnesia, 1.40 

Potash, 5.52 

Soda, 3.96 

2. It is found in the Pyrehnes, in transition limestone. 


Var. of ^nthophyllite ? KarpholiU 9 

CUPREOUS ANALCIME. Jackion and j9^er. 

Colour verdigris-green; paler towards the interior of 
the crystals. ' 


Colour bluish-black. Streak unchanged. Lustre re- 
sinous. Opake. Not very brittle. Intermediate be- 
tween semi-hard and soft. Sp. gr. 3.19 — 3.21. Small 
reniform and botryoidal groups. Missive. Composi- 
tion impalpable. Fracture imperfect conchoidal. 

Before the blow-pipe it becomes brown, but is infusible. 

To borax and salt of phosphorus it communicates the colour of 

copper and manganese. It consists of 

Black oxide of manganese, 82. 
Brown oxide of copper, 13.50 
Silex, 2. 


Hardness 1.0. Sp. gr. 4.0, Lustre pearly. Colour 
grayish-white. Translucent* Feel greasy. 



. Colout green pr dark-brown. Lustre greasy. Hard- 
ness 2.0. Sp. gr« 2.13. Occurs in kidney-shaped or 
globular pieces. Fracture conchoidal* Translucent* 


Colour white, yellowish and greenish-white. Trans- 
lucent. Streak white. Lustre vitreous, inclining to 
resinous, faint. Easily frangible, especially if immersed 
in water. Hardness 8.0. . Sp. gr. 2.2 — 2.3. Composi- 
.tion impalpable. Surface rough, and sometimes drusy, 
exhibiting small mamillary concretions. Fracture even, 
and imperfectly conchoidaU 

Before the blow-pipe it decrepitates, but when exposed 
carefully to the flame, small fragments melt with difficulty into 
a white enamel without ebullition. With borax it forms a ca< 
lourless transparent glass. 

It consists* of 8ilex, 40. 

Magnesia^ 40. 
Water, 20. Shepard. 

Primary form a regular octahedron. Hardness 7.6. 
Sp, gr. 4,36 — 4.36, Colour yellowish-brown. Lustre 

DTSODILE. Cordier. 

Colour greenish land yellowish, passing into liver-brown. 
Streak shining. Fracture earthy. Soft. Scratched by 
a quill. Sp. gr. I.l — 1.2. 

EDINGTONITE. Haidiv^tr. 

Colour greenish-white. In small crystals. Hardness 
4.5. Sp. gr. 2.7. 

» Nearly the same results were obtained by myself. The specimen 
which was examined contained nearly 10 per cent more of water, 
which I attribute to the fact that it had been taken from its bed only 
a few days previous to its examination. 

836 Avnmax u 


Cdoor greentsh^gpiiy, vmelAf light SMak ifhite. 
Lu8tf6 reiinous* MmAWi and in &0 griidukr condratioiid, 
from which it paissdi^ into cotnt^Adt* Fractni^ 4>lint6ry 
or even. Hardness between apatite and feldspar. Sp« 
gr# S.O— S.l. 

1. Befdte the blow-])iM it taeltA into a trans(>ai^t bead ; 
frith borax into a greenish {^ass^ 

It consists of Silex, 53.16 

Alumine. 14.13 

Lime, 14.39 

Soda, 2.61 

Magnesia, 5.42 

Oxide of iron, 7.13 

2. It is used as a flux in the irori works of Etla, ia Ib^ Saxon 
Erzeebirge. It belongs to the oldest gneiss formation^ Ke- 
sembles gehlenite. 


Colour olive-green and oil-green, passing into yellow, 
brown and black. Streak grayish-white. Feebly trans- 
lucent on the edges. ..opake. Lustre vitreous. Fracture 
conchoidal, uneven, splintery. Scratches glass* Sp. gr* 
2.61—2.66. Reniform. Massive. 

1. Before the blowpipe it becomes pale-gray, and melts on 
ita thinnest edges. It is dissolved in glass of borax, and com- 
municates to it the colour produced by oxide of iron. 

It consists of Silex, 46.79 

Alumine, 26.73 

Magnesia, 2.97 

Protoxide of iron, 5.01 
Oxide of manganese, .43 
Water, 13.50 Hinnger. 

2. It occurs at Fahlun, in Sweden, in talcoso' or chloritic 


Magnetic* Less malleable than Native Plalina. Sp. 
gr. 14.6—15.7. 

Colour white, gray, inclkiffig to green* Fracture con- 
climd'al* Scratches quartz. Sp. gr. 3.21. Primary 
form a right rhombic prism, with angles of 100° and 80°. 

1. It is composed o^ Alumine, 58v 

Silex, 38. 

' 2. It is found in the Carnatic, accompanying the corundum. 



Massive. Composition Impalpable. Fracture coarse 
^lintery, imperfectly slaty. Colour white, gray, green, 
yellow, red, brown ; but none of them bright. I'ranslui- 
cent, in most cases only <m the edges* Soft. Sp. gr^ 

1. Infusible before the blow-pipe. It consists of 

Silex, 54.50 

Alumine, 34. i 

Potashy 6.2S 

Water, 4. 

2. It is brought from China. 


Colour white, prevalent. Streak white. Slightly 
translucent. Lustre resinous, faint. Hardness 3.5. Sp. 
gr. 2.40. Fracture uneven. Cleavage none. Reni- 
form, botryoidal and stalactitic^sfaapes. Massive. Com- 
position fine granular, passing into impalpable. Earthy. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it is infusible. It consists of 

Alumipe, 64^8 
Water, 34.7 

2. It occurs in Richmond, Mass., along with brown hema- 
tite, A single specimen has been found in Lenox. 


Colour olive-green, gray, brown. Streak uncoloured. 
Lustre resinous, faint. Hardness 2.5-^3.0. Sp. gr. 2.83. 

a$8 Awt»mx I, 

It consists of Silexy 46.07 

AIumine» 33.82 

Magnesia, 1.20 
l^ack oxide ef iron, 3.35 

Manganese, 1.15 

Potash, 6.20 

Water, 4.88 

GLAUCOLITE. Sokoloff. 

Colour lavender-blue^ passing into green. Lustre vit- 
reous. Translucent on the edges. Hardness 5.0 — 6.0. 2.71. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it melts with difficulty, but is soluble 
in glass of borax. 

ft consists of Silex, 54 58 

Alumine, 29,77 
Potash, 4.57 

Lime, 11.18 , 

2. It occurs near Baikal, in Siberia, in compact feldspar. 


Colour light yellowish-green. Opake. Scratched by 
the knife. Sp. gr. 3.74. 

1. It consists of Silex, 35.68 

Lime, 25.74 

Protoxide of iron, 34.46 
Alumine, 1,40 

Water, 0.60 7%onp$(m. 

2. It occurs at Gokum quarry, Sweden. . 


Colour white, or slightly blue. Lustre waxy. Hard- 
ness 1.5—2.0. Adheres to the tongue. 


Colour dark tin-white. Lustre metallic. Hardness 
5,0—6.0. Sp. gr. 6.7—6.8. 



Colour yellowish-white, wax-yellow, and greenish-yelr 
low. Lustra slightly glbtening and pearly. When in 


flakes, translucent Hardness like soft tallow. Very 
light Without odor or elasticity. Composition some- 
times granular* 

1* Fusible below 212° F. Soluble in ether. SmeUbini- 
minous when distilled over a spirit lamp. 

2. It occurs filling small contemporaneous veins, lined with 
calcareous spar and small crystals of quartz, in South Wales. 


Hardness 3.0— 3.5. Sp. gr. 5.40. Lustre greasy. 
Colour grayish'*w}ute. Composition granular, impalpa- 

HERDERITE. Haidinger. 

Colour yellow or greenish-white. Streak white. 
Translucent. Lustre vitreous, inclining to resinous. 
Brittle. Hardness 5. Sp. gr. 2.98. 
It is found in the tin mines of Saxonyi 


Carbonate of Telkurium and Bi-K^arbonate of Nickel. 


Primary a regular hexagonal prism. Hardness 3.0^ 
3.5. Sp. gr. 2.1. In sixHsided prisms, whose terminal 
edges are replaced, the new planes inclining to the base 
under angles of 132^ ; bases dull and curved* 


Colour black. Streak greenish-gray. Sectile. Soft. 
Sp* gr. 3.04. Massive. Fracture earthy. Cleavage 
in one direction. 

1. If heated gentlv it becomes magnetic ; in a stronger Wt 
it melts into a dull, opake, black globule. With borax it 
yirida a jjsUowiab^green slasa. 

It conaists of Oxide of iron, 51.50 # 

. fiilex, 27.50 

f40 ^ APPENDIX !• 

Aluminay 5^ '^ 

Cbdde of Manganese^ 0.77 
Volatile substance, 11.75 

2. It has been found in Sudermanland, intermixed with 
tbomboidd Lime-haloide, 

PrisnuUoidal OHhokUut'UdUndt, Partscb. 

HUMBOLDTINE. Mariano De Rivero. 

Colour bright yellow. Softi yielding to the nail. Sp. 
gr. 1.3* Acquires resinous electricity by friction. 

1. On ignited charcoal it is decomposed, giving out a veget* 
able odor, while the remaining oxide of iron is changed into 
different shades of yellow, then black, and at hst red. It is 
insoluble in water' or fdcohbl. 

It consists of Protoxide of iron, 53.56 

Oxalic acid, 46.14 

2. It is found in coal in Bohemia. 


Colour various shades of yellow, sometimes almost 
white, passing into reddish-brown« Transparent, .trans- 
lucent. Lustre vitreou^ Brittle. Hardness 6.5 — 7«0* 
Sp. gr. 2.5. Primary form a right rhombic prism. Inclin* 
ation of M on M' 120o. 


Colour white or yellowish-white. Sp. gr. 0.65. Lus- 
tre pearly* Crystals aciculan 


Primt^ry, a right rhombic prism. Hardness 4.5 — 5.0. 4.2. InclinationofMonM'37030'. 


Colour white, without lustre. Feels greasy. Soft, 
and translucent. Does not adhere to the tongue. 

APPENDIX !♦ ^ 241 



AxolomouM Iron' Ore, 

Colour black* Lustre metallic, brilliant. Fracture 
varies from uneven to conchoidal. Cleavage none. 
Scratches glass. Sp. gr. 5.43. , Primary form a right 
rhombic prism of 136^ 3(y. The terminal edges are to 
the lateral as 17. 11. 

It is found at llmen, in Siberia, in a matrix of Albite, 
along with titaniferous iron. 


Resembles dark-coloured Cinnabar. 

IRID-OSMIUM. Schwetzau. 

Colour lead-gray. Hardness 5.0 — 6.0. Sp. gr. 17.9 
— 18.5. Crystalizes in low sixnsided prisms. 


Colour yellowish and blackish-brown. Brittle. Lus- 
tre resinous. Fractur^ conchoidal. Sp. gr. 2.40. , Trans- 
parent... translucent on the edges. Not very brittle. 
Hardness soil. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it intumesces, and some varieties 
emit a strong arsenical odor, during which it is partially vola- 
tilized. It consists of 

Oxide of iron, 67.00 33.46 

Arsenic acid, 0.00 26.06 

Sulphuric acid, 8.00 10.75 

Protoxide of manganese, 0.00 0.59 

Water, 25.00 28.00 

2. It is found at Saxony, in several old mines^ as at Frei« 
berg and Schneeberg, 


Colour yellowish-white. Massive, or in reniform 

masses. Lustre resinous* Hardness 4.5. Sp. gr. 2.5. 


S43> ^ APFJSNPWlt 

It fuses before tbe blow-pipe on charcoal into a black 
globule ; with borax and salt of phosphorus into a dark sco- 
ria.^ Composed of oxide of manganese and zinc. Green- 


Hardness 2.0—2.6. Sp. gr. 2.0. Lus^e vitreous, 
faint. Colour greenish-white. 


Primary form a right rhombic prism. Hardness 2.0. 
Colour dark emerald-green. Crystals barrel-shaped, and 
closely aggregated. 


Colour indigo-blue, inclining sometimes to blackish- 
blue. Lustre resinous. Streak resinous, higher than^ 
the colour. Opake. Not particularly sectUe. Interme- 
diate between soft and very soft. Sp. gr. 3,80 — 3.82. 
Implanted spheroidal globular sh^es, with a crystaline 
surface. Massive. Composition impalpable. Fracture 
flat conchoidal, uneven. 

1. Before the blow-pipe it burns before it is red hot with a 
blue flame, and melts into a globule, and emits sparks. It 
finally yields a globule of copper. 

2. It occurs in Thuringia. 


Massive. Lustre and translucency like horn. Frac- 
ture splintery. Sp. gr. 2.71. Clarke. 

It consists of Silex, 75. 

Alumine, 22. 

Manganese and Wat^, 3.00 

MARMaUTE. Nuttm. 

Massive. Cleavage in two -directions, intersecting 
^ch other obliquely. Lustre pearly. Colour pale freen 

APPENDIX I« ^ 243 

or gray. Opake. Brittle. Easily cut with a knife. 
Sp. gr. 2,47. 

It is considered as a variety of serpentine, and occurs in 
serpentine, at Hoboken^ N. J. and at the Bare Hills, near 
Baltimore, Md. 


In acicular crystals. Sp. gr. 0.65 ? Lustre nacreous; 
Colour yellowish-white. 


Colour iron-black* Lustre higt metallic. Hardness 
$.0 — 6.5- Crystals small, flat, circular tables, with al- 
ternate re-entering and salient angles on their edges, 
inclination of 73^ 43^. 



Sp. gr. 5.89. Lustre metallic. Inflexible, bladed 
masses of a dark-gray colour. . 


Colour brick-red. Lustre vitreous. Streak flesh-red. 
Sp. gr. 4.92. 


Colour white. Lustre vitreous. Hardness below 
feldspar. Sp. gr. 2.15. 


Colour generally yellowish, but sometimes colourless 
and transparent. Primary form a right rhombic prism of 
1320 54". Terminal edges to the lateral as 1 to 1.046. 
In muriatic acid the surfoces become dull and coated with 
a yellowish powder. Hardness between apatite and &W 
spar. Cleavage none« 

. It oecurs at Yecuvius. 



Colour white, with a slight tinge of red. Opake. it 
possesses cleavage in three directions, two of which are at 
right angles to e^ch other, like the two principal cleav-^ 
ages of feldspar. The third has a nacreous uppearance, 
. and is as easily obtained as the other two, and is perpen- 
dicular to one of them, and inclines to the other at an an- 
gle of 106^ 50' ; so that the solid is a tetrahedron. 

1. It consists of Silex, 68.60 

Alumine, 16.60 
Potash, 14.80 

2. It is found at Dawlieh, Eng. It is sometimes pulverulent. 


Colour like Arsenical Pyrites, hardness 5.5. Sp* 
gr. 6.09. Cleavage parallel to the faces of the cube. 


Colour pale straw-yellow. Soft. Opake. Unctuous 
and tender. In onion-shaped masses. 


Hardness 4.5 — 6.0. In almond-shaped masses, and 
allied to the zeolites. 


Hardness 5.5. Sp. gr. 2.70 — 2.83. Resembles the 


Hardness 6.5. Sp. gr. 4.3 — 4.4. Lustre vitreous^ 
Colour pale-brown. Streak pale-brown* Fracture une- 



Colour light leek-green, olive-green and reddish brown; 


Crystalizes in acute octahedrons. Cleavage axotomous. 
Sp. gr. 2.2L 

1. It consists of Silex, 50.76 

Lime, 22.39 

Peroxide of iron, 3. 39 
Alumine, 1.00 

2. It is found in petrified wood near Oxhaver, in Iceland. 


Hardness 4U5. Sp* gr. 2«49« Primary form a right 
rhombic prism. M on M' 127^. 

FEKTOLITE. Von Kobell. 

Colour grayish-white* Lustre pearly. Surface gen- 
erally dulL Hardness between fluor and feldspar. Sp. 
gr. 2.69. It occurs in sjpheroidal masses which consist of 
delicate fibres radjating from a common centre. 

1. Before the blow-pme it fuses into a transparent glass. 
It is composed of oilex, 51.% 

Lime, 33.77 

Soda, 8.26 

Potash, 1.57 

Water, 8.89 

, Itsformulais4CSa+3 K5^^"^^«* 

2. It occurs in a deposit of manganese and clay. 


Heterototnotu Feldspar, ParUch. 

Hardness 6.0. Sp. gr. 2.64. Primary form a doubly 
oblique i)rism. P on M 93° 19'. M on T 1\4P 4y. 

PETROSILEX, (ofSaMbprg.) 

Colour deep flesh-red. Transparent. Compact. Frac« 
ture fine grained. 


FICOTITE. Cft«B]>eiUter. 



Colour leek-green, passing into yellow* Streak shin^ 
ing. Translucent on the edges. Hardness 3.0—^.0. , 

It consists of SUez, 40.04 

Magnesia, 38.80 

Water, 9.08 

Protox. of iron, 8.28 

Carbonic acid, 4.70 

Colours the glass of borax green when hot. It disappears 

when cold. It occurs in veins and beds in iron ore in the 

Faberg, in Sweden. 

FICROSMINE. Haidinger. 

Colour greenish«white. Streak white, dull. Translu- 
cent on the edges., .dpake. Very sectile. Hardness 2.5 — 
3.0. Sp. gr. 2.66. 

1* Before the blow-pipe it is infusible. B438emble8 asbestus. 
It gives a transparent glass with borax, and is soluble in heat- 
ed acids with the exception of a black powder. 

It consists of Silex, 10.43 

Alumine, 3.59 

Protoxide of cerium, 13.92 
Protoxide of iron, 6.08 

Yttria, 4.87 

Limci • 1.81 

IVotoxide of manganese, 1.39 
Water, 26.50 

Carbon, 31.41 

2. It is found hear Fahlun, in Sweden, in granite. 


Hardness LO. Sp* gr. 2.31. Kesembles green iron- 


Colour blackish-green.. .greenish-gray. Streak unco- 
loured. Feebly translucent on the edges. Sectile. Hard-, 
ness 2.0— S.5. Sp. gr. 2.78. 


1. Before the Uow^pe it metts ia thin Bplinteni imperfect- 
I7. It consists of 

dilex, 55.96 

AluminOy 25.48 

Potash, 7.89 

Oxide of iron, 5.51 
Magnesia, 3.76 

Water, 1.41 

It occurs in mica slate and other primitive rocks. 

2. It is found at Haddam, Ct Chester, Mass. and Charles* 
ton, N. H. 


Hardness 2.5. 6.2. Colour iron-black. Lus- 
tre splendent. Primary form a hexagonal prism. 

FOLTMIGNIXE. Berzelius. 
(Which signifies multiplicity of elements.) 

Colour black. Lustre metdlic. Crjstalizes in small 
rectangular prisms. 

It consists of the oxides of titanium^ iron^ tnanganese^ iin^ 
cmton, and of the earths zirconia^ yttria^ Ume^ magnesia and 
siZex, and the alkali jpo^o^A. 


Hardness 3.0. Sp. gr. 6.80. Lustre greasy. Colour 
clove-brown and yellowish-gray. In rounded balls made 
up of concentric layers. ^ 


Hardness 5.0 — 5.5. Primary form a right rhombic 
prism. Inclination of M on M' 92° 20'. 


Hardness 2.4. Sp. gr. 7.8. Crystals prismatic. 


Colour white, greenish-white. Lustre resinous. Trans- 
lucent on the edges... opake. Massive. Composition 
granular. Fracture earthy. Hardness 3.5—4.0. Sp. 

S4ft APffiNDiX U 

gr. 3.55— 2«60. Powder pbosphoresces with a bluish 

1. Before the blow-pipe it first becomes black then white^ 
and finally intumesces .and melts on the edges. 

It consists of Silex, 56.62 

Magnesia, 23.38 

Alumine, 3.38 

l/ime, 6.58 

Oxide of iron, 0.99 

Protox. manganese, 0.99 

Water, 3.58 

2. It occurs at Pargas, in Finland. 


Colour brownish-black, if decayed yellowish-brown. 
Streak brownish-black. Lustre resinous. Opake. Is 
scratched by carbonate of lime. Sp. gr. 2.19. Massive. 

If gently heated on one side it takes fire and bums without 
flame or smoke, after which it becomes white and melts into a 
black enamel. 

PritmaHc Mangancit'Ort, Haidinger. 

Hardness 2.0 — 2.5. Sp. gr. 4.94. Primary form 
a right rhombic prism. Inclination of M on M' 93^ 40' 

RhombBhedral Ldad'Bofyte* M. 


Hardness above 4.0. Sp. gr. 2.3. Colour whiter 
Lustre silky. Massive, with a radiating fracture. 


Colour brownish-red. Brittle* Hardness 3.0. Lustre 
vitreous, inclining to resinous. 

< SAPPARITE. S€lUothtim. 

Colour pale berlin4)lue. Streak grayish-white. Hard- 
ness 4,0. Lustre vitreous. 


SAPHIRIN. Stromeyer. 

Colour sapphire-blue. Streak white. Translucent. 
Lustre vitreous. Hardness above 7.0. Sp. gr. 3.4. 

SCHEERERITE. Stromeyer, 

Colour whitish. Lustre pearly. Very friable. Ea- 
ther heavier than water. In loosely aggregated grains 
and scales. 


Resembles Galena. Fracture granular. 


Fracture granular. Colour lead-gray. 


Sp. gr. 7.8. 


Colour d4rk blackish and leek-green. Seldom lighter 
shades of oil-green and siskin-green, and none of'th^ 
bright. Also brown and gray, yellowish gray. Lustre 
resinous. Indistinct, low degrees of intensity. Streak 
white. Translucent... opake. Sectile. Hardness 3.0. 
Sp. gr. 2.50. 

Compound varieties. — ^Massive. Composition granu- 
lar, passing into impalpable. Varieties of this kind pre- 
sent red, brown, black, yellow and gray colours, in veined, 
spotted and other delineated forms. Regular forms have 
been observed in the blackish-green and yellowish-green 
varieties, which belong to the prismatic system. Serpen- 
tine is usually divided into two kinds, the common and 
precious. The latter presents a splintery conchoidal 
fracture, a degree of translucency, and a superior harcl* 


1. It consists of Silex, 42.50 

Magnesia, 38.63 

Alumine, 1.00 

Oxide of iron, 1.50 
Oxide of manganese, 0.52 

Oxide of chrome, 0.25 

Lime, 0.25 

Water, 15.20 John. 

2. Serpentine forms mountain masses and beds in primitive 
rocks. It is found in Newfane, Vt., Cummington, Middle- 
field and Chester, Mass., and at the Bare Hills, near Balti- 
more, Md. 


Hardness 7.5 — 8.0. Sp. gr. 3.2. Primary form an 
oblique rhombic prism, oblique from an obtuse edge. M 
on M' 90^ 30'. Cleavage brilliant, parallel to the longer 
diagonal. , 

SORDAWALLITE. J^ordemkiold. 

Colour greenish or grayish*black. Lustre vitreous. 
Massive. Hardness 5.0 — 6.0. 2.53« Fracture 


Colour dark pinchbeck-brown, rather darker than mag- 
netic pyrites. Lustre metallic. Streak black. Sectile, 
Tarnishes >iolet-blue. Thin laminae perfectly flexible. 
Hardness 1.0 — 1.5. Sp. gr» 4.2L 

1. Before the blow-pipe it burns, giving off at the same 
time the odor of sulphureous acid. The globule which re« 
mains is coated with silver, and is obedient to the magnet. 
It is composed of the sulphuret of silver and iron. 

2. It is found at Jouchimsthal, in Bohemia. 


Colour bfeckish lead-gray. Lustre metallic. Soft, 
Sp« gr. S.Sdt M{t3siv^t Composition impetlpable. 

TAUTOWTE. Breithaupt 

Colour velvet-blacA:. Streak gray. Lustre vitreous. 

Hardness 6.5-^7.0. Sp. gr. S*86, 

Before the blow«pipe it melts into a blackish scoria, which 
is magnetic. Vfiih borax it melts into a ^een glass. It 
consists of silex, alumine, and the oxides of uron and manga- 
nese. It has tiie same relation to CrTsoCte diat Ceylanite has 
<to Spinelle. 


Colour silver-iirhite. Lustre inetallic. Massive, 
Sometimes broad foliated* 

T^PHROITE. Breithaupt, 

Colour ash-gray. Lustre adamantine. Hardness 5.0 
— 6*0. ,Sp. gr. 4.1. 

TESSERALKIES. Breithaupt. 

AnhydrovM Sulphate of Soda, 

Primary form a right rhombic prism. Hardness 2.0— 
2.6. Sp. gr. 2.73. Inclination of M on M' 125°. 


Colour black* Hardness 6.0. Sp. gr. 4.63. 

Infusible before the blow-pipe. Occurs at Brevig, in Nor- 
way, in Sienite. 



Colour yellowish. Semi-transparent. Hardness 4.5 
— 5.0. Primary form an oblique rhombic prism. In- 
clination of M on M' 960 10'. 


Colour bright smalt-blue. Lustre pearly« In small 
capillary crystals. 



Blue MagMtic Iron'Orc. 

Colour dark greenish-blue. Sp. gr. 3.71- 


Hemi-Prismatic Fluor-Haloide, M. 

Primary an oblique rhombic prism« Hardness 3. 
3.5. 3.1. Inclination of M on M' 950 25'. P 
on M 1090 20'. Crystals complicated, but resembling in 
colour and lustre the Brazilian Topaz. 


Colour white, yellowish or reddish. Translucent. In 
small rhomboidal crystals. 

YTTRO-CERITE. Berzeliw. 

Hardness 4.0 — 4.5. Sp. gr. 3.44. Colour violet- 
blue. Massive. Opake. 


HaidingeriU, Berthier. 
Berthitrite, Haidinger. 

Hardness 3.5. Sp. gr. 5.3. Lustre metallic. Colour 
steel-gray. Streak unchanged. 


Hardness 6.0. Sp. gr. 3.27. Lustre resinous. Colour 
green, passing into gray. In rectangular four-sided 


Minerals which will probably never form distinct species 

in the Mineral System, 

Mhesive Slate. Jam. Phil. 

Colour yellowish-gray, passing into white and smoke- 
gray. Streak a little shining. Feebly translucent on, 
the edges. Sectile. Adheres strongly to the tongue. 
Very soft. Sp. gr. 2.08. Massive. Composition im- 
palpable. Fracture slaty. Cross fracture even, flat 

On exposure to a red heat it becomes brown. It absorbs 
water rapidly, but does not fall to pieces. 

It consists of Silex, 66.50 30.80 

Alumine, 7.00 0.00 

Magnesia, 1.50 28.00 . 

Lime, 1.25 0.80 

Oxide of iron, 2.50 11.20 

Carbonic acid, 0.00 27.00 

Water, 19.00 0.30 

Mum-Slate, Jam. Fbil. 

Colour intermediate between grayish and bluish-black. 
Streak black, acquires some lustre. Opake. Dull. 
Not very brittle. Intermediate between semi-hard and 
soft. Sp. gr. 2.33 — 2.58. Kirwan, Massive. Some- 
Mimes in spheroidal masses. Composition impalpable. 
Principal fracture slaty. 

Alum-Slate has been divided into two kinds, common and 
shining, Alum-Slate is closely allied to Clay-Slate. Some- 


254 APPENDIX li. 

times when exposed to the fire it bums and becomes bluish- 
gray. It is found in Pownal, Y t 

BUuminout Shale. Jam. Phil. 

Colour brownish-black and blackish-brown. Streak 
shining, with a resinous lustre* Opake. Lustre faintly 
glimmering. Sectile. Sp. gr. 1.99. Massive. Com- 
position impalpable. ^ 

According to Werner it is clay-slate with a small quantity of 
bitumen. It occurs in the variety of coal mines. It is to be 
distinguished from a variety of clay-slate which is coated with 

Bole. Jam. Phil. 

Colour brown, yellow and red. Streak shining and 
resinous. Feebly translucent on the edges...opake. 
Faintly glimmering. Dull. Rather sectile. Adheres 
to the tongue. SofL Sp. gr. 1.60. Massive. Com- 
jJosition impalpable. 

If thrown into water it emits a crackling noise and falls to 
powder. It occurs disseminated in wacke, trapp-tuff, &c. 

Common Clay, Jam. Pbil. 

Colour white, gray, brown, red, yellow, &c. Dull. 
Sometimes spotted and variegated. Maksive and sectile. 
Streak shining. Adheres to the tongue. Feels more or 
less greasy. Soft. Massive. Composition impalpable* 

Common clay has been divided into Zoom, poiter^s day, 
variegated clay and slate clay. The appropriate varieties 
of clay ar% of various important applications in pottery, in 
manufacturing stone ware, porcelain, &c. &c. 


Colour intermediate between grayish and bluish-black. 

Jll»PENDIX 11. 255 

Streak unchanged. Soils more or less, and writes. 
Opake. Sectile. Adheres to the tdngue. Soft. Sp. 
gr. 2.11. Massive. Compositioa impalpable. 

1. Exposed to the fire it loses its black colour , and becomes 

It consists of Silex, 64.50 

Alumina^ 11.26 

Oxide of iron, 2.75 

• Carbon, 11.00 

Water, 7-50 

2. It occurs in rocks of clay-slate, and is nearly allied to 
clay aad alum*slate« The finest varieties come from Italy, 
Spain and France. 


Colour green, gray, white. Streak shining, resinous. 
Dull. Feebly translucent on the ed^es...opake. Frac- 
ture uneven and splintery. Earthy. Sectile. Adheres 
but feebly to the tongue, or not at ally and is very soft. 
Sp. gr. 1.81. 

If thrown into water it falls to pieces, and forms a paste 
which is not plastic. It absorbs oil and fat ; hence it is used 
for cleansing woollen cloth. 


LUhomarge, Jam. Phil. ^ ' 

Colour white, pearl-gray, lavender-blue, flesh-red, 
ochre-jrellow. Streak shining. Opake. Fracture \m- 
even ; and flat conchoidal in the large, fine earthy in the 
small. Adheres to the tongue. Sectile. Massive. 
Composition impalpable. Sp. gr. 2.43. 

It has been divided into two kinds, the friahle ai^d soUd 
JAthomarge, It does not fall to powder when thrown into 
water, and hardens when exposed to a strong heat; 


s Colour light brownisji-black. Streak shining, resin- 


ous. Opake. Dull. Sectile. Does not soil, but wtites^ 
Adheres strongly to the tongue. Feels greasy ; is very 
soft and light. Massive. Composition impa^able* 
Fracture fine earthy. 

It has been found in Poland. A mineral agreeing with the 
character of mountain soap is found in small masses in granu- 
lar limestone, in Williamstown, Mass. 


Colour yellowish-gray, inclining to white or brown. 
Feels fine, but meagre. Adheres but little to the tongue. 
Soft. Friable. Sp. gr. 0.59. Massive. Compositic»i 
impalpable. ] 

1. It imbibes water, but does not M to pieces. It becomes 
red when burnt, but is infusible. 

It consists of Silex, 79. 

Alumina, 1. 

Lime, 1. 

Oxide of iron, 4. 

Water, 14. 

2. It is supposed to have been formed from the ashes of 
burnt coal. 


Colour gray, more particularly yellowish and ash-gray. 
Opake. Not particularly brittle. Does not adhere to 
the tongue. Fee|s meagre. Massive. Compoi^tion im^ 
palpable. Fracture earthy^ Sp. gr. 1.85. 

1. It imbibes water, which softens it. It consists of 

Silex, ,81. 90. 

Alumine, 1. 7. 

Oxide of iron, 8. 3. 

Sulphuric acid, 3*50 0. 

Water, 5. 0. 

2. It is a fine variety of quartz, mixed with a little day. 

Colour liver, chestnut and dark yellowish-brown. 


Streak a little shining. Opake. DulL Imperfectly 
sectile. Adheres strongly to the tongue. Does not soil, 
but writes. Feels rough, and is very soft. Sp. gr. 2.20. 
Massive. Composition impalpable. 

It imbibes water with avidity, and emits ait bubbles^ but 
does not become soft. It isv used by painters as a brown 
colour. , 


Ck>lour greenish-gray, mountain, asparagus, oil-green. 
Streak grayish-white. Translucent on the edges« Soft. 
Fracture fine, splintery in the small. Sp. gr. 2.72. 
Massive. Composition impalpable. 

Whet-slate is slaty rock, containing a great proportion of 
quartz, in which the component particles are so fine as to 
withdraw themselves from observation. It occurs in beds, in 
clay-slate. It is used as a grinding material. 


Colour ochre-yellow. Streak faintly shining. Opake. 
Faintly glimmering, dull. Sectile. Soils a little, and 
writes. Soft and friable. Fracture fine, earthy. Sp. 
gr. 2.24. Massive. Composition impalpable. 

If thrown into water it falls to powder and emits a noise. 
If burnt it becomes red. It is a mixture of fine sand, oxide of 
iron, and clay. It is employed as a coarse colouring material. 






' § 1. Definition. 

Geology is the science which explains the Structure of 
. the Earth . 

This science consists essentially in a systematic arrange- 
ment of facts concerning the structure and relative position of 
the strata which compose the exterior of the earth. It con^ 
ciders also those causes which have had an agency in modify- 
ing and changing the surface of the earth, and endeavors to 
fix the dates when particular changes occurred 

§ 2.V Foundation of Geology. 

The foundation on which Geology rests is observation. 

It is impossible from the nature of the science that it should 
be otherwise. Many geologists, even after they have made 
numerous observations, have fallen into error. The cause is 
perfectly plain, viz. the * great ext^t of the ear&, compared 
with the limited means which any individual cian enjoy for col- 
lecting facts ; the concealment of strata, by overlaying depos- 
its, and the derangements which have taken place since their 
deposition : these and many more prevent Uiat accuracy o 
judgment which could be made in case all the materials were 
exposed and without derangement. 

§ 8. Uses of Geology. 

The uses to which geology may be applied are numerous 
and important. It initiates us into the history of the earliest 
created beings. It confirms the records of creation as given 
by inspiration, both as it regards the order and the successive 
periods of events. By it we are taught that useful substances 


are connected in a certain order in every district of country • 
and hence are to be sought for only in particular associations. 
By knowing the character of the different deposites, the agri^ 
culturist may be aided in the improvement of soils worn out, 
or naturally barren. 

§ 4. History of Geology. 

Geology is a modern science. ^ Its foundation was laid by 
Lehman, the German, about the middle of the last century. 
He was followed by Mitchell and Whitehurst in England, and 
Werner in Saxony, all of whom have left monumeats of their 
industry and ability. The latter especially has given charac- 
ter and great interest to this department of science. The 
name of Werner always brings to mind that of Hutton, from 
the fact that they respectively advanced and supported theo- 
ries diametrically opposite to each other. Which deserves 
the meed of having done the most for geology, it is not for 
partial critics to say. Hutton, however, aided by the happy 
illustrations of a Playfair, seems to have ultimately triumphed, 
though many of Werner's views are as unshaken as the rocks 
of his own country. 

Saussure, Humboldt, Eirwan, De Luc, Dolomieu, Palias, 
Jameson and Du Fond^ have been active and enlightened 
inquirers afler geological facts, and have added much to 
complete the history of the earth. ^ Guvier has done n^ore 
than all his predecessors in fixing the dates of remarkable 
events, as the creation and the deluge, and in bringing to 
light remarkable fossils and remains of animals which are now 
extinct. Bakewell, Brogniart, Gonybeare and Phillips, and 
Buckland, have discovered much in relation to the age, posi- 
tion and contents of the strata, which will serve to fill up the 
' ' outline of a general history of the earth. In saying what 
some have done in this interesting field of labor, we would by 
no means undervalue the efforts of those who are still in the 
field, collecting new facts and correcting the errors of former 
observers. It is a science which is eminently progressive,' 
and it will be a long time before materials can be collectecj 
suflicient to form a well proportioned edifice. 


§ 5, Objects which Geology considers. 

The ,general objects which geology considers are the 
strata, ilnd the relative position they occupy, and tHe 
minerals and fossils which they embrace. 

In mineralogy the objects are single individuals. In geok>« 
, gy the masses are generally mixed and always compound. 
They occupy great space, but differ from each other in this 
respect. They also diiBfer in relative posiiiotty and this is th^ 
most prominent feature in the science. Granite, for instance, 
is never found resting on graywacke or chalk. 

§ 6. Method of Studying Geology. 

The only method of studying geology is to form an ac- 
quaintance with rocks in the field, in their natural, deposits, 
or in the situations which they now occupy, by transposition 
or displacement. The student may apply the mineralogical 
characters from books to hand-specimeiis in the cabinet ; but 
after all, the rocks or strata must be seen, and their relative 
position observed. We are also to observe what minerals or 
fossils the stratum contains ; the inclination, whether it is 
horizontal. Or dips to the horizon, or is vertical, and how eithei^ 
of tbe3e positions a^cts the strata above. The thickness,^ 
extent, &c., are to be accurately noticed. 

§ 7, Limits of Observation, 

The observations which we are able to npi^ke, are 
limited to what is termed the rind of the earth. 

We can know but little of the interior structure. ' But the 
inequalities of its surface often give us admission to a consider^ 
able depth. 

§ 8, Weight of the Earth. 

The earth is supposed to be about five times heavier than a 
mass of water of the same bulk. As the gravity of the exter- 
nal coat is only about two, it is inferred that the interior is 
composed of metals or materials more dense iban tho exterior^ 

2C2 nfTSODCcnos vo the 

§ 9. Inlenud Heat of the EarA. 

From ei p ei im eati iHiich bare been made, pnncipalk b j 
Ccrdiery it teems to be established diat the temperatme di- 
minishes as we penetrate into die earth, ontil we are bdow 
the limit of solar inflnence. And that from that point the 
tempetatore inereases at the rate of about one degree of Fah- 
reobdt Ibr ererj fifty fe^ The ratio of increase Taiies in 
difierent comitries. Bat it is remarked by ProfL Eaton, that 
it is not probable that this ratio of increase is preserYed to the 
centre of the earth.* 

§ 10. External Heat of the Earth. 

Creology seems to demonstrate that the external temp^u* 
ture of the earth has diminished, and is perhaps still diminish- 
ing. The external part would eTidentlj cod most rapidlj, 
while the internal, being protected by the external crust, would 
cool more slowly. The facts in relation to ^ external and 
mtonal temperature of the earth, may be applied to a certain 
extent to explain the difference of temperature of the same 
parallels of latitude. 

§11. Sources of Information concerning the Internal 

Structure of the Earths 

The structure of the earth is revealed by the obliquity of 
strata, by deep excavations, by rivers and water courses, by 
vallies and defiles, by precipices, clefts, Glides and avulsions. 
Fr6m these sources of information, geologists have demon- 
strated a great degree of regularity in the deposition of strata 
composing the earth's surface. The earth, therefore, is not 
an exception to the general law of order which is so conspicu- 
ous in the mechanism of the universe. 

§ 12* Bearing of Oeology on Revelation. 

In speaking of the bearing of geology on revelation, it is to 
be borne in mind that the great object of revelation i^ to pre- 

' * The Eldin. Rev. vo\, 52, p. 49, contains loine valuable remarki on this 
iubject, and a notice of observations hy M. Mojie, which show grouncUof 
*nror not taken into consideration bj Cordier. 

STUDY OF c^oLocrr. S6S 

sent to fallen man the relation he holds to his Maker, and the 
rules of action which he ought to ob^erTO, together with the 
method of regaining that high standing as a moral being 
which he once possessed j hence the subject of revelation is 
not physical truth, and hence, too, we are not to expect that 
precision of language which a book on philosophy observes, 
where physical truths are taught. In the Bible, however, , 
there are two important eras mentioned, viz : the creation and 
deluge, which have occasioned among philosophers no little 
contention. But it is no less true than agreeable to the 
Christian, that geology confirms revelation, in language which 
cannot be gainsayed by the sophistry of infidels, or set aside 
by the cavilihgs of sceptics. 

In the first place, the antiquity of the earth is attested by 
numerous facts, and it can be shown that this antiquity ex- 
tends back only to a limited time. In the second place, in re- 
gard to the deluge, we have indubitable evidence that such a 
catastrophe once happened. The marks of it are now to be 
seen in every country. The agreement of geological facts 
with those revealed in sacred writ, is at least consolatory to 
the humble inquirer after truth. It is by no means necessary^ 
however, that such a coincidence should exist, to entitle the 
scriptures to our implicit credence ; for they carry such au- 
thority and evidence of truth ontevery page, that the assistance 
which geology renders is but small indeed. 

§ 13. Design which is maiiifest in the Arrangement of 

the Materials of the Earth* 


There is evidence of design in the arrangement of the 
vStrata composing the crust of the earth. 

The obliquity of the strata and the provision furnished in 
the machinery of nature for a supply of water by rivers and 
springs, are not to be considered as accidental effects, or as 
occurrences by which no end was to be accomplished, or one 
end as well as another. We have undoubted evidence of de- 
sign in those arrangements. Again, the disintegration of 
rocks to form soils for the s^ipport of vegetable and animal 
life, is a circumstance which ought not to be passed over. 


Muxywi$te ftets of a similar character might be moitioiiedy 
fmt these few are sufficient to show that geology furmshes 
proofe of design in the general construction of the earth. 

§ 14. Geological Theory. 

A geological theory should be a deduction from geo- 
logical facts. 

It has been remarked, that geology is founded on observa- 
iion ; yet it is proper to admit theory as a means of advancing 
its interests. And so long as conclusions are drawn from 
factSy or are formed agreeably to the inductive method, its 
conclusions will have as much certainty as those which belong 
to general physics, and often approximate to a demonstration. 



§ 15. Division of Strata. 

The strata have been variously divided by different geolo^ 
gists. The first grand division worthy of notice was proposed 
by the German Lehman. The lower rocks he observed were 
crystalline, very hard, and sometimes slaty ; they were also 
destitute of the remains of animals. These rocks he denomi- 
nated Primary, or Primitive. Resting upon these he observed 
another class of rocks, which were comparatively soft, earthy 
in texture, and contained the remains of animals. These 
he called Secondary, for plain reasons. This division was 
undoubtedly of great use in the infancy of the science. It 
served to stimulate men of science to observe attentively the 
position or order of the rocky strata. The discoveries which 
were consequently made, rendered it necessary to make a more 
accurate classification. A more perfect division or classifica- 
tion of strata is as follows : 

1. Primitive. 
2* Transition. 
3. Secondary. 

(a) The Lower Secondary Series. 

(b) The Upper Secondary Series. 

ffruihr OF 6EOLoot# 965 

4. Tertiary. 

5. Volcanic and Basaltic. 

6. DihiTial aid Alluvial Grroand* 

This arrangement is snbstantiallj foltowed by a majority of 
the geologists of the present day, even by those who are op- 
posed to the terras primitive, transition, &e., proving that the 
classification is founded in nature. 

§ 16. Genertd Character of the preceding Classes. 

1. IMmitive Roclcs — Were so called because no fossil re- 
mains of animals or vegetables, nor any fragments of other 
rocks being found in them, it was inferred that they were form- 
ed prior to the creation of organic beings. The rocks of this 
class are hard crystaline, and occupy, geologically, the lowest 
place in the series. 

2. Transition Rocks.^^They are so called because it is 
'supposed that the earth, during their deposition, was passing 
from an uninhabitable to a habitable state. In them we first 
observe the existence ©f the remains of animals. These ani- 
mals form the first link in the scale of animated beings. 
They are generally less crystaline in structure, softer, and are 
composed of the fragments of the primitive rocks. As they 
are interposed between the primitive and secondary, they fre- 
quently partake of the character belonging to both. 

3. Secondary Rocks, — ^This series is divided into Lower 
and Upper Series. 

(a) Lower Series. The lower series are almost all dis- 
tinctly stratified. They consist of sandstone, soft argillaceous 
slate, called shale, and beds of coal and iron-stone. In many 
of the lower secondary series we find abundance of vegetable 
fossils, as ferns, palms and reeds ; while the rocks in the 
transition class abound in marine animals. This change in 
the kind of fossil, indicates an important change in the state 
of the globe. 

(b) Upper Series. The prevailing rocks in this division 
are stratified limestone, with beds of clay, shale and sand- 
stone. The organic remains are again animals, which show 


206 urntODucTioN to the 

that another important revolution had taken place. These 
animalsy however, are of different genera and species firom 
those in the lower rocks. The position, too, of the upper 
secondary is different from the lower ; the former resting upon 
the inclined edge of the latter unconformahly. The last of 
the upper secondary is chalk, a rock which is wanting in 
Americli, and some other countries* 

4. Tertiary Strata — Comprise the regular beds that have 
been deposited since the chalk strata, and on which they fre- 
quently repose. These strata occupy considerable extent. 
They are the last regularly formed strata, and consist mostly 
of alternate beds of sand and clay. The lower series contain 
numerous marine shells, while the middle and upper contain 
shells allied to those now found in rivers and bays. The most 
remarkable feature of this formation is, that some of the de- 
posits contain numerous bones of quadrupeds of the class 
Mammalia^ but which belong to species now extinct. 

5. Volcanic and Basaltic Rocks, — They always cover, in 
an irregular manner, the rocks of the preceding classes. 
They have evidently been in a state of fusion, and some have 
poured from the rents and fissures in the earth's surface in a 
liquid state. In some instances, in cooling, the masses have 
partially crystalized, forming many-sided columns or pillars ; 
in other cases, the melted matter fills vast fissures, called by 
miners, dykes, 


6. Diluvial and Alluvial, — ^The greater part of the ground 
in most countries is covered with thick beds of gravel, sand, 
<*lay, and fragments of rock or loose stones, more or less 
rounded by attrition. Frequently these masses of rock have 
been transported a great distance. They indicate the action 
of mighty currents, which have swept over the face of the 
«arth with an overwhelming power. 

§ 16. Distinguishing Characters of the preceding 

Classes of Rocks, 

The different rocks and strata, except the primitive, 
are distinguished by their appropriate organic remains. 


Hiis declaration is perhaps too general and sweeping. It 
may be that in some instances two deposits belonging to- dif- 
ferent periods liiay embrace similar organic remains ; but 
there are boundaries or lines which may be drawn, where we 
can say that above or below it such and such organic remains 
are never found, and it would be as useless to look for them as 
for coal in granite. 

§ 17. The Passing of one Stratum into another. 
Strata do not always preserve a perfect uniformity or 

* - 

distinctness throughout their several courses, but fre- 
quently pass into each other. 

Strata sometimes pass into each other in a remarkable man- 
ner. Thus mica slate passes into talcose slate, talcose slate 
into soapstone, and soapstone into serpentine. Granite passes 
into gneiss, and sienite into ^ coarse mica slate. These tran- 
sitions more frequently occur among the primitive strata than 
the others. They may be seen throughout the primitive re- 
gion of New-England ; so that, in fact, the primitive rocks 
might he-considered as one vast stratum, composed of alter- 
nating layers of granite, gneiss, mica slate, talcose slate and 

§ 18. Inclination of the Strata, 

The strata are rarely equally inclined, especially in 
different formations. 

The position of the primitive strata are usually nearly verti- 
cal, and very commonly seem to have been forced through the 
superincumbent rocks, and hence they crown the summits of 
the highest mountains. * 

The transition appear at a lower level, near the bases or on 
the sides of mountains, and their position is of course inclined. 
But the degree of inclination varies at different places, and 
sometimes near their edges they are thrown into a vertical 
position. , 

The secondary approach the horizontal position) often rest- 


ing upon the inclined edges of the inferior rocks. The coim- 
tiy they occupy is generally flat and level. 


§ 19. Seat of Volcanoes. 

Volcanic action is seated below the primitive rocks. Thus^ 
the products of ancient as well as modem volcanoes are analo- 
gous in their composition to the oldest granite, sienite and 

§ 20. Kind and (Quantity of Materials which Volcanoes 

throw out. 

The quantity of lava and other substances which volcanoes 
throw out is enormous. It is said by Kircher in 1660, that 
the ejections of Mount ^tna would, if collected, form a mass 
twenty times as large as the mountain itself. And in a few- 
years after, in 1669, the same mountain was covered with a 
fresh current of lava, eighty-four square miles. And again in 
1775, according to Dolomicu, the same volcano poured out 
another stream of lava twelve miles jn length, and one mile and 
a half in breadth, and two hundred feet in deptli. The largest 
known current of modern lava was formed by a volcano in 
Iceland, and was ejected in 1783. It is sixty miles in lengtk 
and twelve broad. 

The kinds of matter thrown out by diflerent volcanoes 
varies at different times. Thus sometimes appear smoke, 
steam, flame, stones, sand, ashes, mud and lava. 

When a volcano breaks out, especially if in a new situation, 
it is preceded by violent earthquakes. The heated ground 
swells up until a fissure is formed, which is sometimes of vast 
extent. Through this rent, flame and smoke, and melted 
stones are ejected. Ilence earUiquakes are always connected 
with volcanic action. 


§ 91. Cause of Volcanic Action. 

Werner supposed that volcanic action was produced bj the 
combustion of beds of coal. This supposition is abundantly 
disproved by the fact that volcanic action is far below the coal 
deposits ; and if it were not, no beds of coal of sufficient ex- 
tent could be found to supply combustible matter for a single 
capital operation. A more rational theory of volcanic action 
has been proposed, which is founded on the intense chemical 
action which ensues when many elementary bodies are brought 
in contact. Or it may be remarked that galvanic action illus- 
trates very perfectly the condition under which volcanic action 
may take place. For an exposition of the theory of volcanic 
action, see Bakewell's Geology, American edition. 

'^ 22. Conclusion, 

In the preceding sketch it was intended to present only 
some of the leading and prominent features of geological 
science, or just so much as would excite inquiry and stimulate 
to action those in whose hands "the book should happen to falL 
The study of geology is one of increasing interest to this 
country. Its resources are yet to be developed, and much 
depends on scientific geology. If, therefore, the few geologi- 
cal facts and principles which this slight outline contains shall 
serve to create a taste for the science, or prove its utility, the 
object of the author will be accomplished. 





According to the Tiews of Prof. Mobs, a primary form is a sttnplft 
form, from which other simple forms are derived, and is denominated 
9i fundamental form, and the class of figures derived from that funda- 
mental form, systems of crystalization. These systems are termed 
the Tessniar, Pyramidal, PrismatiC| Hhombohedral, Hemi-prismatic, 
and Tetarto-prismatic. 

The tessalar system embraces the regnlar tetrahedron, regular acta- 
hedron, cub^ and rhombic dodecahedron. The pyramidal system 
contains the octahedron With a square base, and the right square 
prism. The prismatic system contains ^he rectangular and rhom- 
bic octahedron. The rhombohedral system includes the rhombo- 
hedron and the regular hexagonal prfem. The hemi-prismatic in- 
cludes the right rfaomboidral and the oblique rhombic prisms. 
The tetrato-prismattc contains the doubly oblique prism. This dis- 
tinction is so far important^ that all the forms which a mineral as- 
sumes must belong to the same fystem of erifstaKzation, For in- 
stance, the forms belonging to the tessular system produce among 
themselves various combinations, but they admit into them no 
f6rm which is a rhomboid, or a fonr-sided pyramid with a square 
base, or an oblique four-sided pyramid. The rhomboid and octahe* 
dron with a square base^ and the octahedron wUh an oblique base, are^ 
forms wJiich cannot b^ any means be deHved from eaah other. 
Hence those systems of cpy^talistation form group* which are alto- 
gether distinct from the rest. 

The common goniometer eonslsta etsenilatly of a semi-eircle gradu« 
ated to 190^f aiid two arms mowable on a cowmoo centre. To use 
this iRStiumeBt, the arms at ons extremity mmt be appUeil accurately 
to tfro^Jcfining planes $ the number of degrees wbioh the ttnn oa 
the oppesito eide of ils centre cuts off, indicates the angto at which 

The tefteoting goniometer (s an Instrument nnich more complicsited.' 
It cottMsts of an etftire oirele, divided lirto degrees upon Its edge, antf 
80 ^sposed AS to move vertie«!ly upon an horizontal moveable alls. 
The axis projects OH hofh eides of the graduated cfarcular plate. On 
iit^ fla« sf<l9 there are two kster Circles or wheels, one of whieb 

272 NOTES. 


moves the axis only /and the .other the graduated eircle and axis. On 
the opposite side the axis projects for the purpose of attaching the 
cr3r8tal to be measured. To use the instrument, it must first be ad- 
justed, which is effected by placing it on a small stand on a firm table, 
of sjDch an alevation as to permit the experimenter to steady his el- 
bows on the table, while his eye shall not be above the axfs of the 
instrument The table must be placed before a common window, 
with the wheel moving vertically to the window, and from six to 
twelve feet from it* A black line is to be drawn parallel to the hori- 
zontal bars of the wiodpw^ between it and the ^or. The crystal ia 
now to be attached to the axis of the instrument by a piece of wax. 
In attaching the crystal, the edge formed by the meeting of the planea 
whose angle we wish to measure,, must coincide with the centre of 
the axis of the instrument, or k line passing through the axis. This 
being done, we are to observe if the line which indicates 180^ upoi^ 
the circle, corresponds with a line miarked on the vernier, and also 
that the reflection of a known bar of the window is seen along the- 
black line. The exterior axis is now to be turned until the image of 
the bar reflected from the other plane is seen to coincide with the. 
same line below. The number of degrees and ipioates at which the 
planes incline, may now be obseryedt 

The instruments which are here partially described, ace both of 
them useful, and the reflecting goniometer indispensable to the stu- 
dent who would be an accompUshsd mineralogist. The relative ad- 
vantages of each become evident pn ^flection^ and io. not require a^ 
particyiaip consideration.. 


There are some secondary forms which, as we have seen, are de- 
rived from the primary by certain symmetrical modifications in these 
cases. We shall be able, in general, to say that a crystal of this sort 
belongs to one of two or three of the primary forms. For instance, 
if the crystal is a trapezoedron, we know tt can oome only from the 
eubCf the regular octahedron, or rhombic dodecahedron ; if a pen- 
tagonal dodecahedron, it must come from the cube; if a.dodecahe- 
dron with scaline triangular faces, it can .coma only from the rhom- 
boid. In the absence of cleavage, the student will occasionally meet 
with some embarrassmeat« In this ease it will be best to obtain seve- 
irnl forms of the mineral, which will perhaps enable him to fix upon 
the primary agreeably to symaMtri^M changes, at npticed in § 60.> 
Thus if the crystal is a cube, that must be the primary form ; or a 
tetraedron, regular octahedrpn, or rhombie doheeahedron— the only 
forms with which it can hie connected. If an octahedron with a 
square base, it must be IdenUcal with that, or the right square prism ; 
If the regular hexagonal prism, that most be the p^mary, or it is de^ 
jTived from the rhomboid. There are caieii however, more diileitft 


4ha& way we have yet noiicecl. When, for instance, aU the primary 
planes are extiogaished/and when in addition to this many of them 
are onduly extended, thoagh they may stHl be sjrmmetrlcally dis* 
posed. Some experience, aided by a few rules, will enable the stu- 
dent to orercome most difficulties which occur. When the secondary 
crystal retains some portion of the primary planes, we should in that 
case observe whether there be on the crystal any series of planes 
whose edges are parallel to each other. If such is the fact, we should 
then hold the crystal in such a manner, that the series of parallel 
edges may be vertical or upright ; and while in this position, we 
should observe whether there be any plane at right angles to the ver- 
tical planes. If on examining the secondary forms of crystals, we 
meet with two sets of parallel planes, either of which held upright, 
the crystal would present a series of parallel planes, we should in 
that case endeavor to ascertain whether the planes belonging to one 
set are more symmetrical than the other set. If so, they are to be 
made the vertical series, ff there exist a teries of vertical planet end 
a horigonial planer we should observe whether any of the vertical 
planes are at right angles to each other, and whether there be any 
oblique planes lying between some of the vertical planes and the 
lioriEontal planes. 

We should remark the equality or ine'qtiality of the angle at which 
any of the vertical or oblique planes incline on the several adjacent 
planes, and also if there is a symmetrical arrangement of the vertical 
planes, or of the oblique planes, which would induce us to refer our 
crystal to any particular class of primary forms. If the crystal is con- 
tained within any series of vertical planes, and is terminated by a single 
oblique one, the crystal may belong to the class of oblique rhombie 
prisms, doubly oblique prisms or rhomboids. If there are four oblique 
planes inclining to each other at equal angleSf the crystal may belong 
to the class of square prisms, or of octahedrons with square bases. 
If there are /our oblique planes, each of which inclines on two adja- 
cent planes at unequal angles, the crystal probably belongs to the 
class of right rectangular, right rhombic prisms, or octahedrons with 
rectangular or rhombic bases. If the series of vertical planes are six j 
nine, twelve, or some multiple of three, and if there be a single hori- 
zontal plane, the crystal may belong to one of the classes of right 
prisms, rhomboids, or hexagonal prisms. If there be three oblique 
planes, the primary is a rhomboid. But if the termination consists 
of six oblique and equal planes, the crystal belongs to the rhomboid 
or hexagonal prisms. 

The most difficult forms to be understood, are those belonging to 
the doubly oblique prisms. These can* only be learnt by cleavage, 
and from comparing crystals with each other, and with tables of 
modification. See Brooke, p. 106, 211. 

874 NOTES. 


, The importance of observing the appearance of surfaces will be^ 
come evident from the following remarks. They will be made under 
the following heads, viz : Faces of cryatalization — Faces of cleavage — 
Faces of composition, and Faces of fracture. 

The most interesting faces are those which are even, since they are 
subject to a constant law. These are always faces of crystalization 
or faces of cleavage. The different qualities of even faces consist ia 
their being smooth, or in being provided with slight elevations 
which do not obscure the general form of the crystal, or interrupt the 
continuity of faces. Those faces which are not perfectly smooth 
may be striated, rough or dru^. The strut which appear on faces are 
produced by the alternating reappearance of the faces of those simple 
forms which are contained in the compound ones, and are always 
parallel to the edges of combination, or between the simple and 
^compound forms. In rhombohedral quartz, the alternate lateral faces 
are striated longitudinally. Hexabedral iron-pyrites are streaked,, 
the stria being parallel on parallel facbs. In beryl tbe faces are stri- 
ated longitudinally. Faces which are homologous show similar ap^ 
pearances on their faces, which circumstance furnishes a character by 
ivhich they may be known. 

Faces which are termed rough and drusy, arise from projecting solid, 
angles instead of edges. Those faces differ principally in the size of 
the elevations. In octahedral fluor-haloide,.the octahedral crystals 
seem to be composed of cubic crystals, the faces of which are per- 
pendicular to each o.ther; and a plane passing through their solid an- 
gles is parallel to the faces of tbe octahedron. Those particles 
"which thus project are not to be considered as compound ; they ra- 
ther indicate the gradual formation of crystals, and the interruption 
"which they suffer during their formation. 

The faces of composition are those in which two or more individu- 
als touch one another. They are rarely smooth,- but frequently 
streaked, but without any determined direction. In rough faces of 
composition^ the lustre of those faces is very low ; which character 
may be used to distinguish between the faces of cleavage and those 
of composition. And they may be distinguished, from uneven faces 
of fracture by comparing them with real faces of fracture in the same 

The character of the faces of compositioa differ from those of 
cleavage and crystalization in one circumstance, viz : they do not 
produce regular forms, from the reason that they preserve no deter- 
mined direction. The only exception which it is necessary to make 
is where parallel individuals touch one another, or those which de- 
pend on regular composition. 

NOTES* 1B75 


Polarised Light 

tiigbt reflected from polished surfaces, or transmitted through 
Irefracting media, with a certain angle of incidence, acquires proper- 
ties entirely different from those which it before possessed, and is 
c&Wed polarized light. 

For example, if a pencil of rays fall upon a plate of glass at an an- 
gle of incidence of 56° and after reflexion be received with. the 
same angle of incidence upon a second plate so placed as to reflect 
them in a plane at right angles to that in which they first moved, al- 
most all the rays refuse to be reflected. If the second plate be now 
turned around, the same angle of incidence being maintained, more 
and more rays M^ill be reflected, until the plane of their reflexion. 
coincides with that in which they first moved, when the reflexion is 
the greatest possible. The light in this case is said to be polarized; 
that is, therays have poles or sides of different properties. 

From ihe various phenomena which light presents when decom- 
posed or polarized in crystals, mineralogists are enabled to judge of 
the mode of the intimate combination of the particles of those bodies : 
in other words, they give an insight into the nature of their crystaline 
structure. The light which passes through them reveals to the expe- 
rienced e^e the peculiarities in the mode of formation and composi- 
tion, acting, as it were, to borrow the language of another, as a v 
'« sounding instrument, with which to probe the substance of matter, 
and which, insinuating itself between the minutest parts, permits us 
to study their arrangement, at which previously we could only guess, 
by inspecting their external forms." 

Bouble RefraclioU' 

Is that property which %dme transparent crystalized bodies possess 
which enables them to exhibit a double image of an object sden 
through them in certain directions. This property is possessed by a 
great number of minerals and artificial salts. In all doubly refracting 
substances there are one or more lines, or one or more planes along 
\ehich double refraction exists. Those substances which have only 
one line or plane, ere called crystals with one a](is, or one plane 
of axes of double refraction. And those which have two," three, 
four, &rC., axes, or planes of axes, of double refraction. Crystalized 
tarbonate of lime, or as it is commonly called IceHand spar, and rhom- 
bohedral quartz, are examples in which this property resides. Mine- 
rals which belong to the tessular system are not known to possess 
Ibis property* 

376 m>Tfiir. 


The instrument here deicribed U the one proposed by Benj. H. 
Coates, M. D., in the Journal of Science, p. 361 — 370, vol. 1. It 
consists of a lever Iflce a common steel-yard, and is so contrived as t6 
balance exactly by making the shorter end wider, or with an enlarg- 
ment at the extremity. - The upper edge is rectilinear and free from 
notches. The shorter end is undivided, but on the longer side there 
is a scale, of which every division, reckoning from the extremity of 
the lever, is marked with a number, which is the quotient of the 
length of the whole scale, divided by the distance of the divbion from 
the end. Thus at half of the length is maiQced the number 2, at one- 
third 3, at one-fourth 4, &c. Also, at two-thirds the length is marked 
one and a half, at two-fiflhs two and a half, and so of the fractions 
sufficiently minute. These numbers extend as high as the specific 
gravity of platina,^e pivot represents unity, and a notch is made at 
the farther end. 

In using this instrument, any convenient weight is suspended by a 
hook from the notch at the end of the scale. The body under ex- 
amination is to be suspended from the other by a horse hair, and slid 
along till an equilibrium is produced. It is then without alteration to 
be immersed in water and balanced a second time, by sliding the 
weight. The hook of the latter then marks the specific gravity on the 
scale. By this instrument it wiil be seen that the labor and incon- 
venience of calculation is saved, and that the specific gravity of any 
mineral may be asoertained in a few moments, without pen and ink. 


Tliis character is confined mostly to iron and its ores. The latter 
manifests only a weak degree of it, but is generally proportioned to 
the degree of oxidation. .A very weak magnetism may be detected 
by the following method : Place a magnet on a level with a needle, 
and in a direct line with it, but with reversed poles. The needle will 
move round and point E and W, which shows that the polar attraction 
is just balanced, being divided between the earth and the magnet. If 
now a mineral with only a small quantity of iron is brought near the 
needle it will act upon it ; whereas in the ordinary position of the 
needle no action would be observed. 

Chemical Chixracters, 

The facility which the blow-pipe affords for discovering the con- 
stituent parts of minerals, especially those which are usually termed 
metallic compounds, renders it necessary to say something on the 
mode of using that instrument, the kinds and uses of the fluxes employ- 

sd for reduciog the metals and for detecting other component parti of 
bodies, &c. 

For genera] nse the common blow-pipe of goldsmiths will answer 
all the purposes of a more expensive kind, and as experience is the 
only way to become master of it, little need be said on the particular 
mode of using it. It may however be proper to ' say, that the air 
should not be forced out by means of the muscles of the chest but by 
the cheeks, while the breathing is kept up through the nostrils, and 
that the size of the particle of the mineral operated on ought in gen- 
eral to be no larger than a common pin head. 

Of the eombustible. Every kind of flame, if it is not too small, 
may be used in experiments with the blow-pipe, whether it be that of 
a wax or tallow candle, or of an oil lamp, the latter is the best. The 
wick ought to be rather large, but proportioned to the tube which en- 
closes it. The best fuel is said to be olive oil. 

Kinds of flame. If the flame is examined when under the influence 
of the blow-pipe, we shall remark a division of it into two unequal 
parts ; the external, which is the largest and most luminous, and the 
internal which is small, well defined, and of a blue colour. The former 
is called the oxidating and the latter the reducing flame. The great- 
est heat is just atj or a little within, the apex of the blue flame, and is 
the point where the mineral should be placed. The surrounding 
luminous flame tends to preserve the heat. To attain the greatest 
heat we must not blow too strongly nor too gently : in the first case, 
the heat is carried off by the current of air, and in the second, suffi- 
cient air is not supplied in a given time. 

Effects to be attained. In general the e fleets we wish to produce 
are oxidation and reduction. The former is to be effected by expos- 
ing the fragment under trial before the extreme point of the flame, 
where the combustible particles are soon supplied, or saturated, with 
oxygen. Oxidation goes on most actively at an incipient red heat, 
and the orifice in the beak of the blow-pipe ought to be larger for this 
kind of operation than in reduction. For reduction the orifice on the 
beak ought to be rather fine, and the beak ^hould not he inserted too 
far into the flame of the lamp. The assay must be exposed to the 
brilliant part of the flame so as to be surrounded by it on ail sides,and 
this is just before the point of the blue flame or a little within it. 


1st. Charcoal, That charcoal is the best which is made from the 
pine tree, or from the alder or the light woods in general. It should 
be well burnt ; that which splits, crackles and smokes is unfit for use. 

2d. Platina, In using platina a fine wu*e may be bent into the forn 
of a hook at the extremityi or fused into a globule under the com* 


t78 NOTES. 


poand blow-pipei and (ben flattened and shaped into the form of tt, 
ipoon, or we may use platina foil. Each form has its advantages mr- 
der some circumstances. 

3d. Jl fibre ofAsbetius is sometimes a very convenient support 

4th. Plates of Mica may also be used. 

5th. GUiit tubes are useful as well as necessary to roast a substance 
to ascertain what it is combined with. One or two inches in length 
and the 1-8 of an inch in diameter is the right size, and open at both 
ends. In the tube, a little distance from one end, the assay must be 
placed : it may be heated with a spirit lamp or the blow-pipe. The 
volatile substances sublime and condense in the upper and cooler 
part of the tube. 


The reagents employed are the sub-carbonsKe of soda, borate of 
soda, and the double salt formed of phosphate of soda and phosphate 
of ammonia. 

1. Soda. Either of the carbonates may be used. There are two 
principal objects to be obtained by their use. 1st. To ascertain the 
fusibility or infusibility of substances which are combined with them, 
and 2d, to assist in the reduction of the metallic oxides. 

(a) The fusion of bodies by Soda, A laige number of bodies com- 
bine with soda at high temperatures, but many are infusible. With 
silex, the acids, and a few metallic oxides, it forms fusible com- 
pounds. The quantity of soda to be employed may be taken up on the 
point of a knife, previously moistened, and then intimately mixed 
with the powder of the assay. This must be dried before the flame 
and then heated till it fuses. 

(b) Reduction of metallic Oxides. The soda in the reduction of me- 
tallic oxides is applied in powder to the assay as long as any matter 
of the assay remains on the charcoal. The place where the assay and 
soda rested on the charcoal is to be removed with a knife and reduc- 
ed to very fine powder in a mortar. This powder is then to be wash- 
ed with water to free it/rom charcoal. If the assay contained no 
metallic substance, nothing will remain after the last washing. Bnt 
if it contained any portion of reducible metal it will be found at the 
bottom of the mortar, either in the form of brilliant metallic scales, if 
malleable, or in a powder, if brittle and unmalleable. In either case 
we can perceive metallic traces on the bottom of the mortar. The 
metals reducible by soda are gold, silver, tin, molybdenum, tungsten, 
antimony, tellurium, bismuth, lead, copper, nickel, cobalt and iron. 

2. Borax is used to effect the solution of a great number of substan- 
ces. In using this reagent we are to notice whether a solution is 
effected ; whether effected slowly or readily ; with, or without effer- 

NOTES, 279 

Certain bodies have the property of foroiiDg a clear glass with bo- 
rax, which preserves its transparency after cooling, bat when slightly 
heated by the exterior flame of the lamp, becomes opalce and turns 
milk-white, or is coloured, particularly if the flame has been directed 
on the glass in an unequal and intermixing manner. 

Such are the alkaline earths, yttria, glucina, zirconia, the oxides of 
cerium, col'umbium, titanium. The same thing does not happen with 
silica, alumina, the oxides of iron and manganese, pr when silica is 
present in a compound. 

3. Salt of Phosphorut. This salt maybe procured by dissolving 16 
parts of sal ammonia in a very small quantity of boiling water and adding 
100 parts of crystalized phosphate of soda. Liquify the whole together 
by heat, and filter the mixture whilst boiling hot ; the double salt will . 
crystalize in grains as it cools. This salt is particularly applicable to 
the examination of metallic oxides whose characteristic colours it de- 


1. Saltpetre may be employed to discover portions of manganese, 
too minute to colour glass without it. 

2. Jfitrate of Cobalt is used to detect the presence of alumina and 
magnesia. To the former it imparts a fine blue, and to the latter a 
pale roffe colour. To be employed as a test for alumina the assay 
.Bust be heated strongly, but not fused. In the latter case the assay 
must be fused. 

Tin. This metal is employed in the state of foil, cut into long 
strips half an inch wide, and closely rolled up. Its use is to promote 
the reduction in the highest degree in the fused vitreous compounds, 
when the assay contains small portions of the metallic oxides, capa- 
ble of being reduced to protoxides. We are to introduce ipto the 
hot assay, previously exposed to the reducing flame, the extremity of 
the roll of tin, a part of which fuses and remains in the assay, and the 
whole is immediately remelted in the same flame. 

Iron. This is used in the form of fine wire. Bergmann and Gahn 
employed it to precipitate copper, lead, nickel and antimony, and to 
separate them from sulphur or fixed acids. For this purpose, a 
small portion of one end of the wire is immersed in the assay when 
hot, and the iron becomes covered with the reduced metal. But a 
more important use of iron is to detect phosphoric acid. Used as 
above, the phosphates are reduced to the state of phosphorus, 
which, acting on the iron, produces phosphuret of iron, and which, 
fusing with the assay, forms a white brittle metallic globule. ^ 

Certain substances undergo a change of form and aspect, without, 
however, entering into fusion. Some swell up like borax, or form 
ramifications which have a cauliflower appearance. Others afford a 
blebby glai s. In the use of fluxes the blast ou^t not to be suspended 

280 NOTES. 

too soon. A sabstonce m&y at first seem ififusiblei but after a few 
niomenls begin to yield. The flax ongbt to be applied in smalT 
doses at a time, and we should wait till the first has united with the as- 
say before we add a second dose. 

When operating with fluxes before the reducing flame, it sometimes 
happens that the assay globule oxidates as the charcdal cools. To 
obviate this, let the charcoal be turned upside down while the globule 
is still fluid, that it may fall on a metallic plate. In conclusion it 
may be remarked, that in all the phenomena which the assay presents 
before -the blow-pipe, we should observe the action of both flames, 
with their separate e£fects, all of which ought to be noted down sepa- 


The acids usually employed as chemical tests are the stiTphurie, 
nitric and muriatic. The latter is the best to discover the carbonates 
of the alkalies, earths and metallic oxides. Either of them may be 
employed for this purpose in a diluted state. A small fragment most 
be detached from the mass, pulverized, and put in a watch-glass or 
wine-glass, and the diluted acid poured upon it. The efferveseDce 
will then be apparent, from the liberation of the csffbonie acid gte.. 

If our object is to form a jelly with the silicated earths, a large 
quantity of the pulverized mineral must be employed, and the apid 
used undiluted. It is commonly necessary to employ heat for digest'* 
ing the powder. On cooling the fluid gelatinizes. Occasionally the 
colour of the solution is to be noticed. The sulphuric acid is used on-^ 
diluted for detecting the fluoric acid. The powdered mineral in this, 
case is to be put iiito a small glass tube, and the acid added, and thea 
heat is to be applied ; when if any fluoric acid is present^ it will come 
off and corrode the glass, or diminish its transparency. 


It wia regarded by the Abbe HaUy as an axiom in eiystalograpby,. 
that two minerals may possess analogous forms, each for inttaBc& 
a rhombic pmm, yet the dimensions of those prisms are different. 
Identity of form, therefore, (not including the tessular system) was 
thought to indieate identity of composition. In the year 1819, a dis- 
covery was made by Prof. Mistcherlichi of Berlin, relative to the eon- 
nexion between crystaline form and chemical composition, which Is 
exceedingly important to mineralogy and chemistry. It appears 
from his investigations, that certain substances are capable of being 
substituted for each other In combination, without influencing the form 
of the compound. This remarkable fact has been ably traced by Phif. 
Mistcherlieh, in the salts of phosphoric and arsenic acid. Thus the 
neutral phosphate and bi-phosphate of soda have exactly the samA 

, NOTES. S81 

form as the arseniate and bi-arseniate of soda. The same hat been 
shown of other salts and minerals. From these and analogous facts, 
it appears that certain substances, when similarly combined with the 
same body, are disposed to affect the same crystaline form. This 
discovery has led to the formation of groups, each comprehending 
substances which crystalize in the same forms, and which are hence 
termed iso-morphous. 

Another fact connected with the preceding remarks is, that some 
substances may assume two fundamental forms. For instance, car- 
bonate of lime yields a rhomboid, and a right rhombic prism. Other 
instances of the kind may yet be discovered, which will serve to con- 
firm the fact or disprove it. 


The process by which a mineral is determined is as follows ; first its form, 
whether it be regular or irregular ; if it is regular, what is the Primary form- 
then the hardness and specific gravity must be determined with proper accura- 
cy. The specific character requires these data ; they are of use also in the 
classes, orders and genera. After this examination the characteristic may be 
applied, and it will at the same time point out what other characters are want- 
ing. The given individual is now to be carried through the subordinate char- 
acters of the classes, orders, genera and species, one after the other, comparing 
its properties with the characteristic marks contained in the characters of the 
systematic unities. From their agreement with some, and their difference 
from other characters, we infer that tlie mineral belongs to one of tfie classes, 
to one of the orders, to one of the genera, and to one of the species. Having 
in this manner advanced to the character of the species, it will generally be 
necessary to ascertain the dimensions of the form. The common goniometer 
will in most cases answer our purpose. It is seldom necessary to read over 
the whole of any character of a class, order or genus ; one term that does not 
agree suffices for its exclusion. To illustrate this process more particularly, 
let us take an example : first let the mineral yield by mechanical division a 
cube, let its hardness=2.5 and its sp. gr. 7.4 — 7.6. In this case the specific 
gravity excludes it from classes first and third : hence it belongs to class sec- 
ond. Comparing now the properties of the individual with the characters of 
the orders in the second class, we shall find that it; specific gravity is too great 
for the orders Haloide, Baryte, Malachite, Mica, Spar, Gem and Sulphur, and , 
is excluded from Pyrites by its less degree of hardness. The consideration of 
other characters now requires attention, as both hardness and specific gravity 
fall within the limits of orders Kerate, Metal, Glance and Blende. If the min- 
eral has a metallic lustre it is excluded from the order Kerate. Our mineral 
then belongs to one of three orders. Metal, Glance or Blende. In the order 
Metal the lustre is metallic, colour not black, which is indecisive, and both 
hardness and specific gravity bring it within the limits of the order Metal, but 
If the colour is gray the mineral must be malleable, which excludes the miner- 
al under examination from this order, as ours is not malleable, and this exclu- 
sion leads us next to consider the order Glance. First, our mineral ig metallic 
and colour is gray, and both hardness and specific grayity include the mineral 



«nder eiaminatioo* If tbe cleavtge it raoDetoinoiu tbci g^rftft^ will be under 
5.0, bot tbe gtrnvi^ beings abore 5.0 the cleavage is of no coDieqaence— -the 
gravity in the order Glance, together with the other characters, agreeing with 
the one under examination, we infer that it belbngs to the order Glance. In 
comparing our mineral with tbe genera in the order Glance, we riiall find that 
it will be excluded from the genus Copper-glance, both by the character of 
cleavage and greater specific gravity, and from Silver-glance by its greater 
specific gravity and a want of malleability, and that it agrees with Lead-glance 
in colour, hardness, specific gpravity and cleavage ; hence we infer that oar 
mineral belongs to the genua Lead-glance, and as this genus comprehends but 
one specie's, it renders it probable that our mineral is Hexahedral Lecui'Glance. 


Characters of the Classes. 


Gravity under 3.8 

No bituminous odor. 
Solid: taste. 


Gravity above 1.8 


Gravity under 1.8 

Fluid: bitumiaous odor. 
Solid: no taste. 

Characters of the Orders. 
Characters of the Orders of Class I. 




Not acid. 



Without odor or taste. 



G.=1.2— 2.9 


Not acid. 

NOTES. 283 

Charaeiir$ofth9 Orders of Clan IL 



Streak ancolonred. 

H.=l .5—6.0 

G.=2.2— 3.3 

Pyramidal or prismatic: H.=34.0, and less, cleavage imper- 
fect, in oblique directions. 
Cleavage regular octahedron: H.=3:4.0. 
Cleavage monotomous, eminent: G.s3;2.4|and less. 
H. under 2.5; 6.=:2.4, and less. 
^•=2.4, and less : H. under 2.5, no resinous lustre. 


Streak uncoloured, or orange yellow. 
H.=2.5— 5.0 
G.=3.3— 7.3 . 
Cleavage monotomous : 6.:=4w0, and less ; or=5, and more. 
Lustre adamantine or imperfect metallic : G.=s5.0, and%iore. 
Streak orange-yellow :;6.0, and more. 
H.=5.0: G. under 4.6. 
G. under 4.0, and H.=5.0 : cleavage prismatic. 



Streak un coloured. 

Cleavage not monotomous, not perfect peritomous. 

G. above 5.5 


Colour blue, green, brown. 
Cleavage not monotomous. 

H.=1.0— 5.0 

G.=2.0— 4.6 

Colour or streak brown : H.=3.0, and less ; G. above 2.5. 

Streak blue : H.=4.0, and less. 

Streak unclouded : G.=s2.2, and less ', H. under 3.0. 


Cleavage monotomous, eminent. 
H.=1.0— 4.6 
G.=1.8— 3.2 

Metallic: G. under 2.2. 
Non-metallic : G.' above 2.2b 

884 NOTES. 

H.s=8.0, aid more : rhombohe^ral. 
G. under 2.5 : metallic. 


\\2f'. NoQ-metallic. 

Streak uncoloured... brown, blue. 
H.=3.6— 7.0 
G.=2.0— 3.7 
Forms cube, tetrahedron, regular octahedron, rhombic dode> 

cahedron : G.=z3.0, and less. 
Rhombohedral : G.=2.2, and less ; or H.=6.0. 
H.s=4.0, and less : cleavage monotomous, eminent. 
H. above 6.0 : pearly lustre ; G. under 2.5, or above 2.8. 
G. above 3.3 : forms right rhombic and oblique rhombic 
prisms, or doubly oblique prisms ; or H.=6.0 ; no ada- 
mantine lustre. 
G.=£2.4, and less : not without traces of forms and cleavage. 


No metallic adamantine lustre. 
Streak uncoloured. 
H.=5.6— 10.0 
H.=6.0, and less : tessular, G.=:3.1, and more; or G.=2.4, 

and less, anfl no traces of form and cleavage. 
G. under 3.8 : no pearly lustre upon faces of cleavage. 


No green streak. 
H.==2.5— 7.0 
G.==3.4— 7.4 

Metallic : colour black. 

Non-metallic : lustre adamantine, or imperfect metallic. 
Streak yellow or red : H.=3.5, and more, G.=4.8, and more'. 
Streak brown or black: H.=r5.0, and more; or cleavage 

H.=4.5, and less : streak yellow, red or black. 
H.=6.5, and more, and streak uncoloured: G.aB6.5| and 



Colour not black. 
G.=5.7— 20.0 

Colour gray t malleable, G.=z7.4| and more. 
H. aboya 4.0 : malleable. 

NOT£S. t8S 




H.s=4.6| and less : G. uAder 6.3 
0.=6.3, and less ; colour yellow or red. 



Colour gray-black. 


G.==4.2— 7.6 

Cleavage moDOtomous ; G. being under 5.0: colour lead' 

G.s=above 7.4 : colour lead-gray. 


Streak green, red, brown, uncoloured. 
, G.==3.9— 8.2 

Metallic : colour black. 

Non-metallic: lustre adamantine. • 

Streak green : colour black. 

Streak brown... uncoloured : G. between 4.0 and 4.2, form 

Streak red : H.r=2.6, and less. 
G.3is4.3, and more : streafi red, 



Colour yellow, red, brown. 


H.=1.0— 2.6 

G.=sl.9— 3.6 

Cleavage monotomous : G.=3.4, and more. 

G. above 2.1 : streak yellow or red. 

CharacUrs of the Orders of Clois UL 


H.s=0.0— 2.6 
G.=0.7— L6 
G.s=1.2, and more : streak uncolonred.i 


dtreak brown, black. 
H.=1.0— 2.6 


£86 NOTES* 



1 . Snow-white. The colour cf newly fallen snow. Ex. Rhombohe* 
dral lime-haloide, or the purest white marble. 

5. Reddith'White. White somewhat inclining to red. Ex. Several 

varieties of rhombohedral lime-haloide. 

3. Yellowish-white, White inclining to yellow. Ex. Several var. 

of uncleavable quartz. 

4. Orayith-whitt. White inclining to gray. Ex. Common limestone. 

6. Chreenish'White, While inclining to green. Ex. Common talc 
6. Milk-white* White inclining to blue. Ex. Chalcedony. 


1. Bluith'gray, Gray inclining to blue, rather dirty. Ex. Splintery 

t. Pearl-gray. Gray mixed with red and blue. Ex. It is pale in the 

pearis, but of the same kind. 

5. Smoke-gray. Gray mixed witli brown. The colour of thick smoke. 
4. Greenish-gray* Gray mixed with green. * Ex. Several varieties of 

rhombohedral quartz, or cats-eye, &c. 

6. Yellowish-gray. Gray mixed with yellow. Ex. Flint. 
4. Jish-gray, A mixture of black and white. Ex. Zoisite. 


1. Grayish-black. Black mixed with gray. Ex. Basalt. 

2. Velvet-black. Colour of black velvet. 

Z. Greenish-black. Black, mixed with green. Ex. Some varieties of 

4. Brownish-black, Black mixed with brown. Ex. Bituminous mine- 

ral coal. 
6. Bluish-black, Black mixed with blue. Ex. Blaek cobalt, the reni- 

form and botryoidal varieties from Thuriugia. 


1. Blmekish-blue. Blue mixed with black. Ex. Prismatic azure- 
t. Anure-blue. A very bright blue mixed with red. Ex. Lapis Lazuli. 

3. Violet-blue. Blue mixed with red. Ex. Amethyst. 

4. Lavender-blue, Blue with a little red and much gray. Ex. Litho- 

6. Plum-blue. A colour somewhat inclining to brown, and like some 

varieties of plums. Ex. Dodecahedral corundum. 
6. Prtutian or Berlin-blue. The purest blue colour. Ex. Prismatic 


NOTES. 287 

7. SmaU-blue, Ex. The colour of some varieties prismatoidal gypsnm^ 


8. IndigO'blue. Blue mixed ^ith black and green. Ex. Prismatic 


9. Duek'blue. filue with a great deal of green and a little black. 

Ex. Ceylanite. 

10. Sky-blue, A pale-blue colour, with a little green. 


1. Verdigris'green. A green, inclining to blue. Colour of verdigris. 

2. Celandine-green, Green mixed with blue and gray. . Ex. Fris* 

matio talc-mica. 

5. Mountain-green, Green with a great proportion of bloe. Ex* 

Rhombobedral emerald. 
4. Leek-green. Green with a little brown. Col. of the leaves of garlic. 

6. Emerald-green, The purest green colour. Ex. Emerald. 

6. Jipple-green. A light-green colour, with a trace of yellow. Ex, 


7. Grass-green, The colour of fresh grass. 

8. Pislaehio-green. Green with yellow and a little brown. Ex. 

Prisnaatic chrysolite. 

9. Asparagus- green. Pale-gteen, with a great proportion of yellow. 

Ex. Asparagus stone. 

10. Blackish-green, Green with black. Ex. Paratomous augite-spar. 

11. Olive-green, Pale-green, with a great deal of brown and yellow. 

Ex. Some varieties of olivine. 

12. Oil-green, A green still Hghtbr, or more yellow and less brown. 

The colour of olive-oil. 

13. Siskin-green. A light-green colour, very much inclining to yel- 

low. Ex. Pvramidal euchlose-mica. 


1. Sulphur-yellow, Colour of pure sulphur. , 

2. Straw-yellow, A light-yellow with a little gray. Ex. Prismatic 

topaz. ' 

3. Wax-yellow. Yellow with gray and a little brown. 

4. Honey-yellow, Yellow with a little red and brown. The dark 

colour of honey. 

5. Lemon-yellovK The purest yellow colour. Ex. Prismatoidal 


6. Ochre-yelhw, Yellow with brown. Ex. Those varieties of quartk 

which are much mixed with iron. 

7. Wine-yellow, A pale-yellow colour, with a little red and i^ray. 

Ex. Prismatic topaz. 
8* Cream^yellow. A pale-yellov/, with a little red and very little 
brown. Some varieties of lithomarge. 

266 NOTES* 

9, Orm^t-pdlowm Tcil^Wf very nach inolining to red. The eolonr 
of ripe oranges. ' 

G. RED. 

I. Aurora-red. Red with much yellow. Ex. Hemiprismatic sulphur. 
jL Htfoetiah-rei. Red with yellow and a little brown. £k. Pyra- 
midal zircon. 

3. Briek-red, Red with yellow, brown and gray, i Colour of nei^ly 

baked bricks. 

4. Searltt-red. The brightest red colour, with a slight tint of yellow. 

Ex. Cinnabar. 
6. Blood'red. Red with a little of yellow and black; the colour of 
blood. Ex. Dodecahedral garnet. 

6. Flesh-red. A pale-red with gray and a little yellow. Ex. Pris- 

matic hal-baryte. 

7. C€urmine'red. The purest red colour. Rare. Some varieties of 


8. Cochineal-red. Red with a little blue and gray. 

9. Rote-red, A pale-red mixed with white and a little gray. Ex. 

Rhombohedral quartz. 

10. Crimson-red, Red with a little blue. Ex. Prismatic cobalt-mica. 

II. Peaehblossom-red, Red with white, and more of gray than rose- 

red. Tlie colour of peach blossom. 

12. Columbine-red, Red with a little blue and much black. Distinot 

in dodecahedral garnet. 

13. Cherry-red, A dark red colour piixed with much blue and a little 

brown and black. Ex. Prismatic purple-blende. 

14. Brownish-red. Red with much brown. Ex. Reddle. 


1. Reddish-brown, Brown mixed with much red. Ex. Pyramidal 


2. Clove-brown. Brown with red, a little blue. Ex. Axinite. 

3. Hair-brown. Brown with a little yellow and gray. Ex. Prismatic 


4. Broccoli-brown, A brown colour mixed with blue, red and gray. 

Rare. fix. Pyramidal zircon. 

5. Chesnut-brown. The purest brown colour. Ex. Quartz mixed 

with the brown oxide of iron. 

6. Yellowish-brown, Brown with much yellow. Ex. Jasper. 

7. Pinchbeck-brown. Teilowish-brown with a metallic lustre. Ex. 

Rhombohedral talc-mica. 

8. Wood-brown, Brown with yellow and gray. The eolonr of rotten 


9. Liver-brown, Brown with gray and a little green. Ex. Commoa 


10. Blackish-brown, Brown with much black. Ex. The mineral 



Mrazite, 168 
^eieular olivinite, 85 
Jicid, 39 

aneniouS) 41 

T)oraciC) 41 

carbonic, 39 

muriatic, 40 

sulphuric, 40 
^cmitCf 129 
^ctynolitey 126 
Adhesive slate, 253 
Mularia, 119 
Aeriform carbonic acid, 39 
AeschinitCf 229 
JigalmalolUe, 237 
Agaric mineral, 61 
Mbin, 113 
Mbite, 120 
Mlagite, 137 
Jillanite, 184 
Mlochroile, 180 
Mlophane, 229 
w9/tim, 47 
Mum'kaloidCf 66 
'•stone, 66 

slate, 253 

salt, 47 
^/umtne, sub-phosphate of, 64 
Amalgam, 190 

native, 190 
Amazon stone, 119 
^mber, 225 
Amblygonite, 131 
Amtthytty 150 
•^mmoma, muriate of, 46 
sulphate of, 46 
Ammoniac salt, 46 
^no/ame, 109 
Anaiattf 170 
Andalutite, 140 
jirOiydrite, 54 
Anhydrous sujph. lime, 54 
AnorthiUy 122 
AnihophyllUe, 103 

bydrons, 103 
j9n(Aract(e, 228 
^Rh'mon|/-gtoce, 211 
«^fi<tmoma/ silver, 189 

Antimony f 188 

dodecahedral, 188 
gray, 211, 213 
native, 188 

nickeliferous gray, 204 
rhombohedral, 188 
octahedral, 189 
oxide of, 81 
prismatic, 189 
prismatic white, 81 
red, 220 
sulphuret of, 211 
Antimony'barytef 81 
Antimony-blende, 220 
Antimony-glance, 211, 230 

axotomous, 212 
prism atoidal, 212 
Apatite, 67 
Aphrite, 62 
4plQme, 161 
Apophvllite, 113, 114 
Arfoedsonite, 139 
Argentine, 62 

Argentiferous copper-glance, 213 
Arragonite, 69 
Arseniate of cobalt, 93 
of copper, 84 

octahedral, S4 
right prismatic, 85 
rhomboidal, 91 
of iron, 84 
of lead, 75 
of lime, 66 
Arsenic, 187 
Arsenic-glance, 230 
oxide of, 40 
native, 187 
Arseniet of antimony, 229 
Ai^enical bismuth, 230 
iron, 197 
nickel, 195 
pyrites, 196 
axotomous, 196 
di-prismatic, 197 
prismatic, 196 
Asbestus, 124 
Atacamite^ 88 
Atmospheric air, 38 





JlugUc, 123 

spar, 123 
' hemi-prismatic, 124 
paratomous, 123 
prismatic, 127 
prismatoidal, 126 
AutomaliU, 142 
^venturint feldspar, 119 
Jixifrangible gypsum, 62 
baryte, 73 
kouphone-zeolite, 113 

dxtnite^ 163 

prismatic, 163 

Mxoiomous antimoDy-glance, 212 
lead-baryte, 78 
arsenical pyrites, 196 
iron-ore, 177,241 
kouphone-spar, 114 
triphane-spar, 106 
au^ite-spar, 230 

Jizure-malachtte, 86 


prismatic, 86 


dodecahedral, 128 
prismatic, 128 
prismatoidal, 129 

j}«ure stone, 128 

Jzurite, 128 

Babingtonilef 130 

BaikaliUj 124 

Baryte, 67 

axifrangible, 73 
parbonate of, 71 
prismatic, 72 
di-prismatic, 71 
prismatoidal, 73 
rhomboidal, 71 

Baryto-eaUite, 73 

Barytei, sulphate of, 72 

Bergmanitef 131 

Berthierite, 230 

Beryl, 147 

BeudatUite, 230 

Bi'boratt of soda, 46 

Bi-ieleniuret of z'mcj 230 

Bi'Hlicate of zinc, 137 

manganese, 137 
magnesia, 232 

nismuth, 189 

" arsenical, 230 

««preous, 216 
native, i89 
octahedral, 189 

Bitmuthf idlpburet of, 210 
Biimuih-glanct, 210 

prismatic, 210 
pri8m:atoidal, 247 
Bimuth-blende, 230 

cobalt-ore, 231 
Bismuihic silver, 214 
Bitter-spar, 62 
Bitumen, 226 
Bituminous Itmestone, 61 

mineral-coal, 227 
shale, 264 
Black coaX, 227 
chalk, 264 
iron-ore, 182 
lead, 96 
cobalt-ochre, 231 

ore, 231 
mineral-resin, 225 
hematite, 182 
tellurium, 209, 219 
wad, 183 
yttro-tautalite, 186 

Blende, 218 
Blind coal, 228 
Bloedite, 49 
Blue copper, 86 

carbonate of, 8G| 
Blue feldspar, 129 
lead, 207 



vitriol, 61 
Bole, 264 
Boltonite, 232 
Boracic acid, 41 . 
Boracite, 166 
Borate of lime, 107 

magnesia, 166 

soda, 46 
Borax, 46 
Borax-salt, 45 
Botryogene, 232 
Botryolite, 106 
Boumonite, 206 
Brachytypous Ume-haloide, 63 
manganese-ore, 232 
parachrose-baryte, 67 
Braunite, 232 
BreUlakite, 232 
Brewsterite, 114 
Brythene-saU, 48 
Bright white cobalt, 197, 199 
Brittle sulphuret of silver, 212 
Broehantite, 89 
^ronsHi, 101 
Brookite, 184 



Brown coal^ 227 
Sruetttf 164 
BucholzUey 140 
Bueklandite^ 132 
Buitamite, 232 

Caeholongf 161 

Calamine^ 69 

electric, 68 
prismatic, 68 
rfaombohedral, 69 

Calaile, 132 

Calcar tow-spar f 60 

heavy-spar, 232 
tufa, 61 

Caleedony, 150 

Cannel coal, 227 

Carhonatt of barytes, 71 
bismuth, 232 
copper-green, 88 
blue, 86 
lead, 14 
irpn, 67 
lime, 60 
magnesia, 65 
magnesia h iron, 63 
manganese^ 68 
soda, 42 
strontian, 70 
zinc, 69 

Carbonic acid, 39 

CorbufttUd hydrogen, 37 

Carntlianf 150 

CalS'tyty 150 . 

Celestinef 73 

Cellular pyrites, 201 

Ctrine, 176 

Ctrium-ore, 175 

uncleavable, 175 

Chabasief 110 

Chabasite, 110 

Chalky 61 

Chalkodderitty 232 

Chamoitite, 233 

ChioiloliUy 132 

Childrenite, 66 

Chlorite, 96 . 

Chloropaly 233 

Chlorophaeite, 233 

Chlorophane, 57 

ChondroditCf 164 

Chresite, 233 

Ckromate of iron, 176 
lead, 76 
lead and copper, 96 

C/iromc-ore, 176 
Chrysoberyl, 144 
ChrytoeoUay 83 
Chryioprase, 150 
Cinnabar^ 222 

hepatic, 222 
bituminous, 222 
Ctnnai?ion-«/one, 161 
C2ay, 254 

common, 254 
Cleavelandite, 121 
Coa/, 227 

slate, 227 

foliated, 227 

coarse, 227 

cannel, 227 

pitch, 227 

earthy, 227 
Co&a// arseniate of, 93 
arsenical, 197 

bright white, 197 
prismatic red, 93 
sulphate of, 52 
Cobalt'kieSf 203 
•Cobalt-micaf 93 
CoftoZ/^orc, gray, 198 
Cobalt-pyrites, 197 

hexahedral, 197 
Cobaliic plena, 214 

lead-glance, 214 
Coccolite, 123 

Cockscomb-pyrites, 201 
Colophonite, 159 
Columbite, 174 
Common copper-green, 83 

clay, 254 

quartz, 150 

salt, 44 

schiller-spar, 100 
Comptonite^ 115 
Condrodite, 164 
Condurrite, 233 
Copper-black, 203 
Cc^|7cr, 194 

blue carb. of, 86 

green carb. 88 

hydrous phosphate of, 87 

martial arseniate of, 90 

muriate of, 88 

native, 194 
Copper-ore, 171 

arseniate of, 91 
octahedral, 171 
phosphate of, 86 
, prismatic arseniate of| 86 
red-oxide of, 171 



Copper, ditmboidal arseniate 

of, 91 
seldniaret of, 217 
sulphate of, 51 
sulphuret of, 206 
triple salphuret of, 206 
veWet-blue, 91 
vitreous, 206 
Copper-glancCf 205 

argentiferous, 218 
di-prismatic, 206 
prismatic, 206 
prismatoidal, 205 
rfaomboidal, 206 
tetrahedral, 205 
Copper-grun, 83 

uncleavablei 83 
blacic, 203 

gray, 205 
h 91 

Copper'nickelf 195 
CoppcT'Ore, 171 

octahedral, 171 
foliated, 172 
capillary, 172 • 
compact, 172 
Copper'pyrites, 202 

octahedral, 202 
pyramidal, 202 
purple, 209 
yellow, 202 
variegated, 202 
CorneoiM lead, 79 

oiaDganese, 137 
mercury, 8^ 
silver, 82 
Corundum, 141 * 

dodecahedral, 141 
octahedral, 142 
prismatic, 144 
rhombohedral, 142 
rhomboidal, 142 
Cotiumiie, 234 
Couzeranite, 234 
CrofutediUf 99 
Crosstone, 109 
Cryolite, 55 
Cryone-haloidCf 55 
Crysoberylf 144 
Cube-ore, 84 
Cummingtonite, 234 
Cupreouf bismuth, 215 
analcime, 234 
manganese, 234 
sulphate of lead; 79 

Cupreous 8u1pk^o*carbonate of 

lead, 79 
Cupriferous sulphoret of bismuth, 

Cyanite, lt>4 
Cyprine, 158 

Dark-red silver, 222 
Davite, 48 
Dermaiine, 235 
Detoeylite, 235 

IHatomous antlmony-phyllite, 234 
kouphone-spar, 110 
schiller-spar, 100 
Diamond, 145 

octahedral, 145 
common, 145 
Diallage, (in part,) 100 
Diopnde, 124 
Dioptase, 87 
Disthencspar, 104 

prismatic, 104 
Disiome-spar, 106 

prismatic, 106 
Di-prismatic hal-baryte, 71 
lead-spar, 74 
olivenite, 84 
olive malachite, 85 
zeolite, 110 
DodocahcdrtU antimony, 188 
asure-spar, 128 
corundum, 14! 
iron-ore, 178 
garnet, 158 
garnet-blende, 219 
Kouphone-spar^ 108 
mercury, 190 
zeolite, 107 
zinc-blende, 219 
Dolomite^ 62 
Z>rat('tng slate, 254 
Dysluite, 235 
DysodiU, 235 

Edingtonite, 235 
Emerald, 147 

oriental, 143 

prismatic, 147 

copper, 87 

malachite, 87 

rhombohedral, 87 
Emery, 143 

Empyreumatic hydrogen gas, 37' 
Empyrodox. quartz, 152 
Epidote, 126 
Erlanite, 236 

Ettonilt, 161 I 

ZucairiU, 215 
Eueltui, 14t 
Euchri>iie, 89 
EuchloTt mica, 91 
Eudittlile, 133 

FahUrt, 205 
FoAfunife, 236 
fotunle, 124 
Feld^ar, 113 

rbomboidal, US 
Thombohedral, UB 
prismatio, 118 
avenlariae, 119 
felid, lis 
labrador, 119 
blue, 129 
pyramidal, 121 
prtfHDBto-pTramidal 121 
Ftmigiaoiu platina, 236 

Plicate of mangaDese, 
Ferro-iilictlt of muBseneae, li 
FtrgtaoniU, 184 
Fibrotite, 237 
Figurtslone, 237 
Flinty glale, ISO 
Fhiale of lime, 66 
, Hucllile, 66 
fJuor, M 

baloWe, 67 
octahedral, 66 
rbombobedral, GT 
FoiUritt, ia# 
j'ouferife, 13S 

fnwordifj, 188 
^ulTcr't earth, 25S 

Gttdolmiti, 164 

prismatic, 164 
galena, 20S 
heiabedral, 208 
•Qtimaniated, 206 
argentiferous, SOS 

Gamet, 15T, 159 

Ganut-bUtide, S19 

dodecahedral^ 219 

Conuf, pyrBmidal, 167 

Go*, 37 

marrii, 37 
GaytiuiiU, 50 
Getn, 140 
GibbiUe, 237 
Gumondi .., __ 
Giutekite, 237 


oxide of maaganese, 183 
Green carttonate of copper, 86 
diallage, 124 
iron eanh, 89 
eartb, 96 
TitrioJ, 61 

Habmineme malachite, 87 
priMQKtic, 87 
Halioyilt, 23B 
Hard cobalt-pyrilei, 238 

', 100 

precioua, 169 
tetnhedral, 168 
maogaueiian, ISO 
priimaloidal, I6a 
priMafttic, 162 f 


Hafchctint, 2_„ 

Haiiyirti, 134 

m^hane, 239 

Heiiolrape, 160 

Hetvin, las 

Htrdtriti, 239 

Herreniti, 239 

HerKhelUe, 239 

Hemi-pruirmlic natron-aall, 42 

babroneme malBchite, Sf 
achiller-Bpar, 101 
Icoupbone-ipar, 113 
Hugite-ipar, 124 
leaj-baryte, 76 
Hii^anditt, 113 
flezo/ieilfaf corneous lilTer, 82 

lirocone malachite, 84 

oliwnite, 84 

pearl ker«le, 82 

rock-aall, 44 

koaphoDe-apar, 109 

Eeollte, 109 

tellurium, ISB 

lilver, 191 

lilTer-glanee, Sflt 

(Old, 19S 



iron-pmisff, 189 
lead-Ktanee, 208 
galena, 208 
glBoce-blenda, SIS 

tstingtriti, aao 

Jhptitt, 6S 
ifornUende,* IH 
Horn lilver, 82 
Btmbaldtine, 240 
HutRilc, 240 
HjorinlA, 163 

of Eompostella, 131 
Kjralite, IHl 
Hydro-caTbon, 240 
Hydrofhant, 151 
Hydraui phoipliatB of copper, I 

oxide of iron, 179 
Mirrfro-nMci't, 240 

Ict'tpar, 120 » 
/cAIA^opAlMniile, 114 
• Idocrait, 167 ) 
Jndtanili, 130 
inific0lil«, 166 
Hmenilt, 231 
/ndiinn&fe uniniun 
jDi<iii« of mercur;, 
loUu, 148 
Iridium, 194 
/riitiuniiuM, 241 
yroR-(H'«, 117 


■, 241 

pyritej, 199 
(in part.) 200 
pliimatic, 200 . 

Jargoon, 163 
Jtiper, 149, 160 
Jeffenmilc, 124 

Karpluniderite, 241 
MeroliU, 242 

JiSiraiK, 242 
Kvpfirindig, 242 
Kjranilc, 104 



Lairodar feldspar, 119 
LatrobUe, 122 
Laumonilt, 110 
Lapia-iaBuK, 123 

Lofulilt, 12S 

.neniat*, „ 
carbanattali 74 

Indian stone, IS) 

jVagRcnO) hydrate ofl 99 
Magnesium llmestoDe, 62 
MagneiHt, 66 
miatkiU, S3,B3 
dHo^elicirac-pyrilea, ^1 - 

pyrltei, 201 , \ 

Mangantn-tpVi K6 

bi^ailicate of, 137 
. sittcate of, 13S 
■ilicious oiide of, i: 
Mangaats^-ore,' 181 

- unclea9«lile,.18: 
gray oilde of, 1 
ptoiMiate of, 1 
Manganese glance, SH 

Aulphureiof, i 
Manganesiaii garnetf 160 
Margarite, as , 

Marl, 61 
Marmalite, 242 
Monb-gai, 3? 
Maieagnin, 48 . ■ 

■Uclantfe, 169 
MellUUe, 167 
JtrcIaBe-gJmtfe, 212 
jtfeitejkrane-renu, 224 

Maole, 118 
Mtrcury, 190 

ftuid; 190 

dodecalkedral, 190 
Metolype, 111 
^sfeoric water, 39 
JHita, 91, 97 
Kineral-ntia, 225 
^ TeUow,225 

black, 22& 

JKBtirMofeoflamcl, 77 

^Bl^ivit»-glmtct, 309 ■ 
Mal}ibdena-tilttr, 215 
JtfolifAdM silrer, SIS 
Jfinastlf, 243 
Jlfonlicefiift, 243 
. Manofhane, 243 
JlfaunMin toap, 256 
J^urcAiranilc, 244 
Jtfun'at* of ammonia, '46 
copper, 8B ■ ■ 
Dlercnry', eV 

. JHKTM-c^onati of J*Bd, 79 

Xatiile, m' 

ffalire entiraonr, %B 

w«, 17ft 
■ Iron-Dr»,.177 

•otnitpyrinnim t 

Boppcr pyritei, 202 
wniadam, 142 
4iaiD0«d, 146 

iron, 193 
Ml-pamenjac, 46 

le-haltidt, 60- 

UimelUe, 244' 

OitranifE, 244 

Oxidulaltd iron, 177 , 

Oxahtcrile, 344 ^ 

Oxidt of anlimon;, 81 
tin, lS2i 
mingane's^ 182 

Palladium, '19S 

PmackroitbiiTyU, G7 

Para/07noui augite-apar, 

nicW, 216 - 

palladium, 106 
fitallna, 193 
qillcklitver, 190 ' 

■ 'silver, 19l' 

UHuriun, ISS 

Mdaalum, 47 
JVafrD»^, 42 
A'ceifj«-en, 2ia 
Ift^lmit, 135, 
JViire-iDfl, 43 
'. AIJrafBoflime, 50 
Jtitkdiftrtua gray nnl^ony, i 
ffiektt.glaKne, 244 
;Veiilran it«, 244 

O&ft^uc-ci/g'cdaii^ite, 123 . 

Oblii[iit pris malic arseniate of 
copper, 90 

OefaAedra/alum, 47 

alum-aalt, 47 
ammoniac- salt, 47 . 
bismulb, 189 
coppet-ore, 171, 194 


lial-barjte, 70 
4 koupbone-spar, 109 

llme-haloide, 64 
Piart-Urnle, 82, 98 
beiahedral,' 82 
pyramidal, 83 
Peart mica, 93 
Pearlipar, 62 
PearUlone, 162 
Peaslone, 61 
PBganite, 245 * 
Fiklolile, 245 
PerUctia, 245 
Perifotnoui hal-baryte, 70 
lead-harylB, 80 
ruby .blende, 222 
Pttalinetpar, 117 
Pe'.alile, 117 
Ptlrosilex, 245 
PAarniacoIi/e, 66 
PAiuJiii, 245 

PAoV/ia(e of copper, 86, 87 
hydrous, 86 
iron, 94 
lead, 76 




PieroHtty 246 

Ptcrowiw'ne, 246 

Pinguit€f 246 

Pinitcy 246 

PUch'bUnde, 174 

Pitch-orej 174 

PMchttone, 152 

Plasma^ 15<l 

PlaXina, 192 

Pleonastef 141 

Piombgomme, 80 

PlumbagOf 95 

Plumbo'cupriferous sulphuret of 
bismuth, 216 

Po/iffttDfirsl&te, 256 

PolyhaA^, 247 

Polymignitty 247 

PolysphtBrite, 247 

PoormaliU, 247 

Potstone, 96 

Prenilv, 105 

Prismatic andalusfte, 140 
anHmonyi 189 
aQtimony-baryte, 81 

glance, 205, 211 
arsenical-pyrites, 19f 
atacamite, 88 
augite-spar, 127 
axinite, 153 * 

azure-malachite, 86 
azure-^par, 128 
bismuCh-glance, 210 
blue-iron, 94 
boracic-acid, 41 
borax-salt, 45 
bryibeee-salt, 48 
chrysglite, 154 
cobalt-mica, 93 
copper-mica, 91 
copper-glance, 206 
corundum, 144 
cryone-haloide, 55 
datolite, 106 
disthenespar, 104 
dystome-spar, 106 
•merald, 147 
epsom-salt, 46 
euchlore-mica^ 92 
feldspar, 118 
fluor-baloide, 69 
' gadolinite, 164 
garnet, 162 
glauber-salt, 42 
gypsam-b^loide, 54 
gypsum, 54 

Prismaiie babroneine*malachi(», 
hal-baryte, 72 t^T 
baryte,' 72 
iron-mica, 94 
iron-ore, 179 
iibn-pyrites, 200 
kouphone-simr, 109 
kyanite, 104 
lead-spar, 76 
lead-baryte, 77 
lime-b^loide, 59 
lirocone-malachHe, 84 
^ malachite, 86 

' manganese-blende, 21S 
manganese-ore, 248 
melane glance, 2t2 
nickel-pyrites, 185 
nitre-satt, 43 
Olive-malachite, 85 
olivenite, 88 
9 petaline-spar, 117 

purple-blende, 220 
pyikes, 195 
quartz, 148 
red-cobalt, 98 
scheelium-ore, 173 
^chiller-^par, 103 
SDpdumene, 105 
sJIphur, 224 
talelmica, 9& 
t^tsJum-ore, 174 
tellurium-glance, 20& 
tifaniam-oii( 168 
topaz, 146* 
triphane-spar, 105 
vitriol-salt, -62 * 

wavefline-baloide', 64 
wolfram,' 172 
zinc-^aryte, 68' 
zinc-ore, 170 
zeolite, 110 

PfismatMal antlmony-glance,211 
augite-sparj 126 
azure-Spar, 129 
Jt>|smuth-glance, 247 
copper-glance, 205 
garnet, 162 
gypsum-haloide, 53 
hal-baryte, 73 
kouphone-spar, 112 
manganese-ore, 183 
orthoklase-haloide, 65. 
8chiller-8par, 102 
sulphur, 223 
eeolite, 112, 113 



PnsmcUO'pyramidaKeldsiiikf, 121 

titanium, 169 
rhomboidal ruby- 
blende, 222 
PumkCf 152 

Pure atmospheric gas, 37 
meteoric water, 38 
Purple-blende, 220 
copper, 202 
Pyenite, 146 
Pyrallolite, 247 
Pyramidal copper-pyrites, 202 
enchlore-mica, 92 
feldspar, 121 
garnet, 157 
honey-stone 224 
kouphone-spar, 113 
lead-baryte, 77 
lead-spar, 77 
manganese-ore, 181 
melichrone-resin, 224 
pearl-kerate, 83 
scheelium-baryte, 70 
tin-ore, 172 
titanium-ore, 170 
vitriol, 62 
zeolite, 129 
zircon, 162 
Pytitts, 195 

cellular, 201 . 

cockscomb, 2ol 
hepatic, 201 
magnetic, 201 
radiated, 201 
spear, 201 
urantte, 201 
Pyrope, 159 
Pyrothite, 248 
Pyrosmalite, 100 
PyrotMrphite, 248 
Pyroxene f 123 

Quartz, 148 

common, 150 

empyrodox, 152 

prismatic, 148 

rhombohedr^l, 149 

rose, 150 

uncleavable, 150 
Q^icksilvcr, native, 190 

Radiated acicular oliveoite, 90 
Radiolite, 248 
Realgar, 223 
Red antimony, 220 
silver, 221 

RH silver, dafk, 222 
vitriol, 52 

Resin, 224 

Retinasphalt, 226 ^ 

Retinite, 226 

RfuBtisite, 104 

Right-prismatic arseniate of cop- 
per, 85 

Rhomboidal vitrio], 51 

pearl- mica, 98 

Rhombohedral alum-baloide, 56 
antimony, 188 
apatite, 57 
corundum, 142 
calamine, 69 
emerald, 147 

eucfalore-mica, 91 
/eldspar, 118 
' t flnor-haloide, 57 

graphite-mica, 95 
jron-ore, 179 
iron-pyrites, 201 
koupnone-spar, 110 
lead-baryte, 75 
lime-haloide, 60 ■ 

quartz, 149 
rubv-blende, 221 
tal(Anica, 97 
tourmaline, 155 
zinc-baryte, 69 
rhoiKb-spar, 62 
crystal, 150 
Rock-milk, 61 
1^ salt, 44 
^oestone, 61 
Rose-Quartz, 150 
Roselite, 66 
Ruby, 141 ' 
Ruby-blende, 221 

hemi-prismatic, 222 
perifbmous, 2^ 
prismato-rhomboiSal, 222 
rhombohedral, 221 
rhomboidal, 221 
silver, 221 

Sahlile, 123 ' 
Salammonia, 46 
Saphirin, 249 
Sapparite, 248 




Sapphir$j 143 . \ 

oriental, 143 
mreolUe, 117 
SUutolin^f 41 
Saiim'tpOTf 61 
tfotinirt/e, 135 
SetU^iale, 96 
Scapolit6f 121 
SchaUteifif 127 

ore, 172 

Sehillgr-tpar, 100 

^TcAor/, 156 

Seholesitey 112 

Bcordiie, 90 

Si/emurcl of Yead & Diercaiy, 249 
of copper, 217 
of lead and cobalt, 249 
copper, 249 

Senii^opalf 151 

terpentine, 249 

Setquitilicate of manganese^ 139 

£tAa/e, 254 

i9t/«ca/e of manganese, 138 

Siliceous oxide of zinc, 68 

SiUimanitef €50 

^tfoer, 191 

Silver-glaneey 207 

Sinter^ silit^ous, 151 

Slate, 263 ' 

Smaragdile, 124 

iSTocIa, 42 

Sodaliie, 108 ' ' 

fomerrt/Zi^e, 136 
ommtVe,. 118 
Sordawalite, 250 
iSfg^r, 100 
Sf^timseirm, 67 
Sparry-irnn, 67 
Spharulite, 167 ■• * 
Sphene, 168 
Spinelle, 141 

5ptne//ane, 167 *" • 

Spodumene, 105 
Staphyline-malachitet 83 
Staurmide, 162 
5<«m&ergt/e, 250 
Steatitic ser^ntine, 96 
;§ra7&t;e, 112 
Slilpnosiderile, 186 
. <S(rat^e<fge(i augite, 124 
iS<rofnm/e, 74 *" 
■<S/rofiHan, 70 
Sulphate of alumine, 48 
Succinite, 160 
Sub-phosphate of alamioCy 64 

fifub-tuMolicof tfraniain^ 5S 
5ii2pWe of ammonia, 46 
barytes, 72 
eobalt, 52 
copper, 51 
Iron, 51 
lime, 53 
lead, 77 
magnesia, 45 
magnesia and soda*, 4£r 
potash, 49 J 
soda, 42 
strontia, 73 
uraneum, 53 
zinc, 52 f 
SulphatO'Carbonate of lead, 78 
SulphatO'tri-carbonate of lead, 78- 
Sulphur, 223 

Sulphuretted hydrogen gas, 37 
Sulphuret of antimony, 211 
bismuth, 210 
cobalt, 203 
copper, 206 
. manganese, 218 
mercury, 222 
molybdena, 209 
silver, 207 
silver L antimonv,. 

silver & copper, 213 
zinc,2l9 [250 

Sulphuric acid, 40 
liquid, 40 

Tabular-spar, 127 
Talc, 95 
Talc-mica, 95 
1 Tantalum-ore, 174 
iTautolite, 251 
Telluric bi«mu(|), 251 * 

Tellurium, ^ 
Tdlurium-^mice, 209 
Tennantii^, 217 
Tephroite, 251 
Tesuralkies, 251 
Telrvhedral b^racite, 155 

cftpper-glance, 205. 

garnet, 158 
Thenar dite, 251 
Thomsonite, 117 
Thorite, 251 
Thu^ite, 136 
Tile-ore, 172 
Tin-ore, 172 
Tin-pyrites, 217 



TUaniie, 169 

Titanitic'irony 1T7 

Titanium-or6f 168 

Topazj 146 

Topazolitef 160 

Tourmaline, 155 

Trapezoidal kouphone-spar, 107 

Tremolite, 126 

Tripo/i, 256 

Triphane, 105 

Triphanespary 105 

Tr»-;)ri«iia/tc lead-spar, 77 

Trip/c sulphuret, 206 

Tfi/a, 61 

Tungsta/e of iroiii 173 

lead, 81 

lime, 70 
Tungsterif 173 
TumeriUf 25 % 

Turquoise, 132 

l^mfccr, 256 

Uueleavable cerium-ore, 175 

^manganese ore, 182 

quart%, 151 

staphyline malachite. 

uranium-ore, 174 [83 
Uranium-ors, 174 

P'anadiate of lead, 81 
Vauquelinitet 91 
Velvet blue copper, 251 
yignite, 262 

Vitreous copperi 206. 
VUriol'salt, 51 ' 
Vivianilej 94 

Wagnerite, 252 
Wavellite, 64 
WaveHine-haloide. 64 
fTtf/er, 39 
W'Ae/ slate, 257 
Jf?i»(fl antimony, 81 

vitriol, 51 
Willemiie, 252 
Witkamite, 131 
Wolfram, 173 
Wood-opal, 151 

FeWow earth, 257 

gold-glaMe, 218 
miner^l-resin, 225 
orpiment, 223 
tellurium, 218 

Fcni/e, 181 

YUr^-eerite, 262 

Zeagonite, 168 • 
Zeolite, 111 
ZinC'baryU, 6d 
*ZinC'Ore, 170 
Zinkenite, 252 
Zircon, 162 

Zom£«, 127 ^-- * 

Zir/i/«, 252 # -^ . 


Page, I4ntf Error. ^ Correction. 

8, 17 from the bMtom, *' planer, plane. 

8, 9, light, eight 

36, — Marsh-gas, t Hjdrogen«^;«|* 

109, Fig. 2 mitpl|ced and the proper Fig. omitted. 
115, 4, tal% silica, 

120, 9, here, hence. 

126, 9,' passage in the parenthesis shoal^ be expunged* 

149, Fig.-l, should be considered as half tugped roun^^ 
274, 16th line from top, longitudinally should be .transversely* ^ 

YB 16715 

- , .^ i-l ..' w a- '-irX